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Dochet Island, in mid-channel off Red Beach, is marked by St. Croix River Lighthouse, a white dwelling. Scattered shoals, sunken and awash, surround thé island and lie in mid-channel for a distance of 11/8 miles southward of it. The deeper and broader channel leads eastward of these shoals, and is marked by a single black buoy on the edge of the shoals extending eastward from Dochet Island. "The channel leading westward of the shoals, between them and Little Dochet Island, a wooded islet midway between the southern end of the shoals and the western shore, is marked by several buoys and is generally used by local vessels, but should be used with caution by strangers.

Calais, a city of 6,000 people, is on the south bank of the St. Croix River about 14 miles above its mouth and 23 miles above Eastport. Its principal trade is lumber and coal. It is the terminus of a railroad running through Maine and into Canada. It is the head of navigation for the Št. Croix River. Schooners laden with coal are

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towed to Calais at high water and lie aground on the mud while discharging. All the wharves are bare at low water.

St. Stephen, on the Canadian side of the river opposite Calais, is connected with the latter by an international bridge. Customs and immigration officers are stationed on each side of the bridge. St. Stephen has some commerce and has steamer service with St. Andrews, Eastport, and Grand Manan Island.

Ice.-During January, February, and March St. Croix River is usually obstructed by ice and not navigable above Robbinston, but the channel is sometimes kept open by tugs and the regular steamers. Quoddy Roads and Eastport Harbor are never closed by ice.

Freshets.—Spring freshets usually cause the water to rise above the level of the wharves at Calais and are accompanied by strong currents. They are seldom noticeable outside of the river.

Tides.—The mean rise and fall of tides is about 18 feet (5.5 m.) at Eastport, 19 feet (5.8 m.) at Robbinston, and 20 feet (6.1 m.) at

Calais; under special conditions the extreme limits may be as much as 5 feet (1.5 m.) above mean high water or below mean low water.

The Quoddy power project.—At the date of this volume (1927) preliminary steps are being taken toward the development of a huge electric power project utilizing the great rise and fall of the tide in Passamaquoddy and Cobscook Bays. By a series of dams and gates Passamaquoddy Bay will be formed into an “upper pool” and Cobscook Bay will form the “ lower pool.” Locks are to be provided for the accommodation of shipping. The power house is to be in the vicinity of Bar Harbor, where the power will be generated from the water flowing from the upper pool to the lower pool. It has been stated by the originators that from 500,000 to 700,000 horsepower can be generated.

CURRENTS, ST. CROIX RIVER AND APPROACHES

In Grand Manan Channel the flood sets in a general northeast direction and at strength attains a velocity of about 242 knots. The ebb sets in a southwesterly direction with a velocity at strength of about 21/2 knots. Predicted times of slack water for every day in the year are given in the Atlantic Coast Current Tables.

Approaching the entrance to Quoddy Roads, if less than 2 miles from the northern shore, the set of the flood is more northward, and about 1 mile southeastward of West Quoddy Head the flood sets directly into the Roads. For a distance of 1/2 mile southeastward of West Quoddy Head the currents are dangerous an account of swirls and eddies, which are apt to draw a vessel, in a light breeze, onto Sail Rock.

Along the eastern side of Campobello Island the flood sets in a northeasterly direction following the trend of the shore, the ebb setting in the opposite direction.

Along the northwestern side of Campobello Island, 1 mile north of East Quoddy Head, the flood sets strongly westward on the islands lying in the passage westward of Campobello Island. The direction of the flood then changes more southward, following the general direction of the passage until nearly to Eastport, where the set is more westerly, toward the passage between Deer and Moose Islands and toward the entrance to Cobscook Bay. The ebb generally sets in a reverse direction.

Through Lubec Narrows the flood sets northward, following the general direction of the dredged channel; southward of the Narrows it has a velocity of about 4 knots at strength, but in the Narrows it attains a velocity of about 6 knots during spring tides. The ebb sets southward, following the general direction of the channel, and in the Narrows has a velocity of about 8 knots during spring tides. Below the Narrows its velocity is about 4 knots and the set is in the general direction of the channel. The currents at strength form dangerous eddies on both sides of the channel in the Narrows; these are avoided by keeping in mid-channel. It is slack water in the Narrows about 1 hour before high and 11/2 hours before low water; the duration of slack is short, from 5 to 15 minutes. With a strong fair wind small

sailing vessels can pass through the Narrows with an adverse current at any time after the current has been running 3 hours.

Northward of Lubec Narrows the first of the flood current sets along the west shore of Campobello Island eastward of Popes Folly; it afterwards sets more westward, south of Popes Folly, and across the entrance of Johnson Bay, meeting the flood from Friar Roads westward of Treat Island, and both setting into Cobscook Bay.

Western Passage of St. Croix River.— The flood sets northward into the passage, and off Deer Point, abreast Dog Island, it forms whirlpools and eddies, which are dangerous to open boats. The whirlpools and eddies are strongest 2 to 3 hours before high water and during spring tides; the flood then attains a velocity of about 6 to 7 knots. The least disturbance is usually about 300 yards northward of Dog Island, where there is a comparatively narrow direct current known locally as “straight water," which can be readily followed between the whirlpools and eddies on the Deer Island side and the eddies on the Eastport side of the passage. The ebb southward, but does not attain the velocity of the flood.

Above Deer Point the flood sets northward with decreasing velocity and follows the general direction of the channel with strong countercurrents and eddies close to the shore, where the configuration of the land is favorable; it continues 1/2 to 34 hour after the time of high water. The ebb sets southward with reduced velocity and disturbance off Deer Point, and the inshore reverse currents are less marked than on the flood; it continues 34 to 1 hour after the time of low water.

St. Croix River.-The flood sets northward with countercurrents inshore on both sides where the conformation of the land is favorable for them. The ebb sets southward with less marked countercurrents.

Cobscook Bay and tributaries.—The tidal currents follow the general direction of the channels, but in the coves there are strong reverse eddy currents, and heavy overfalls are formed over the submerged rocks and ledges. The velocity is estimated at 5 to 8 knots, and some of the buoys are towed under when the currents are at strength.

Directions.—Directions for Eastport and Calais via either Head Harbor Passage or Lubec Narrows are given in the table following.

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Points 198) East end Casco Island 240 W. 78 S.

on starboard beam. 334 Off Eastport water front 218 | SW. by W.94 W."

14 mile north of Head

Harbor light.
East end Casco Island

on starboard beam.
Pass 300 yards off
Cherry Island fog
signal.

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300 yards northeast

Clark Ledge beacon. 350 yards west of Clam

Cove spindle.
Y2 mile E. by from

Liberty Point.
38 mile east of red spar

buoy No. 2A. Dochet Island black

buoy. Head for

summit Devil Head. Abeam point on east

bank.

344 350 yards west of Clam

Cove spindle.
774 42 mile F. by N. from

Liberty Point.
234 38 mile east of red spar

buoy No. 2A.
198 Dochet Island black

buoy.
12 Abeam point on east

bank of river.

N. Y8 E.

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200 yards southwest of

red buoy. Spruce Point

298 200 yards southwest 324 N. by W. 38 W.

red buoy southwest

of Oak Point.
1 150 yards off Spruce 275 NW. by W.34 W.

Point Light.
5 Calais and St. Stephen.

Various.
Follow buoys and
other aids to naviga-
tion.

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From West Quoddy Head to Little River (charts 1201 and 303), about 14 miles, the coast is, for the most part, high, rocky, covered with trees, and with precipitous faces seaward. It is generally bold-to, and the only outlying dangers are Morton Ledge, with 6 feet (1.8 m.) of water over it, lying about 38 mile offshore, 21/4 miles southwestward of West Quoddy Head Lighthouse, and marked by a red nun buoy, and a 13-foot (4 m.) spot 1/4 miles southwestward of Long Point, about 2 miles eastward of Little River Lighthouse.

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