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really should make him so, is by so much the uglier. Cunning is only the want of underftanding, which because it cannot compass its end by direct ways, would do it by a trick and circumvention ; and the mischief of it is, a cunning trick helps but once, but hinders ever after. No cover was ever made either so big or so fine as to hide itfelf. No body was ever so cunning as to conceal their being fo : and when they are oace discovered, every bo
. dy is shy, every body distrustful of crafty men ; and all the world forwardly join to oppose and defeat them : whilst the open, fair, wise man, has every body to make way for him, and goes directly to his bugness. To accustom a child to have true notions of things, and not to be fatisfied till he has them ; to raise bis mind to great and worthy thoughts, and to keep him at a distance from falfhood and cunning, which has always a broad mixture of falshood in it ; is the fitteit preparation of a child for wifdom. The reft, which is to be learned from time, experience and observa. tion, and an acquaintance with men, their tempers and deligos, is not to be expected in the ignorance and inadvertency of childhood, or the inconsiderate heat and unwariness of youth: all that can be done towards it, during this unripe age, is, as I have said, to accuitom. them to truth and sincerity; to a submiflion
to reason; and, as much as may be, to reflexion on their own actions.
$ 141. The next good quality Breeding. belonging to a gentleman, is, good
breeding. There are two forts of ill breeding; the one a sheepish bashfulness, and the other a mifbecoming negligence and disrespect in our carriage : but which are ao voided by duly observing this one rule, Not to think meanly of ourselves, and not to think mcanly of others.
Ý 142. The first part of this rule must not be understood in opposition to bumility, but to affuraoce. We ought not to think so well of ourselves, as to stand upon our own value; and affume to ourselves a preference before others, because of any advantage, we may imagine, we have over them ; but modestly to take what is offered, when it is our due. But yet we ought to think so well of ourselves, as to perform those actions which are incumbent on, and expected of us, without discomposure or disorder in whose presence soever we are ; keeping that respect and diftance, which is due to every one's rank and quality. There is often in people, especially children, a clow. pish shamefacedness before strangers, or those above them : they are confounded in their thoughts, words and looks; and so lose themíclves in that confusion, as not to be able to do any thing, or at least not to do it with that
freedom and gracefulness which pleases and makes them be acceptable. The only cure for this, as for any other miscarriage, is by use to introduce the contrary habit. But fince we cannot accustom ourselves to converse with strangers, and persons of quality, with. out being in their company, nothing can cure this part of ill-breeding, but change and v.. riety of company, and that of persons above
s 143. As the before mentioned consists in too great a concern how to behave ourselves towards others: so the other part of ill-breed. ing lies in the appearance of too little care of pleasing, or shewing respect to those we have to do with. To avoid this, these two things are requisite: ift, A disposition of the inind not to offend others ; and adly, the most acceptable and agreeable way of expres. fing that disposition. From the one men are called civil; from the other well-fashioned. The latter of these is that decency and gracefulness of looks, voice, words, motions, gestures, and of all the whole outward demean. our, which takes in company, and makes those with whom we may converse, easy and well pleased. This is, as it were, the language whereby that intero al civility of the mind is expressed; which, as other languages are, being very much governed by the fashion and cuftom of every country, muft, in the rules
and practice of it, be learned chiefly from observation, and the carriage of those who are allowed to be exactly well-bred. The other part, which lies deeper than the out fide, is that general good will and regard for all people, which makes any one have a care not to shew, in his carriage, any contempt, disrespect or neglect of them ; but to exprefs, according to the fashion and way of that country, a respect and value for them, according to their rank and condition. It is a dif. position of the mind that shews itself in the carriage, whereby a man avoids making any one uneasy in conversation,
I hall take notice of four qualities, that are most directly opposite to this first and most taking of all the social virtues. And from fome one of these four it is that incivility commonly has its rife. I shall set them down, that children may be preserved or recovered from their ill influence.
1. The first is a natural roughRoughness. ness, which makes a man uncoin:
plaisant to others, so that he has no deference for their inclinations, tempers or conditions. 'Tis the sure badge of a clown, not to mind what pleases or displeases those he is with ; and yet one may often find a man in fashionable clothes give an unbounded swing to his humour, and luffer it to justle or overun any one that liands in its way, with a per
fect indifferency how they take it.
This is a brutality that every one fees and abbors, and no body can be easy with ; and therefore this finds no placein any one who would be thought to have the least tincture of good-breeding. For the very end and business of good-breed. ing is to supply the natural stiffness, and so fofo ten men's tempers, that they may bend to a compliance, and accommodate themselves to those they have to do with.
2. Contempt, or want of due re. Contempt, spect, discovered either in looks, words or gesture. This, from whomsoever it comes, brings always uneasiness with it: for no body can contentedly bear being flighted.
3. Cenforiousness, and finding fault with others, has a direct op. Cenforiousposition to civility. Men, what. ness. ever they are or are not guilty of, would not have their faults displayed, and set in open view and broad day-light, before their own or other people's eyes. Blennithes allixed to any one always carry frame with them: and the discovery, or even bare imputation of any defect is not born without foine uneasiness.
Raillery is the most retined way of exposing the Raillery. faults of others: but, because it is usually done with wit and good language, and gives entertainment to the company, peo