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am glad to find that a son of our old friend (for as mine, tho' we seldom met, I ever regarded him) has merited such a proof [of] the confidence of the Comm. in Chief, as that which you have mentioned; but I wish the latter would fight the French in his own language. Could not he take a view of Ciundad Ro. without making a reconnoissance of it? It is a barbarism similar to the pronoun He applied to express 30000 men.-I expect the honour of a visit from the D. of Gloucester on the 10th of this month; & we are engaged after that to visit friend Osborne. If we do, be not surprised if one fine morning you see me at your door, or by the side of your trout stream. Mrs. H. desires me to assure you of her kind remembrance. I beg mine to your sisters. I hope they are both well. Adieu. Your affectionate friend. WARREN HASTINGS, I assert an old poetical licence to desire perusal of the following lines designed for the 12th August.



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write more than the absolutely needful in answer to your letter.

Gather the Chilleys, when they are red ripe.-Bruise them in a marble mortar, till they are reduced to a mash.-Put this into the middle of a clean towel, which roll round, & twist at both ends till the juice is all pressed out. Put the juice into as many— two-ounce phials as it will fill, with a large spoonful of salt in each. Cork them tight, and bind over each phial a piece of macerated bladder; and they will keep two years-perhaps longer-in a cellar. It is an essential part of the process that the fruit be ripe. If it is green, you must keep it till it becomes red; but it will lose much of its juice in ripening. I will send you a couple of phials of this year's expression, and some seeds, lest you should not have the true sort which our friend here has not, with directions for their culture.

Dear Mrs. Osborne is not better. We have all colds, & Mrs. H. & I go away to morrow, I believe by the way of Salisbury. I give you Mrs. H's kind regards. You are a prodigious favorite of all this house, particularly of the interesting little wife; for which I bear you a grudge. Yet God bless you. Kind respects to Miss Babers.-Adieu.


To Edward Baber Esqre. Alresford Hants not to go in the London bag


Daylesford house 2a Novг. 1811.

My dear Baber

I wrote you a hurried letter from Melchet, with a description (I hope, intelligible) of the simple process for expressing and preparing the juice of Chillies for preservation, supposing that you had some ready for the operation. But lest you should not, I have spared you, which I can well do, from my own store, two phials, and dispatched them, carefully packed, for the Winchester coach, which goes from the Angel inn at Oxford, I believe, this morning. I hope it will arrive safe the parcel, I mean.

We parted from our hospitable friends on friday morning, and reached our comfortable home at 9 o'clock in the evening. I am was not sorry to say, that Mrs. Osborne better than you left her, if so well: but she would have a fair opportunity to nurse herself after our departure; for their nephew & niece were to follow us or rather our

example, the same morning, the little mother having been greatly alarmed by a report of some indisposition of her little boy; I hope of no consequence; for they have interested me in their domestic concerns. On the day that you left us we made a visit to the bishop of Salisbury. Mrs. Powell went so far with us and parted from us, to see her children, promising to limit her visit to half an hour, & to return to us by three. She was punctual to her time, and it would have done your heart good to hear all the story which she had to tell her husband, and which she rehearsed to us, of her meeting with her children, the conversation she had with them, her inquiries after the stable, the new poney and the farm; a tale greatly exceeding in narration the measure of time in which the events had passed; and strongly exemplifying a young mind happily employed, both where it should be, and as it should be. I pray you to present my best respects to Miss Babers, and to remember me kindly to Mr. Palmer, if he is with you. I confidently assure you of the kind regards of Mrs. Hastings. She is thank God! not worse for her excursion-I hope, better.

I will take another opportunity to send you some Chilley seeds, & directions for their culture, as yours may not be of so good a sort as mine. Adieu, my friend.

(To be continued).

W. H. H. B.


IN The Pall Mall Gazette for August 16, 1910, are some brief extracts from a report of Christ's Hospital Club, concerning an examination made by Halley, in March, 1694, of the Mathematical School. For this service he was presented with forty shillings, which he kindly accepted of."

Reference was made, at 10 S. xi. 64, to a book containing a statement, that Halley spoke German fluently when in the company of Peter the Great on the occasion of the latter's visit to England. Is there any other authority for Halley's knowledge of German? The Spectator, London, for March 12, 1910, refers to an amusing story concerning Peter the Great and Halley, at Deptford, but does not mention any authority.

M. Mairau, in his Eloge' of Halley, says that when the Czar was in England (1697) he called for Halley, talked with him about

many subjects, and invited him familiarly to his table (cf. 9 S. xii. 127).

An interesting account of Halley's Club appeared in The Pall Mall Gazette, No. 14,032,, for April 11, 1910 (cf. 'Halley's Comet,' by H. H. Turner, p. 23; Oxford, 1908).

What was the Club to which Halley and Isaac Pyke belonged, mentioned in the latter's will, dated Jan. 5, 1730 (10 S. viii. 45)? In Documents relating to Swedenborg,' ed. by L. R. Tafel, 3 vols. (London, 1890), are several references to Halley (See vol. i., pp. 210, 222, 227, 300, 577, 578, 665).

A small portrait of Halley, and a picture of his house at Oxford, showing on the roof his observatory, appear in the front of 'The Earth's Magnetism,' by L. A. Bauer, printed from the Smithsonian Institution's Report for 1913, pp. 195-212.


It was my good fortune to be in Oxford in August, 1926, when, by the special courtesy of Dr. H. H. Turner, I visited Halley's house and old_observatory, then recently restored.

May I take this opportunity to acknowledge, also, the hospitable treatment accorded me by the staff of the Bodleian library, where In the library of my time was all too brief. Trinity College, Cambridge, I had the rare joy of seeing three original copies of Newton's Principia' (1687), in two of which were emendations in Newton's handwriting. For these privileges, I am grateful. In Hearne's Remarks,' iii. 25, we find: "July 19 (Wed.) 1710. Yesterday, Mr. Halley, Savilian Prof. of Geometry, had the Degree of Dr. of Law given him by Convocation."

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According to the 'D.N.B.' xxiv. 106 (New York, 1890), Halley was created D.C.L., at Oxford, on 16 Oct., 1710 (cf. 9 S. xi. 463).

Is D.C.L. exclusively an Oxford degree and does it correspond exactly with the LL.D. of Cambridge and other Universities?


A correspondent informed me, that the 'Calendar of Treasury Papers' (Redington), under date of Sept. 18, 1712, contains report of Sir Isaac Newton and Mr. Halley, to the Lord High Treasurer: "Had sent for Mr. Cawood re his invented instrument (on Navigation) a magnetic needle to stand North and South without variation; but found the results weak and uncertain." (The document is in the handwriting of Sir Isaac Newton, and dated from Leicester field's," now Leicester Square, London).

The National Geographic, July, 1927 (p. 31), in connexion with some remarks relating to South Trinidad Island, says :

Wild goats and wild hogs liberated on the island in 1700 by the astronomer Halley, roamed the ridges. EUGENE F. McPIKE.

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write with the precision as to dates that is a marked feature of the diary." It would seem not improbable that the writer of the

5418, Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. letter was someone who either was liberated

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"A COPY OF A LETTER” (See' Diarium Turris Londinensis ab Anno 1580 ad Annum 1585,' ante p. 114).-This copy, preserved in the Public Record Office (State Papers Domestic Elizabeth cxlix. 61), is written entirely in italic script, except for the one word the before the word "Racke," which one word is in the Elizabethan English or gothic characters. It is neither signed nor dated but is endorsed, in the same italic handwriting, Copie of a Irer written from a priest in ye Towre to other Catholikes in other prisons. The copyist was therefore probably an Englishman. If we assume that he had been educated abroad and was unacquainted with gothic handwriting, and that the original was written in this handwriting, this set of circumstances might account for the state of the manuscript, especially where English surnames are concerned.

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Brother Henry Foley, S.J., who found the MS. "difficult to read,' presumably mainly from the contractions employed, published a translation of the greater part of it in his 'Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus,' ii. 160-2, and iv. 353-4. This translation leaves much to be desired in point of accuracy. Later (in 1920) the Rev. Dr. St.G. K. Hyland, in A Century of Persecution,' published a transcription of the Ms. (at pp. 420-2) which (if substantially) is certainly not completely accurate, translation (at pp. 265-7), which though much better that Foley's, seems to have missed the point in one or two particulars.

and a

Both Foley and Dr. Hyland attribute the original document, of which the MS. is a copy, to Edward Rishton, and put its date about the end of the year 1580. The reasons which are conclusive against Rishton's authorship of the Diarium Turris' are also conclusive against his being the writer of this letter. As to the date, the latest occurrence in the Tower of London mentioned in the letter is the second racking of B. Alexander Briant, and we know from the Diarium Turris' that this took place on 7 May, 1581. Probably the letter was written shortly after that day. Who wrote it? Possibly Father John Hart, S.J., to whom it is practically certain that we owe the Diarium Turris.'

However, the writer of the letter does not

from or died in the Tower soon after 7 May, 1581. Now the arrest of one Francis Bruning 1579, and on the following 7 Sept. he was sent as a suspected person was ordered 22 Aug., a close prisoner to the Tower (Dasent, 'Acts of the Privy Council,' vi. 249, 260), where he still was on Lady Day, 1581, though after this he disappears (Cath. Rec. Soc.' iii. 8, 9, 10). This Francis Bruning, whether he was a priest or not, is probably to be identified with one Francis Bruninge, who died without issue, eldest son of Richard Bruninge of Seagry, near Chippenham, Wiltshire, by Eleanor, eldest daughter and co-heir of Edward Wayte of Wymering, Hampshire (see the pedigree in Foley op. cit. v., opposite p. 815).

Should anybody think it of sufficient interest, I should be happy, with the editor's permission, to publish a transcript and translation with brief notes.


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romances more fascinating that those connected with country houses and the families whose names have long been identified with them. I do not refer so much to family ghosts (of which we are all rather surfeited) as to cupboarded skeletons which have had less publicity. I have this week received the following letter:

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Do you know of the shot which used to be heard every night at ten o'clock from the monument in the deer park on the Huttons' estate near Richmond, Yorks? The local tradition is that a son of a Squire Hutton in the early 18th century did not discover till after his father's death that he was a the property. On learning the truth he chal"natural and could not therefore succeed to enged his legitimate brother to a duel with pistols, it being a condition that if the disappointed man fell he was to have "his length and breadth" of land in the park. Fall he did and was buried on the spot in the park. Home Farm and on the estate and was taken Some fifty years afterwards I stayed at the one night to the monument. Whilst trying to read the inscription on the brass plate I heard Richmond town clock chime ten. At the last stroke we heard the report of a shot fired and were much startled. I have heard of the shot being heard on three occasions since and it s stated that it is heard still at the same hour-that at which the Hutton of long ago fell. The story is new to me, but is worth putting on record. J. FAIRFAX-BLAKEBOROUGH.

Readers' Queries.


I have been asked by the Chapter of Southwark Cathedral to enquire whether any of your readers are able to give information as to the existence of a crypt below the Cathedral in mediaeval times. The Chapter will be grateful for any information on this subject. J. B. HALDANE.


Canon and Precentor of Southwark.

DJECTIVES FROM PLACE-NAMES: IDENTIFICATION SOUGHT.-Having exhausted other sources of information I write in the hope of obtaining the answers to the following questions through the medium of N. & Q.'

(1) In Martène and Durand's Vet. Script. Amplissima Collectio (Paris, 1724) column 746 there is a marginal note to the hymn Nobilis signis in honour of St. Malachy,

(6 Ex ms. Veteris-Montis." Of the name of what place in what country is Vetus-Mons the Latin equivalent?

(2) An edition of the Utrecht Breviary of 1495 is described as printed "extra muros oppidi scoenhouieñ." To what town (probably in the Low Countries) does the adjective

ferred to the barge La Belle Poule and taken by canal to Paris. This part of the journey lasted seven days. Can any reader throw any light on the history of the tablet? I been fixed to La Belle Poule; if so how did it would suggest that at one time it may have make its way to Auckland?

A. H. CAVELKIND: BOROUGH ENGLAND. -Do the custom of Gavelkind, and the custom of Borough England apply to (i) the Manor of Barnsbury, Islington; (ii) Edmonton; (iii) Hackney; (iv) Bermondsey?

A friend of mine is interested in property in those areas, and wants to find out which customs availed in them before the Law of at the British Museum Library, and could Property Act. I may say that I am often refer to any books of reference quoted by any reader.


FREDERICK VANSITTART (See cliv. 58, 119, s.v. 'Letters of Warren Hastings : Mrs. Van's Retentive Memory and Mr. Cotton the Director ').-SIR EVAN COTTON, at the last reference, mentions Mr. and Mrs. George Vansittart's son Edward, who took the name of Neale. He was baptized at Calcutta, 14 Nov., 1769, and entered Winchester College in 1781. He vacated his New Col(3) To what modern towns do the following lege Fellowship in 1805, and was Rector of adjectives refer: Biecensis (Bielsk?) and Taplow. I presume that Frederick VansitSepusiensis (both probably in Poland), in tart, born 15 Oct., 1775, at Calcutta, who the titles "Castellanus Biecensis " and entered Winchester College in1789, and joined Capitaneus Sepusiensis"; Soguesiensis the H.E.I.C.S. in 1792, was another son of (in western Europe, probably France); theirs. Is anything known of his subsequent Gateensis (probably in Italy)?



(4) To what monastery in what town (probably in Italy) is reference made in the

words Domus Canonic. S. Joan. in viridario Patavia"? Was there such an house of canons in Padua (of which anyhow the usual Latin name is Patavium)? and, if so, when was it dissolved? Also what sort of a green place is represented by viridarium?


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R. V.

A cor

respondent of Blue Peter stated some months ago that there is in the Auckland Museum, New Zealand, a large bronze tablet with the following inscription: ICI |


REPOSERENT LES RESTES MORTELS L'EMPEREUR NAPOLEON DU 9 AU 15 Dbre | 1840. Napoleon's coffin was exhumed in St. Helena on Oct. 15, 1840, and taken on board the Louis Philippe which sailed for Europe. On reaching Cherbourg the coffin was trans




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I am

preparing a second edition of the late Mr. R. C. Hope's Legendary Lore of the Holy Wells of England,' and am anxious to see a book on the Northamptonshire wells, by a Mr. Beelby. If any reader of (6 Notes and Queries" could lend me a copy of this book for a few days I should be most grateful. PETER B. G. BINNALL. Havenstreet, Ryde, Isle of Wight. THE DOUKHOBORS.

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Will any reader give me full details concerning the Doukhobors, a Russian community of Non-Conformists who emigrated to Canada from the Caucasus in 1899 to British Colombia. The present leader is Peter Verizin who-with his mother-represents the ruling power of the community.




BRIDGE IS BROKEN DOWN." I should like information about the authorship and origin of an old song, beginning:

London Bridge is broken down Gold is won, and high renown. The words are quoted in an old book entitled The Sea Kings,' belonging to a series written for children a good many years ago (Stories for Summer Days and Winter Nights.' Published by Groombridge and Sons). The song is connected with the defeat of the Danes in the days of King Ethelred. Could it be a paraphrase of a contemporary song?

I have also lately seen a children's game or song with the same title, "London Bridge is broken down, Dance o'er my Lady Leigh"; but this would probably be of more modern date.


[Our correspondent may like to refer to N&Q. 1 S. ii. 258, 338; 3 S. xii. 379; 4 S. xii. 479: 8 S. vi. 106.]

ARMION FAMILY.-The lords Marmion


of Tamworth Castle in Warwickshire (commemorated by Sir Walter Scott), who were hereditary champions of England, were a branch of the powerful Norman family of Tesson, and their ancestors came over with William the Conqueror, but the Tamworth family has long been extinct in the male lineage in England, although the name still survives. Whether the Marmions existing in England now are descendants of the original stock, legitimate or otherwise, I am unable to say. What I should like to know is, whether there are any descendants of the Norman family of Marmion in existence either in England or France at the present day. Their caput barony and castle in France was at Fontenay-le-Marmion in the Department of Calvados, the vicountship of which came into the possession of the Harcourt family through the marriage of Pierre de Harcourt, Marquis de la Motte Harcourt, and de Thury, to Gillonne, eldest daughter and heiress of Jacques de Matignon, Comte de Thorigny, and I presume that the hereditary championship of Normandy came into the

court heiress of Jacques (II) de Harcourt
Marquis de Beuvron, firstly to Frederick
Charles, Rheingrave von Rhin and von Salm,
Sovereign Prince of Funestrange, secondly,
to Charles Leon von Fiesque, Count Palatine,
Prince and Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire,
who assumed the coat-of-arms of the House
of Harcourt, Gules two bars or (which is the
same as that of the English Harcourts). Are
there any descendants by these marriages of

either of the German Princes named in exis-
tence now?

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was then

J. ARDAGH. OF IRELAND: LUSIGNAN.-I have read that the first ancestor of the well-known Browne family of Ireland, came over in the time of Henry III and that, in fact, their surname LeBrun, being descendants of the Lusignan family, Counts of La Marche and Angoulème, in France, through a half-brother of Henry III, whose mother, Isabelle of Angoulème, married the Count of La Marche, (House of Lusignan), on the death of her husband, King John Lackland. Is this tradition historically correct as to the ancestry of the Browne family?

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B. L. P.

ST. MICHAN'S CHURCH, DUBLIN. House of Harcourt with it at the same time. An account has appeared in the Daily The English baronets de Crespigny, by the Express of Feb. 17 of the mummified remains way, who always receive the name of Cham- of crusaders which can be seen, so it is said, pion at their christening, claim to be descend-in the vaults of St. Michan's Church, Dublin. ants of the Norman Marmions in the female Is anything known of the names, and the lineage also. The vicountship of Fontenay-dates of burial, of these personages? le-Marmion passed out of the House of Har

court by the marriage of Gillonne de Har

101, Piccadilly.


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