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T. Wilson-we quote The Times of Feb. 25Superintendent of Works at the Houses of Parliament and Deputy Keeper of Westminster Hall, does not support the first idea that the brickwork might be part of a passage from Henry VII's Chapel and St. Stephen's Chapel; nor does he think it is a sewer. believes the structure to be remains of a cellar, and re-calling what is known about Chaucer's house at Westminster, has suggested that the cellar might have belonged to this. Mr. Walter G. Bell, writing in the Daily Telegraph of the same day, quotes Mr. Wilson's allusion, in refutation of the "tunnel theory, to the famous robbery of the regalia and treasure of Edward I in the strong Chamber under the Chapter House, an occasion when a tunnel would have been uncommonly useful to the thieves, who, as it was, seem to have broken through from the cloister-garth. Professor Tout, in 1916, published an entertaining account of this Medieval Burglary' (see 12 S. i. 500). FROM Allahabad The Times correspondent reports that all slaves in the "Triangle in North Burma have now been released. The slave-releasing mission, working under Mr. Bernard, was hindered last year in its operations by the necessity for punitive operations against one of the tribes; the work in the areas affected has now been completed. The mission, which is enquiring, also, into the conditions among slaves liberated last year, has met everywhere with a friendly reception.

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THE fourth of the new series of exhibitions of the London County Council's collection of prints and water-colours relating to London (see clii. 73) (the first being that of Islington and Finsbury, the second that of St. Pancras, and the third that of NorthEast London), illustrating the topography and history of the Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth is now on view at the County Hall, Westminster Bridge. One hundred and sixty items are shown. Among the places and buildings illustrated in the present exhibition may be mentioned: Cuper's Gardens; The Old Vic; Astley's Amphitheatre; Lambeth High Street; Lambeth Palace; Lambeth Church; Vauxhall Gardens. THE most generally interesting archeological item of the week's news is that of the discovery of a great building standing between the Forum of Trajan and the end of the Via Nazionale at Rome, which has now been unmasked by the demolition of barracks. It is pronounced by experts to be

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Literary and Historical ton's bricklayer; on the south by Vigo Pas


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was in the early part of the eighteenth century (Feb. 9, 1703/4 to be exact) that Richard Boyle succeeded his father as 3rd Earl of Burlington. A boy of eight, he inherited the title, and the magnificent west end estate of Burlington House (mentioned by both Pepys and Evelyn) acquired by his great-grandfather the 1st Earl of Burlington. As the boy grew up he developed a passionate love of architecture, and became an amateur architect of considerable distinction. Soon after he was of age (1716) he began to remodel Burlington House, which, with its ornate front (a copy of a palace at Vicenza designed by Palladio); its famous colonnade, one of the finest pieces of architecture in England"; and its great boundary wall in Piccadilly, "the most costly wall ever built in this country,' was one of the prominent features of the west end till 1854, when the Government bought it for the Royal Academy. This re-modelled Burlington House was finished practically in 1718, and in that year, Lord Burlington began to develope that portion of his large gardens which lay to the north of the roadway from Glasshouse Street to Bond Street, then called sometimes Vigo Lane, and sometimes Vigo Passage, and so named after Sir George Rooke's famous victory in Vigo Bay (1702). Here he sold to the 3rd Duke of Dover and Queensberry a piece of ground on which the Duke subsequently erected Queensberry House, that hospitable mansion in which his kind-hearted and wayward duchess Kitty afforded shelter to the poet Gay who, as Thackeray none too kindly says, was there "lapped in cotton, and had his plate of chicken, and his saucer of cream, and frisked, and barked, and wheezed, and grew fat, and so ended." plan of the site of Queensberry House shown on the title deeds is of value to any reader interested in the growth of the west end of London. It shows a piece of ground about 100 ft. long by 70 ft. wide, bounded on the north by open ground where stood a small house occupied by ffaulkner, Lord Burling



Glasshouse Street then ran from Swallow Street to the end of the garden of Sir Thomas Clarges, where the east side of the Albany is to-day.

sage; on the west by a projected new street to be called Great Burlington Street "; and on the east by the " gardens of the mansion of the Earl of Orrery.' It was on these gardens that the southern part of Savile Row was built.

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On March 21, 1720, the Earl of Burlington was married to Dorothy, elder daughter and co-heir of that distinguished nobleman, George Savile, the last Marquis of Halifax. Lord Orrery, whose house was in Glasshouse Street, where No. 1, Savile Row, is to-day, died in 1731, and two years later Lord Burlington decided to build upon the gardens of In the Daily his late kinsman's mansion. Post of March 12, 1733, is the following


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Two years later the tall houses on eastern side of Savile Row were finished, and notorious Countess of Suffolk, the reputed one of the first notable residents was that mistress of George II, who is so skilfully introduced by Scott into moving scenes in the Heart of Midlothian.' Says the Daily Courant, Feb. 21, 1735:

one of the most

The Right Honourable the Countess of Suffolk has purchased a large house of Mr. Gray the builder in Savile Street, Burlington Gardens for £3,000.

It is perhaps interesting to note that the houses on the north side of Vigo Passage were called Burlington Gardens for many years before the roadway took that name in 1831, in which year Glasshouse Street became Vigo Street, and Marybone Street, became the Glasshouse Street we know to-day. The Countess of Suffolk lived in Savile Street for a very long period, and Horace Walpole, writing April 28, 1761, of a fire in Vigo Lane, says:

I went to my Lady Suffolk in Savile Row, and passed the whole night till 3 in the morning between her little hot bed-chamber, and the spot, up to my ankles in water without taking cold.

In this same year Walpole writes of "that pretty house of Fairfax's now General Walthis house was No. 3, Savile Row, which was degrave's." There is little or no doubt that built about 1734, and has had several notable inhabitants, including Lord Mornington, brother of the Duke of Wellington, and is now in the occupation of a well-known expert

in antique furniture and bric-a-brac. Bryan Fairfax, who died in 1749, was a Commissioner of Customs and a great collector of books and pictures. The sale of his house, "the excellent well-built Brick House with a garden, convenient offices, etc., pleasantly situated at the south end of Savile Row, together with his genuine and curious collection of pictures, busts, vases, urns, etc., etc.,' was duly advertised in the Public Advertiser some time after his death. His and pictures were, library I believe, acquired by Mr. Child the banker, and finally dispersed at Sotheby's in 1885.


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From quite early in its history this famous west end thoroughfare has varied its title; I can recall no other London street that records such constant changes. Originally Savile Street, it varied its appellation in a see-saw manner from Street to Row up to the end of the eighteenth century, and, not content with this rather puzzling playfulness, we we find Savile spelt sometimes with one, sometimes with two L's. Cary's Map of London, 1796, has it "Saville Row," while Horwood's great and elaborate map of 1799 gives us "Saville Street. Nor did the early years of the nineteenth century find our thorough fare in more stable mood. Boyle's Court Guide from 1801 to 1815 gives "Saville Street"; from 1816 to 1822 "Saville Row"; from 1823 to 1835 it reverts to "Saville Street." In 1836 have Savile Row," to be followed by Saville Row "" in 1837; while Cross's New Plan of London,' 1838, makes it "Saville Street." The final name and spelling seem to have been permanently adopted in 1844.

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To return, after this digression, to our "eminent inhabitants,' in 1781 William Pitt was undoubtedly living or lodging here, for writing to Wilberforce to borrow Anderson's Dictionary of Commerce,' he says, "if you can find it, and spare it, and will trust me with it, pray send it to Savile Street."

At the end of the eighteenth century Joseph Hill, the attached friend and correspondent of William Cowper, lived at No. 11; and in 1797 Crabb Robinson_went to him as clerk at a guinea a week. Robinson tells us that “ Joseph Hill had no general law practice, but was steward to several noblemen. Another tenant of No. 11 was the Rt. Hon. George Tierney, whose claim to fame is chiefly based on the fact that on Sunday, May 27, 1798, he fought a duel with Pitt on Putney Heath.

Sydney Smith, the witty Canon of St. Paul's, must have been a familiar figure in Savile Row, for at No. 20 lived his brother Robert, known to the chroniclers of his day as Bobus" Smith, who in 1801 founded the famous King of Clubs whose witty members met at the Crown and Anchor Tavern Arundel Street, a building which was later destined to be the headquarters of the Westminster Reformers, of whom Sir Francis Burdett was one of the most prominent.


Perhaps the most striking personality connected with Savile Row was Richard Brinsley Sheridan, a brilliant and pathetic figure. For a short time he lived at No. 17, but removed later to No. 14, in the front bedroom of which house he died on July 7, 1816. In a short note to Rogers, the bankerpoet, written a few weeks before his death, he says they are going to put the carpets out of the window, and break into Mrs. S's room and take me-for God's sake let me see you." A present of £150 from Rogers arrived in time to prevent this calamity. That picturesque writer, Sir Nathaniel Wraxall, gives us a striking picture of Sheridan's last days—

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and painful subject of contemplation. A privy

His last scene holds up to us an affecting

councillor, the ornament of his age and nation, caressed by princes, and dreaded by ministers,


man whose orations and dramatic works alike rank him among the most distinguished men of his own or any period, he expired, like though not in a state of destitution Spenser, like Otway, or like Chatterton, yet under humiliating circumstances of pecuniary embarrassment. His house in Savile Row was besieged by bailiffs, one of whom pressing to obtain entrance and availing himself of, the moment when the front door was opened by a servant in order to admit the visit of Dr. Baillie who attended Sheridan during his last illness, that eminent physician assisted by the footman repulsed him, and shut the door in his face. Dr. Baillie refused to accept any fee for his attendance, and Earl Grey supplied him with every article for his comfort from his own kitchen.

So, almost like a pauper, died the famous author of the immortal School for Scandal' and yet but a few days after his death his body was carried to its last resting-place in Westminster Abbey, the pall being borne by dukes and other high personages who had stood aloof from him in his troubles, and even in his last illness. No wonder that some witty Frenchman is said to have exclaimed "France is the place for a man of letters to live in, and England the place for him to die in."

Sheridan was not the only man famous in

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literature who has lived in Savile Row, or has spent much of his time therein. George Grote, the son of a rich London banker, resided for many years at No. 12; his place in serious literature was attained by his monumental History of Greece,' written between 1846 and 1856. At No. 12 he died on June 19, 1871, aged 77. He, like Sheridan, was buried in the Abbey, and as a young man of 23 I watched the funeral procession leave the house.

No. 15, Savile Row, is a house that has had many famous literary folk within its doors. Here for a number of years was the Savile Club. Of this Club Robert Louis Stevenson was elected a member on June 3, 1874, after a wait of only six weeks. He was proposed by Sidney Colvin, and seconded by Andrew Lang and other well-known members, and for the five years following his election the Club was the centre of his London life.

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I find in a recently published book on London that at No. 16 Fanny Kemble is said to have lived.' This is highly probable, for Kelly's London Directory,' 1855, gives Charles Kemble as the occupier.

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At No. 17 is yet another well known Club, the Burlington Fine Arts, established for the purpose of bringing together amateurs, collectors and others interested in Many of my readers must have enjoyed the periodical exhibition of pictures, books, porcelain, and other works of art to which members of the Club are privileged to invite their friends. The late Claude Phillips, the famous expert on painting, was a regular attendant at these exhibitions.

There has from very early in its history been a sprinkling of the medical profession in Savile Row, and at No. 14 lived for many years Sir Benjamin Brodie, Surgeon-inOrdinary to George IV, and Serjeant-Surgeon to William IV and Queen Victoria.

From the year 1870 till a comparatively recent date, No. 1, the house at the south east corner of Savile Row, was the home of the Royal Geographical Society. Famous travellers and explorers in all parts of the habitable and uninhabited globe could be seen from time to time entering or leaving its portals. From the eastern windows of Uxbridge House in April 1874, I saw the coffin of David Livingstone (who had died in Africa towards the close of 1873) borne across the pavement on its way to the Abbey, where the great missionary and explorer sleeps his last sleep. An impressive spectacle that I have never forgotten.

Before leaving the eastern side of Savile Row I must mention the one ghost story I have ever heard in connection with that thoroughfare. The house is No. 17-the ghost that of Sheridan. Here it is said was kept a cast of his hand, with the inscription:

Good at a fight, better at a play;

Godlike in giving; but the Devil to pay. And in a certain back room in the upper part of the house the scratching of the dramatist's ghostly pen was often to be heard in the stillness of the early morning hours. Why the ghost should elect to haunt No. 17, where its human shell only lived for a short time, rather than No. 14, where its mortal owner died, I know not. Indeed, the story seems less reliable than such "tales of wonder usually are. I remember Laurence Hutton mentions it, but gives no authority.

No one who has walked along Savile Row can have failed to notice the contrast between the small, low-pitched, white-painted houses on its western side, and their lofty neighbours of an earlier date who look down on them from across the way. These houses run from Uxbridge House (the Western Branch of the Bank of England) to the south corner of Clifford Street, and exactly when they were built no one seems to know. I have tapped every source of information available to me without definite result. No book on London that I have consulted (and they are many) has a word to say about them. Occupants are ignorant of the date; and I failed to establish any certain information even when I communicated with the solicitors of the freeholder. They stand on the further ends of the original gardens of the houses on the east side of Old Burlington Street. Horwood's Map of London, 1799, which marks and numbers the houses in every street, shows twenty houses on the east side of Saville Street," four on the west side between the north corner of Clifford Street and Boyle Street, while from the south corner of Clifford Street to Uxbridge House the gardens of the Old Burlington Street houses are clearly shown extending to the western boundary of Saville Street. A laborious and somewhat dusty search through the early London Directories to be found at the British Museum, and the wonderfully well kept Rate Books of the City of Westminster (most courteously placed at my disposal by the Town Clerk) obtained the following net result: No buildings of any sort on that particular stretch of Savile Row

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which I have mentioned appears till 1829, when a note at the end of Savile Row in the Rate Books says "Counting house and Workshops of Foole & Coolings of 4, Old Burlington Street,' while an interlined note to 4, Old Burlington Street, reads see also premises in Savile Row "but these premises do not appear to have been separately rated for a good many years. So that Poole's the famous tailors were the pioneers of the development of the old Burlington Street gardens. It was not till the year 1841 that I found in both Directories and Rate Books a record of occupied houses between Uxbridge House and Clifford Street, and in that year seven are shown. In none of these small houses does any celebrity appear to have resided, but one, at any rate, is worthy of mention-No. 34, now the office of a surveyor. Here for many years was the home of that old-established charity, The Blind Man's Friend," founded by Charles Day, of Day and Martin, blacking manufacturers, who died in 1836, leaving £100,000 for the benefit of the blind. I can remember well how at stated periods-quarterly, I think-some two or three hundred of Day's blind pensioners might be seen, each with his or her guide, making their way to the Western Branch of the Bank of England to cash the drafts for their pensions. That part of the story of Savile Row which seems worth preserving is contained in the records of the tall houses on its eastern side.

It is curious that views of this famous street should be so scarce indeed, I do not know that any exist. There is no Savile Row in the Crace collection at the British Museum. T. H. Shepherd, who has given us so many pictures of the London of a century ago, has, I think, never chosen this subject, and for forty years I have searched London printshops for it, but in vain.


UNPUBLISHED LETTERS OF WARREN HASTINGS. (See ante pp. 21, 39, 57, 76, 93, 111, 132). XXII.

Daylesford house 3d Octr. 1811.

My dear Baber The sight of your handwriting always gives me pleasure; but it was a little alloyed on the receipt of your last by a regret that you

had just got the start of me; for I had meditated the same act on my part, when that spirit of superstition which attaches itself to all anniversaries suddenly reminded me, that if I deferred my letter to the 6th of the month, you would receive it duly on the 8th the date of my first arrival in Bengal, at the vast distance of sixty one years from this day. This point of chronology is of no consequence in itself; but it is, or ought to be, of use to me, in suppressing all rising emotions of complaint at the too perceptible symptoms of a defective hearing, and enfeebled memory and you will see that I have improved by the lesson which it has given me; for I could have called the first infirmity deafness, and expressed the latter as lost. But I must not say more of myself, till I have answered your enquiry concerning the first object of it, who (I have the great pleasure to tell you) is quite well, and has had no returns lately of giddiness or headache, to which she had been much subject for some time past, and which we attributed to a violent fall, with her gig, on the 23d July. I believe you are not acquainted with the story of this adventure. The sum of it is, that by the dropping of the reins, the mare that drew us was frightened, ran away, and overset the carriage. Mrs. Hs. was thrown clear of it, and much hurt, in one direction, and I (I am really sorry to say) in another without the slightest injury. This is the first serious accident in which we were participators since our marriage, & as it was a part of our destiny, I am glad it happened, because it has passed. I partial to the character of L'd Minto, & think that no possible object can justify him he has in the military adventure which assumed; but I understand that it is underof forming the Dutch possessions in Java, taken on a little less exceptionable plea, that

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when he has taken them, into a new establishment, the seat of which is to be Penang, and that he has taken a Mr. Seton with him, intending to appoint him the Governor of it. - I was impeached for quitting the seat of my government to visit one of its dependencies. Had I gone to the distance of Batavia If I mistake not, a greater lawyer, L'd Loughborough, was the projector of one of our greatest military measures in the last war. It is true, he did not himself undertake the conduct of it. It was unnecessary, for it failed without him. In truth' this migration of the Gov. Generals from their stations is the source of infinite confusion, disorder, intrigue and corruption. I

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