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of contributors to our immigration. This migration began in 1881, and by 1906 reached 216,000 for that year. Only 2 per cent of them were Russians and 98 per cent non-Russian. Russia sends us five-sixths of our Jewish immigrants.

The earlier after-war emigrants did their share of pioneering under frontier conditions, learned to depend on themselves, and soon sensed and approved of the ideals of the fathers. Later comers, more largely town populators and with easier going, have been slower to graps them.

We are told that all we learn from history is that we do not learn from history. While this is an extreme statement, there is unfortunately too much truth in it for the world's best interests. History is dry, uninteresting reading to most of us. Deductions are difficult. The underlying causes which lead to social and economic upsets are often obscure and too near the grass for the average person to comprehend. "To the devil's home with tomorrow; let's cash in today," is too often the code of the man of action, whether he be a politician, a banker, a business man, or a farmer. Immediate exploitation is the order du jour, and the "go-getter" the idol of the times.

Prompt decision and "go getting" methods are fundamental, but the end desired should be one which promotes the general welfare of today and at the same time protects as far as possible the needs of those of tomorrow.

Fear is probably the greatest enemy of mankind, and the prime mover in most of the world's deviltry. Uncontrolled, stupid, dont-give-a-damn power uses the "bull whip" to enforce its will. Terrorized groups do not function efficiently or sleep well. The alley cat through inherited fear as well as personal experience trusts no one, and to teach him to have confidence in a small boy and his pup is a difficult undertaking in education. The people of continental Europe, through ages of sad cruel experience with the ways of kings and the habits of soldiers, have had their old fears relighted by their recent trials, and it is small wonder they keep their powder dry.

The fathers were distrustful of class distinction. They had had enough of Lords and Ladies-they were "forninst" any class dominating their doings. They were strong for equal opportunity and did not resent success if it smiled and was decent mannered. They had much work cut out for them, and

they did it willingly and well. Their successors have followed in their footsteps as best they could. The union has been maintained. The country has become far-flung, and the flag gives cheer to one hundred and ten million of fine, earnest, deserving people. From our abundance we have given freely to those who were in want. We have always stood for freedom from oppression, and have been strong for peace even if we had to fight for it.

It will perhaps be on the basis of representative government that the longevity of nations will depend in the future. One can not look searchingly into the history of nations without being impressed with the fact that nations, like individuals, die or, as Draper well puts it, "Nations are but sandhills in in the hour glass of time; they decay and die by the same processes by which they attain their growth." The only new principle that has been evolved in modern times is this theory of representation. Will it prolong the life of nations, and to what extent? Will modern nations live longer than Egypt, the ancient nation that had the longest life of recorded history? Has Yorktown set a new precedent? And are we building a nation that is to make the world record for longevity? These are questions that interest the speculative student, and they are practical questions, for their favorable solution will depend on our processes of building and on the finer adjustment of race to race and nation to nation, now being fused into our American life, and on the proper adjustment to and conservation of our natural resources. The health of an individual today depends on how he lived yesterday, and so it is with nations. Better planning and living today means greater prosperity and greater insurance of good health tomorrow. This applies to the conservation of our soils, our forests, our water power, and our large supplies of metals and coal. To use these materials properly now is to insure longer life as a nation, and better living while we do live.

It was high noon. The month was October, the day the nineteenth, the year 1781. The pines were saluting the sea breeze; flags and pennants were flapping; wild turkeys were running from wood to wood; gulls and stormy petrels were on watch; black birds, red birds, blue birds, were coming in from the north. A Virginia deer was looking from afar, curious, and

wondering what it was all about-so many days and nights of ominous noises, bright flashes, and queer smoke. High above soared an eagle the American eagle; his sharp eyes were observing a strange and interesting drama. He saw many whitewinged boats riding at anchor, colors flying; moving soldiers, some headed by the Stars and Stripes, others following the golden-lily white flag of France, and forming in two lines. Then came troops carrying drooping red standards. They marched between the lines, their band playing a quaint old English tune, "The World Turned Upside Down." He saw General O'Hara, in the absence of Cornwallis, tender his sword to General Lincoln on orders from General Washington, then saw the red-coats ground arms and march back. The eagle flapped his wings and circled to the North.

The day grew older, and dusk approached. The coppercolored storm clouds screening the sun were melting away; the crisp blue evening sky outlined the pines and the autumn-tinged foliage. Fine weather for next day was the prophecy. The ducks were coming in. The "Honk! Honk! Honk." of the leader of a flock of wild geese broke the stillness of the short twilight. The geese too were on the wing. The smoke of burning wood hazed the air. The odor of cooking meat was about. Candle lights flickered from the bivouacs and boats. General Washington stood looking at this scene of autumn time. He saw it, yet he did not see it. He was thinking of the day and of the morrow. He entered his quarters and closed the door. And so ended a perfect day.

During the night hurrying horsemen called out: "Past three o'clock and Cornwallis is taken." The town criers repeated the news. Every one was up and stirring. The following day and night, and for other days and nights, the news was carried on.

"Oh God, it is all over,-' cried King George, and so said Lord North. Many an Englishman understood.

The flags of America and of France were saluted at Yorktown. Yes-and more; Washington and the gallant officers and men of the Continental Army, those hard-hitting redblooded fighters; Rochambeau, LaFayette, and the French rank and file; the silent, suffering mothers; the girls and boys, the

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Molly Pitchers-all were saluted at Yorktown. And so were those wonderful intellects, the statesmen, financiers, and councilors, who worked so well; the Franklins, the Morrises, the Adams'.

To all of those whose memories we refer, to the gone but never forgotten, the heroes of the Revolution! We too salute them!

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Address by OSCAR E. CARLSTROM, Past Commander-in-Chief U. S. S. W. V., at Jacksonville, Illinois, June 14, 1923, at State Encampment of Spanish War Veterans.

The veterans of the Spanish-American War are uniting in an effort to secure an appropriate observance of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Spanish-American War. A general committee headed by Judge Marcus Kavanaugh, 842 County Building, Chicago, Illinois, as chairman, is outlining plans for Illinois, which contemplate especially issuance of proclamation by the Governor of the State and mayors of cities in Illinois calling upon the churches, schools and patriotic and civic organizations in every community to unite in appropriate commemorative exercises on April 26, the anniversary of the formal declaration of war, and such other commemorative days during the year as Dewey Day, May 1, the Battles of El Caney and San Juan Hill July 1, the capitulation of Santiago July 16, the signing of the Protocol of Peace August 16 and the signing of the formal treaty of peace December 18.

The Legislature of Illinois has by law appointed a commission and provided them with a modest appropriation to supervise this State-wide commemorative service, to provide suggested official programs and disseminate such information and literature as will bring about a better understanding of the historic importance of the War with Spain in 1898, The Insurrection of the Philippines and the suppression of the Boxer Uprising in China in 1900 incident thereto, and its profound influence on the character and attitude of the American people and the position and future of the United States among the nations of the world.

Twenty-five years ago the citizenry of these United States were inflamed with a holy passion and determined purpose to strike forever from these Americas the last effort of a tyrannical power to cruelly oppress. Resentment had been growing

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