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SUMMARY OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS OCCURING PRIOR TO 1881-Concluded.

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a Many successful strikes for increase of wages.
b Many other strikes in various industries.
c Numerous strikes in Pennsylvania against reduction of wages: generally unsuccessful.
d These strikes were under the auspices of the order of Sons of Vulcan.
e One of these only partly successful.
f These strikes were under the auspices of the Cigar Makers' International l'nion.
g Many strikes in all parts of the country during this period.
h Other strikes in this year, notably in the iron industry.
i Various other strikes during latter part of 1879.

j There were only 762 strikes and lockouts reported for this year, but for purposes of classification, by causes and results, it has been found necessary to use as a basis the total number of causes reported. See the collated text for 1880, pp. 781, 782.

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CHAPTER IV.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

Statistics of strikes and lockouts are being regularly collected and published by Government bureaus in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy. The statistics for Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy are published in the form of annual reports, and those for Belgium and Canada from month to month. The statistics for Denmark are published annually in brief form in the statistical yearbook, and a detailed report for three years has been published in the form of a special report. In Switzerland statistics of labor disputes have been published since 1887 in the annual reports of the managing committee of the Swiss federation of labor (a), but these reports hardly have the same standing as Government publications.

The Austrian Government has been collecting statistics of labor disputes since 1891. The reports for the years 1891 and 1892 were published by the Government(b), but not for general distribution. The figures for these years presented in this chapter were obtained from Volume XI of the Foreign Reports of the British Royal Commission, the original publications not being available. The report for 1893 was published in the form of a supplement to the monthly statistical bulletin of the bureau of statistics of the Austrian ministry of commerce (c). The report for 1894 was the first that appeared in the form of a regular annual report of the bureau of statistics of Austria (d), a decree of the imperial ministry of commerce dated December 7, 1893, requiring the publication annually of such statistics. In 1898 a special bureau of labor statistics was created in Austria by

a Rapport Annuel du Comité-Directeur de la Fédération Ouvrière Suisse et du Secrétariat Ouvrier Suisse.

b Zusammenstellung der in den Jahren 1891 und 1892 stattgefundenen Arbeitseinstellungen im Gewerbebetriebe.

c Beilage der statistischen Monatschrift, 1894. Herausgegeben vom Statistischen Departement im k. k. Handelsministerium.

d Die Arbeitseinstellungen im Gewerbebetriebe in Oesterreich während des Jahres 1894. Herausgegeben vom Statistischen Departement im k. k. Handelsministerium.

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imperial decree, and the work of collecting and publishing strike and lockout statistics was transferred to this bureau. The report for 1897 (a), published in 1899, was the first to appear under this new régime. The reports for the years 1891 to 1897, inclusive, do not cover disputes in the agricultural, forestry, and mining industries. Since 1898, however, the mining industry has been included, and the report for that year contains not only the detailed statistics of strikes and lockouts in the mining industry for the years 1894 to 1898, but also a summary of all strikes and lockouts for these years, with the statistics of mine disputes included.

As now published, the Austrian reports on strikes and lockouts contain a series of six tables, showing (1) strikes for the current year according to geographical distribution; (2) strikes according to industries; (3) a general summary of strikes; (4) comparative figures for a series of years beginning with 1894; (5) details of each individual strike during the current year, and (6) details of each individual lockout. The tables are preceded by an explanatory and descriptive analysis, with charts showing fluctuations. Appendices contain brief reviews of industrial conditions, tables showing contributions of trade unions in aid of strikes, and copies of papers and documents relating to the strikes and lockouts reported. The statistics relate to the crown lands represented in the Imperial Austrian Parliament, namely, Bohemia, Bukowina, Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Küstenland, Moravia, Styria, Galicia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Silesia, Carinthia, Salzburg, Carniola, and Dalmatia. The data for the statistics are obtained from the local authorities who are furnished with blank schedules of inquiry prepared by the Austrian labor bureau and distributed through the ministry of commerce and the ministry of agriculture. These local authorities obtain the information from the employers and employees concerned and also by personal investigation. The reports thus far published cover labor disputes during the years 1891 to 1900, inclusive.

In Belgium statistics of strikes have been collected and published monthly by the Belgian labor bureau since January, 1896, in accordance with the law of April 12, 1895, which created this bureau, and which requires the publication of such information in its monthly bulletin. The data published each month consist of statistical tables showing the date of beginning and ending of each strike, the locality, number of establishments and strikers involved, the occupations of the latter, and the causes and results, together with a brief analysis. As the statistics have not been published in annual summary form, they could not be used in the present report.

a Die Arbeitseinstellungen und Aussperrungen im Gewerbebetriebe in Oesterreich während des Jahres 1897. Herausgegeben vom k. k. arbeitsstatistischen Amte im Handelsministerium.

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