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Bridge regulations.—Regulations for lighting bridges over navigable waters, also for lights on sheer booms, piers, dams, and similar obstructions to navigation are prescribed by the Department of Commerce. A copy of these regulations will be sent free of charge to any shipmaster, pilot, or bridge owner on application to the Division of Publications, Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. The lighthouse superintendents have immediate authority over lighting of structures in their respective districts and are charged with the enforcement of the regulations.

Regulations for the operation of drawbridges are prescribed by the Secretary of War, and extracts from these regulations are given in the description of the waters affected under the heading Bridge regulations."

Fishweirs.—Regulations prescribe that fishing structures and appliances in navigable waters of the United States shall be lighted for the safety of navigation, as follows:

The lights shall be displayed between sunset and sunrise. They shall be placed at each end of the structure excepting where the inner end terminates in such situation that there is no practicable navigation between it and the highwater line of the adjacent coast, in which case no inner light shall be displayed. The outer light shall be white and the inner light shall be red. The size, capacity, and manner of maintenance of the lights shall be such as may be specified in the War Department permit authorizing the erection of the structure or appliance.

When several structures or appliances are placed on one line with no navigable passage between them, they will be considered, for lighting purposes, as one structure.

Lighthouse tenders, when working on buoys in channels or other frequented waters, may display a red flag (international signal code flag B) and a black ball at the fore as a warning to other vessels to slow down in passing.

The following special signals for surveying vessels of the United States employed in hydrographic surveying have been prescribed :

A surveying vessel of the United States, under way or at anchor in a fairway and employed in hydrographic surveying, may carry where they can best be seen, but in any case well above the running lights prescribed by law for preventing collisions, three lights in a vertical line one over the other and not less than 6 feet apart. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be green, and the middle light shall be white, and they shall be of such a character as to be visible all around the horizon at a distance of at least 2 miles. In the case of a small vessel the distance between the lights of such private code may be reduced to 3 feet if necessary.

By day such surveying vessel may carry in a vertical line, not less than 6 feet apart, where they can best be seen, three shapes of not less than 2 feet in diameter, of which the highest and lowest shall be globular in shape and green in color, and the middle one diamond in shape and white.

The wire drags, some of which are over 2 miles long, used by the Coast and Geodetic Survey in sweeping for dangers to navigation, may be crossed by vessels without danger of fouling at any point

except between the towing launches and the large buoys near them, where the towline approaches the surface of the water. Steamers passing over the drag are requested to change course so as to cross it approximately at right angles, as a diagonal course may cause the propeller to foul the supporting buoys and attached wires.

Supplies.—All kinds of supplies in unlimited quantities are obtainable at Boston and Portland. Coal, gasoline, water, and ordinary ship supplies are obtainable at Eastport, Rockland, Bangor, Bath, Portsmouth, Gloucester, Salem, Beverly, and Plymouth. Fuel oil can be obtained only at Boston and Portland. Coal in limited quantities, water, gasoline, and provisions are also usually obtainable at Calais, Winter Harbor, Bar Harbor, Camden, Belfast, Boothbay Harbor, Newburyport, and Rockport, Mass. Gasoline and provisions are obtainable at all of the towns and villages and on some of the off-lying islands, as mentioned under the descriptions.

Repairs.—Boston is the only port where repairs of any magnitude to large vessels can be made. Portland is well equipped for repairing the type of vessels engaged in the coasting trade, while schooners, towboats, and fishing vessels can be repaired in Gloucester, Rockland, and Camden. Small motor boats and yachts can be hauled out, and ordinary repairs to machinery can be made at several other places.

The details of the largest dry docks and marine railways are given in the following tables :

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Pilots.- Pilotage is not compulsory for ports in the State of Maine. Fishermen and others competent to take vessels into the ports of the State can usually be found along the coast. There are licensed pilots for the port of Portland. (See“ Pilots” under heading Portland Harbor.)

Pilotage is not compulsory for enrolled or registered vessels of the United States in the ports of New Hampshire, and only for other vessels when a pilot offers his services.

Pilotage is compulsory for ports in Massachusetts, except coastwise steam vessels not sailing under register, vessels regularly employed in the coasting trade, fishing vessels other than whalers, and

At a

vessels of less than 7 feet (2.1 m.) draft. All other vessels are obliged to pay pilotage. (See also “ Pilots,” under different headings.) Pilots are always available at Gloucester, Boston, and Cape Cod Canal.

Towboats are available at Eastport, Rockland, Bangor, Bath, Portland, Portsmouth, Gloucester, and Boston. A towboat engaged in towing rock barges is sometimes available at Stonington. number of other places power fishing boats and launches can be secured for handling smaller vessels, such as 2 and 3 mast schooners engaged in the coasting trade.

Harbor masters are appointed for the principal ports, and they have charge of the anchorage and berthing of vessels in their respective harbors. The anchorage regulations for the port of Boston are given on page 260. The laws prohibit the dumping of ashes or other materials in the channels.

Navigation laws of the United States are published by the Bureau of Navigation, Department of Commerce, at intervals of four years, the present edition being that of 1923. A supplement is issued after every session of Congress. The volume and supplements can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., price $1 for the volume and 5 cents each for the supplements.

Rules of the road.-International and inland “Rules to prevent collisions of vessels,” lines within which the inland rules apply, and “Regulation of motor boats” are published by the Bureau of Navigation, Department of Commerce, and are included in the appendix to this volume.

Pilot rules for certain inland waters of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico are published by the Steamboat Inspection Service in Form 804.

Copies of these pamphlets are furnished by the officers of the Steamboat Inspection Service, and can also be had from the Division of Publications, Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C.

QUARANTINE

Quarantine for all ports within the limits of this volume is enforced in accordance with the regulations of the United States Public Health Service. There are United States quarantine officers at Eastport, Portland, and Boston. Health officers of the State of New Hampshire have authority to make regulations respecting quarantine for ports in the State.

National quarantine regulations will be found at the stations of the service and at American consulates, and will be furnished to vessels upon application, either by officers of the service or by the bureau in Washington, D. C. Every vessel should be provided with the quarantine regulations.

At Portland the quarantine station is on House Island, while at Boston it is located on Gallup Island, in the outer harbor.

Medical relief.-American merchant seamen are entitled to free medical relief at the expense of the Government, through the United States Public Health Service at its established relief stations. A

list of such stations in the region covered by this volume is given below.

An American merchant seaman is one “engaged on board in the care, preservation, or navigation of any registered, enrolled, or licensed vessel of the United States, or in the service, on board, of those engaged in such care, preservation, or navigation.”

Calais, Me., 281 Main Street.
Eastport, Me., 34 Boynton Street.
Machias, Me.
Boothbay Harbor, Me., 2 Commercial Street.
Bangor, Me., 217 State Street.
Rockland, Me., 400 Main Street.
Bath, Me., collector of customs in charge.
Portland, Me., Woodford Station. Out-patient office in customhouse.
Boston, Mass., Chelsea. Out-patient office in customhouse.
Provincetown, Mass., 234 Commercial Street.

WEATHER

Prevailing winds.—The prevailing winds are southwesterly during the summer and northerly during the winter. At all seasons the heaviest gales are generally from northeastward or eastward. (See also the meteorological tables in the appendix.)

Fogs are the dread of the navigator on this coast in summer and may occur at any season. They are liable to set in at any time, often with almost no warning. They are of frequent occurrence during June, July, and August, and the months of May and September are not free from them. Some portion of this period invariably_has much thick weather, while other portions may be free from it. "Fogg have been known to last three weeks, almost without intermission. At the heads of the bays and within the rivers it is often comparatively clear when thick outside. The fog of such interior waters usually clears throughout the middle of the day. Winds from east to southwest, by the way of south, are those which bring in fog; westerly and northerly winds clear it away.

Under this heading scarcely any rule can be made that is not subject to frequent exceptions, and those who have the most experience in the matter are the least apt to make predictions. It is usually the case, however, that a fall of the barometer below 30 inches during a fog will be followed by the lifting of the fog. If a wisp of mist is to be seen hanging over Mount Desert or over the Camden Hills, whether otherwise clear or not, the following day is usually foggy. When calm during the ebb tide, if the fog is seen in a bank offshore, provided it remains calm, the fog will come in with the following flood.

The following table shows the average number of hours per month, from a record of about six years, that the fog signals were operated, on account of fog and snow, at the stated light stations of the United States :

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West Quoddy. Head.. 76 92 63 99135156 321 235 176 59 22 55/1, 489 St. Croix River.-12 24 10 47 17| 48 86115 66 12

8 10 455 Little River.

771 92 63 93112128 274203150 62 21 58/1, 333 Libby Islands

105 126 85 108 133 137288226181 79 41 72 1, 581 Nash Island.

71 89 56 89 118 95 211199 136 61 24 471, 196 Petit Manan.

74101 64 89 113109 248 173 144 55 26 58/1, 254 Mount Desert.

101112 64 105 136 143 257 200 158 56 29 491, 410 Egg Rock

121133! 99 125 127 122 236 172 166 74 40 851, 500 Blue Hill Bay

48 631 461 601 73 56156 115 97 29 13 34 790 Saddleback Ledge.

59 58 46 87 76 85 188 135 115| 41 10 28 928 Matinicus Rock.

115 115 110 131 165 166 302 220 192 94 29 791, 718 Whitehead.

155 149 137 173 163 144 263 203 193 109 1091221, 920 Fort Point

33 23 22 48 51 37116 86 75 29 19 27 566 Manana Island fog signal. 76 91 78103 104 95163 122 122 56 38 491, 097 Perkins Island.

47 44 301 47 33 35 72 55 58 37 21 25 504 Seguin...

176148 141 142 149 138 239 198 182 93 921311, 829 Halfway Rock

76 801 53 78 63 53 104 94 96 48 32 52 829 Portland Lightship

57 75 49 78 56 62 88 79 99 46 37 57 783 Portland Head.

731 87 56 78 63 59 122 83 98 48 40 55 862 Cape Neddick,

82 83 65 79 69 60 91 69 97 59 45 65 864 Portsmouth Harbor.

781 82 55 59 45 46 80 641 691 481 38 63 727 Isles of Shoals..

69 66 48 65 47 43 62 60711 45 33 41 650 Cape Ann.

85 71 68 93 72 71 120 86 71/ 62 28 52 879 Bakers Island.

10071 85 65 65 49 1001 87 67 73 30 59 851 Boston Lightship

88 74 81 77 61 65 90 76 70 66 36 65 849 The Graves

75 62 71 59 53 47 85 69 62 68 31 56 738 Boston.

82 64 75 55 51 48 76 63 55 65 38 62 734 Plymouth (Gurnet)

62 63 66 65 62 51 66 54 43 41 25 30 628 Race Point.

901 871 81 69 68 58 661 47 67 53 31 34 751 Cape Cod.

92 83 91 78 94 78 96 68 77 72 34 29 892 Pollock Rip Lightship 88102 84 70 118 116 212 145 126 73 3744/1, 215 Great Round Shoal Lightship-105109 90 92 99 124181111| 94 70 33 50 1, 158 Nantucket Shoals Lightship- 50 59 63 83 141 168 184 80 71 63 11 10 893

Ice.—The extent to which the harbors of Maine are closed to navigation by ice varies greatly in different years. During some winters most of the harbors are open, while in others the only harbors available for anchorages are Quoddy Roads; Eastport, Little River, Machias Bay (above Avery Rock Lighthouse), Mistake Harbor (not much used), Winter Harbor, and Boothbay Harbor. Portland Harbor generally has an open channel in winter, kept so by steamers and tugs. The mouths of the rivers are generally avoided for anchorage in winter and early spring on account of running ice. In the bays and harbors the ice formation is mostly local; beginning at the head, in sheltered places along the shore, it extends outward. During a calm or light winds from northward the local formations rapidly increase, while strong winds break them up and force them as drift ice onto the lee shore. The tidal currents do not prevent the formation of ice or influence its movement in strong winds except in the larger rivers.

In severe winters some of the harbors south of Cape Ann are closed to navigation by ice, and there is more or less drift ice in all the harbors, in Cape Cod Bay, and on Monomoy and Nantucket Shoals. In

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