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press until the close of the conflict, late in the spring of 1865. Then the proportions of that conflict were known, and its several events were so well comprehended, that it was not a difficult task to give to each act and scene its relative position and due prominence, while compressing the whole narrative into a space so small as to make the chronicle accessible to the great body of my countrymen. I have endeavored to give a popular narrative of the struggle without much criticism, and as free from technical terms and tediousness of detail as possible, leaving the preparation of a scientific and critical history of the war to military experts, who are more competent for the task.

I gladly availed myself of the labors of others with pen and pencil, who kindly permitted me to make use of unpublished materials-such as drawings, photographs, diaries, and letters; and I am specially indebted to the courtesy of the proprietors of Harper's Weekly and Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, whose artists accompanied the great armies throughout the whole struggle, and preserved the lineaments of a thousand objects which were soon swept away by the storms of war. I was accorded free access to all official reports allowed to be made public; and chiefly from these and the drawings of engineers, the narratives of marches, battles, and sieges were compiled, with accompanying maps and plans. In the work will be found the portraits of the prominent actors, civil and military, of both parties to the conflict; also views and plans of battle-grounds; head-quarters of officers ; weapons and ships of war; forts; arsenals; medals of honor, and other gifts of gratitude; costumes of soldiers ; flags; banners; badges; and a great variety of other objects whereby the eye may be instructed concerning the materials used in the conflict.

The engravings, whilst they embellish the book, have been introduced for the higher purposes of instruction, and are confined to the service of illustrating facts. They have been prepared under my direct supervision; and great pains have been taken to make them correct delineations of the objects sought to be represented. In each volume will be found a table of contents, and a list of illustrations; and, at the close of the work, a copious analytical index. There will also be found biographical sketches of the prominent actors in the war, civil and military, arranged in cyclopedia form, and making an important Biographical Dictionary.

I am profoundly grateful to my personal friends, and to my

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countrymen of every degree, from the most humble citizen and soldier to statesmen, army and navy officers of every rank, governors, and the President and his cabinet ministers, who kindly aided me in my

labors in the collection of materials for this work. It would be a pleasant privilege to mention the name of each, but they are legion, and for obvious reasons it may not be done. But I cannot, without a violation of my sense of justice, refrain from expressing my gratitude to Mr. Childs, the publisher, for his untiring and zealous aid and encouragement from the inception of the work, early in 1862, and his generous liberality in bringing it out in the beautiful and costly manner in which it is presented.

B. J. L. POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y., January 1, 1866.

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POLITICAL CONVENTIONS IN 1860. Preliminary Observations, page 17.—Democratic Convention at Charleston, 18. — The “ Cincinnati Platforin,"

21.-Conflicting Reports on a Platform of Principles-Secession of Delegates, 22.–Balloting for a Candidate. 23.-Seceders' Convention, 24.-Adjourned Democratic Convention in Baltimore, 25.-- Another Secession, 26.- Nomination of Stephen A. Douglas for the Presidency, 27.-Nomination of John C. Breckinridge for the Presidency, 28.-National Constitutional Union Convention, 29.- Nomination of John Bell for the Presidency, 80.-Republican Convention, 31.- Nomination of Abrahain Lincoln for the Presidency, 82.-The Four Parties, 83.—The Contest, and Election of Lincoln, 34.

CHAPTER II.

PRELIMINARY REBELLIOUS MOVEMENTS. The Votes at the Election, 36.— Incendiary Work of Politicians, 37.— The Press and the Pulpit, 38.- Designs of

the Oligarchy, 39.-Firing " the Southern Heart "-John C. Calhoun, 41.–Virginia Politicians, 42.-Conspirators in Buchanan's Cabinet, 43.-Rebellious Movements in South Carolina, 46.-Resignation of National Officers, 48.-Rejoicings in Charleston and Columbia-Excitement in Slave-labor States, 49.-Secession in the South Carolina Legislature, 50.-Secession Movements in Georgia, 51.-Union Speech of Alexander H. Stephens, 53.- The Political Advantages enjoyed by the Southern States, 57.- Proceedings of the Georgia Legislature, 58.-Secession in Mississippi, 59.–Secession in Alabama and Florida, 60.- Proceedings in Louisiana, 61. -Attitnde of Texas and North Carolina, 62.—Disunion long contemplated, 63.

CHAPTER III.

ASSEMBLING OF CONGRESS. THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. Meeting of the Thirty-sixth Congress, 64. — President Buchanan's Message, 65.—The Fugitive Slave Law, 67.

Personal Liberty Acts, 68.-Opinion of Attorney-General Black, 70.-Secession impossible, 71.— The President's Indecision and Recommendations-Denunciations of the Message, 73.--Disappointment of the People. 74-Movements of the Clergy-Warnings of General Scott, 75.--General Wool's Letter to General Cass, 76. -Resignation of Cass-Fast-Day proclaimed, 77.- Clingman's Treasonable Speech in the Senate, 78.-Crittenden's Rebuke-Hale's Defiance, and the Anger of the Conspirators, 79.-Iverson's Treasonable Speech in the Senate, 80.-Speeches of Senators Davis and Wigfall, $1.-Cotton proclaimed King, 82.- The ('otton "Kingdom," 88.-Wigfall's insolent Harangue, 84.

CHAPTER IV.

SEDITIOUS MOVEMENTS IN CONGRESS.—SECESSION IN SOUTH CAROLINA, AND ITS EFFECTS. Conduct of Southern Representatives in Congress-Committee of Thirty-three, S6.- Amendments to the Con

stitution proposed, 87.—The "Crittenden Compromise," 89.— Temper and Wishes of the South Carolina Politicians, 91.—Earlier Secession Moveinents, 92. -Memminger on a Revolutionary Mission to Virginia-Why Virginians hesitated, 94.- Power of the Politicians in South Carolina, 95.-R. Barnwell Rhett and his Incendiary Speech, 96.-Appeals to the Passions of the People-Officers of the Army and Navy invited to resign, 97.-A Gala Day in Charleston-Secession foreordained, 98.-Assembling of the Sonth Carolina

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OHAPTER VII.

ATTITUDE OF THE BORDER SLAVE-LABOR STATES, AND OF THE FREE-LABOR States.

Emissaries of the Conspirators at Work, 192. --The Virginia Legislature, 193.-A Peace Convention proposed

Attitude of Virginia -Virginia Conspirators in Congress-Position of Maryland, 195.--Action of Governor
Hicks, 196.--He is denounced as a "Traitor to the South," 197.-Loyal Action of Delaware and North Caro-
lina--The Latter syinpathizes with the Slave-labor States, 198.--Disloyal Action of the Governor of Ten-
nessee-The People overwhelmingly for the Union-Position of Kentucky, 199.-Convention of Union
and Douglas Men--Action of the Legislature-Attitude of Missouri, 200.--Treason of Governor Jackson-
Arkansas resists Secession, 201.--Loyal Attitude of Maine and Massachusetts, 202.--Action of Rhode

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