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Long Island Sound has harbors at short intervals on both sides from its west end to Eaton Neck, and thence on its north side to and including Fishers Island Sound. From Watch Hill boats must go outside to the bays and sounds eastward, but Point Judith Harbor of Refuge is available, and shortens the distance between harbors.

On the south coast of Long Island there is at present no inside route between Jamaica Bay and the inland waters eastward. Boats must go outside from New York to East Rockaway Inlet, and the latter requires local knowledge, because of frequent changes. But from East Rockaway Inlet boats of 5-foot (1.5 m.) draft can be taken inside through Great South Bay, Moriches and Shinnecock Bays and Shinnecock Canal to Great Peconic Bay. Masted boats are limited to a height of less than 20 feet (6.1 m.) above the water by the fixed bridges over Shinnecock Canal, and otherwise all bridges have draw openings. This route is described in Atlantic Coast Pilot, Section B, under the heading “ Inland waters, south coast of Long Island."

By the Hudson River and New York State Barge Canal, or Hudson River, Champlain Canal, and Richelieu River, boats can be taken through to the Great Lakes or St. Lawrence River, respectively. The dimensions of vessels that can be taken through to the Great Lakes or to Lake Champlain are, draft 10 feet (3.0 m.), length 300 feet, width 44.4 feet, and overhead clearance 15.5 feet (4.7 m.) above water level.

The controlling width is that of the Government lock in the dam across the Hudson River at Troy. The limiting depth occurs in the New York State Barge Canal, where the project depth of 12 feet (3.7 m.) has not yet been attained. In 1925 barges drawing 101/2 feet (3.2 m.) successfully navigated the canal.

Chicago to New Orleans.-A draft of about 3 feet (0.9 m.) can be carried by the way of the Chicago River, 6 miles; Sanitary Canal, 28 miles; Illinois & Michigan Canal, 56 miles; Illinois River, 194 miles; and Mississippi River, 1,041 miles. The limiting dimensions are found in the Illinois and Michigan Canal, where boats are limited to a length of about 100 feet, width 16 feet and draft 3 feet (0.9 m.). There is a headroom of 11 feet (3.4 m.) under fixed bridges.

New York to Key West.— Vessels of 7-foot (2.1 m.) draft can pass inside from New York Bay to Delaware River through the Delaware & Raritan Canal. Masted vessels are limited to a height of 50 feet (15.2 m.) above canal level by a bridge without draw at New Brunswick, N. J.

Twelve feet (3.7 m.) can be carried from the Delaware River through the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal and Chesapeake Bay to Norfolk.

From Norfolk a draft of 834 feet (2.6 m.) can be carried through the Albemarle & Chesapeake Canal and the North Carolina Sounds to Beaufort, North Carolina.

From Beaufort to Winyah Bay there is no inside passage and vessels must pass outside for a distance 165 miles. Cape Fear River, halfway between them, is available as a harbor of refuge.

From Winyah Bay to Charleston a draft of 5 feet (1.5 m.) can be . carried at high water.

From Charleston to the St. Johns River a draft of 6 feet (1.8 m.) can be carried.

From the St. Johns River to Miami a draft of 3 feet (0.9 m.) can be carried without difficulty.

From Miami to Key West a draft of 4 feet (1.2 m.) can be carried.

Route across Florida.–A draft of about 3 feet (0.9 m.) can be carried across Florida by either the St. Lucie or Palm Beach Canal to Lake Okeechobee, thence via the Caloosahatchee Canal and River to the Gulf Coast at San Carlos Bay.

Gulf of Mexico.-From Key West to New Orleans there are several detached stretches of inside waters, available for a draft of 4 to 5 feet (1.2 to 1.5 m.), and a partially sheltered route with frequent harbors for small craft along the entire coast.

From New Orleans westward through Louisiana there is a network of inside waters affording a through route, for drafts of 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m.), to Sabine Pass. From Sabine Pass to Galveston there is no inside route.

From Galveston southwestward to Corpus Christi there is an inside route for a draft of 4 feet (1.2 m.) by way of several extensive bays and dredged canals connecting them. Beyond Corpus Christi there is no inside route available.

Charts covering the routes along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts are published by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Charts of the natural waters of the New York State Canal system and Great Lakes are published by the United Lake Survey Office, Detroit, Mich. The same office publishes a Bulletin, Survey of Northern and Northwestern Lakes, in which a detailed description of the waters of the Great Lakes and the New York Canal system are found. This volume is issued free to navigators and other chart purchasers. Application should be made to the United States Lake Survey Office, Old Customhouse, Detroit, Mich. The Superintendent of Public Works, Albany, N. Y., has issued a set of charts covering practically all parts of the canal system. There is a nominal fee for these charts.

A catalogue showing the charts of the route along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts can be obtained free of charge on application to the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C., or to any of its agents. A list of agents for the sale of charts and other publications of the Coast and Geodetic Survey is given in the catalogue and in the first notice each month of the Notice to Mariners, published weekly by the Bureau of Lighthouses and the Coast and Geodetic Survey.

The inland waters are covered in the following publications of the Coast and Geodetic Survey:

United States Coast Pilot, Section B, covering the coast and inland waters from Race Point, Cape Cod, to Sandy Hook, including Long Island Sound, and New York Harbor and tributaries.

United States Coast Pilot, Section C, covering the coast and inland waters from Sandy Hook to Cape Henry, including Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, and the inside route from New York to Norfolk.

Inside Route Pilot, coast of New Jersey.

United States Coast Pilot, Section D, covering the coast and inland waters from Cape Henry to Key West.

Inside Route Pilot, New York to Key West.

United States Coast Pilot, Gulf Coast, Key West to the Rio Grande, covering the coast and inland waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

Inside Route Pilot, Key West to the Rio Grande.


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Boston to
Cape Race..

Halifax, Nova Scotia.

380 St. John, N.B.....

286 Bangor, Me.

189 Bath, Me...

117 New York, via Cape Cod Canal..

233 New York, via Nantucket Sound...

294 New York, via Nantucket Lightship

311 Norfolk, Va...

Baltimore, Md...

Liverpool, England.........
San Frano isoo, Calif., via Panama Canal..... 5,445




The great indentation of the coast between the British Province of Nova Scotia on the northeast and Massachusetts on the southwest, which includes the Bay of Fundy and Massachusetts Bay as subsidiary features, has received the general designation “Gulf of Maine." It is shown on charts 1000, 1106, and 1107.

On account of its changeable weather, frequent fogs, and strong tidal currents, this locality has a bad reputation among mariners. (For offshore current observations see p. 30.)

The bottom in the Gulf of Maine is irregular, and the depths are so variable that it is quite impossible to determine a vessel's position by soundings alone, but the navigator will find a frequent use of the lead of the greatest assistance in approaching both Georges and Brown Banks from southward and eastward, the bottom slope on that side being well defined.

The principal offshore dangers are Nantucket Shoals, Georges and Cultivator Shoals, both a part of Georges Bank; and Ámmen Rock, a part of Cashe Ledge.

Brown Bank, with 14 to 50 fathoms (25.6 to '91 m.) over it, is about 40 miles south of Cape Sable, between latitude 42° 17' and 42° 54' N., and longitude 65° 12' and 66° 28' W. The bank is about 50 miles long in a west-northwest direction, and its greatest width is nearly 30 miles. The least known depth of 14 fathoms (25.6 m.) is near the westerly end of the bank.

Georges Bank is the extensive shoal with depths less than 50 fathoms (91 m.), lying off the coast of Massachusetts eastward of Nantucket Shoals. The northeastern point of this bank is in latitude 42° 05' N. and longitude 66° 05' W.; from this the eastern edge trends in a general south westerly direction to latitude 40° 48' N. and longitude 67° 00' W.; the edge of the bank then takes a general westerly direction and joins the 50-fathom (91 m.) curve southward of Nantucket Shoals. The greatest width north and south is about 80 miles.

That part of the bank where depths of less than 20 fathoms (37 m.) will be found, including Georges and Cultivator Shoals, is an area 30 to 40 miles wide and about 75 miles long in a west-southwesterly direction, lying approximately between latitude 40° 45' and 42° 00' N. and longitude 67° 10' and 68° 40' W., and has several spots with 5 to 10 fathoms (9.1 to 18.3 m.) over them. Depths of less than 20 fathoms (37 m.), however, extend farther southwestward.

Georges Shoal is a dangerous shoal, with less than 10 fathoms (18.3 m.) over it, between latitude 41° 33' and 41° 47' N. and longitude 67° 38' and 67° 53' W. The least-known depth within these limits is 12 feet (3.7 m.); in heavy weather the sea breaks here in 10 fathoms (18.3 m.), and tide rips are found near the shoalest place, which extends about 9 miles in a north and south direction.


Cultivator Shoal is about 7 miles long in a north-northeast direction, with least found depths of 3 to 8 fathoms (5.5 to 14.6 m.). It lies between latitude 41° 32' and 41° 39' N. and longitude 68° 10' and 68° 14' W., and is about 19 miles westward of the shoalest part of Georges Shoal.

A detached shoal, with 514 fathoms (9.5 m.) over it, lies in latitude 41° 11' N., longitude 68° 26' W.; and another, with '5 fathoms (9.1 m.) over it, lies in latitude 41° 14' N., longitude 68° 00' W. Between these and Cultivator Shoal are several shoal spots with 8 and 10 fathoms (14.6 to 18.3 m.) over them.

Nantucket Shoals is the general name of the numerous different broken shoals which lie southeastward of Nantucket Island and make this one of the most dangerous parts of the coast of the United States for the navigator. These shoals extend 23 miles eastward and 39 miles southeastward from Nantucket Island, are shifting in their nature, and the depths vary from 3 and 4 feet (0.9 to 1.2 m.) on some to 4 and 5 fathoms (7.3 to 9.1 m.) on others, while sloughs with depths of 10 fathoms (18.3 m.) or more lead between those farthest offshore. The easterly edge of the shoals has depths of 4 and 41/2 fathoms (7.3 to 8.2 m.) in places, and trends 166o true (S. mag.) from latitude 41° 18' N., longitude 69° 29' W., to latitude 40° 57' N., longitude 69° 22' W. Asia Rip, the southeasternmost danger, has a least depth of 6 fathoms (11 m.) in latitude 40° 48' N., longitude 69° 22' W. Deep-draft vessels should pass southward and eastward of Asia Rip, and eastward of the easterly edge of the shoals as defined above. For a distance of 15 miles eastward and southeastward and 17 miles southward from Nantucket Island, the shoals have depths less than 16 feet (4.9 m.), and this area should be avoided by all vessels. The tidaì currents are strong, and variable in direction, forming extensive rips and broken water over the shoals.

Nantucket Shoals Lightship, the leading mark for vessels passing southward of Nantucket Shoals, is moored in 30 fathoms (55 m.) off the southern end of the shoals. This lightship sends out radio fog signals. (See p. 14).

Cashe Ledge, with depths less than 30 fathoms (55 m.), is about 6 miles long in a north-northeast direction. Ammen Rock, with 41/4 fathoms (7.6 m.) over it, is near the middle of the ledge in latitude 42° 53' N., longitude 68° 55' W. There is a whistling buoy on the east side. The sea breaks over this rock in heavy weather.

Monhegan Fall, locally known as Jeffrey Bank, has a least found depth of 46 fathoms (84 m.), and lies about 26 miles southward of Matinicus Rock Lighthouse. Less depths have been reported by fisherman.

Platt Bank has a least found depth of 29 fathoms (53 m.).

Banks with depths of 45 to 50 fathoms (82 to 91 m.) have been reported by fishermen about 10 miles north westward, 10 miles northeastward, and 15 miles eastward of the shoalest part of Platt Bank.

Jeffrey Ledge makes northeastward from Cape Ann, and has a least found depth of 18 fathoms (33 m.) over it. The northeastern point of the ledge is 22 miles eastward of Boon Island Lighthouse. It is marked by a red whistling buoy (2 JL) located 13 miles southwestward from the northeast end of the ledge.

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