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asked if he did not think it impolitic to buy meal repeatedly, pouring off the water and slaves now.
drying the sediment. Truly the uses of corn “Oh, not young ones. Old ones might run in the Confederacy are varied. It makes off when the enemy's lines approach ours, but coffee, beer, whisky, starch, cake, bread. with young ones there is no danger.”
The only privations here are the lack of coffee, We had not been many hours in town before tea, salt, matches, and good candles. Mr. W. a position was offered to H. which seemed is now having the dirt-floor of his smoke-house providential. The chief of a certain department dug up and boiling from it the salt that has was in ill-health and wanted a deputy. It dripped into it for years. To-day Mrs. W. secures him from conscription, requires no oath, made tea out of dried blackberry leaves, but and pays a good salary. A mountain seemed no one liked it. The beds, made out of equal lifted off
parts of cotton and corn-shucks, are the most Thursday, Sept. 18. (Thanksgiving Day.) elastic I ever slept in. The servants are dressed - We staid three days at the Washington in gray homespun. Hester, the chambermaid, Hotel; then a friend of H.'s called and told has a gray gown so pretty that I covet one him to come to his house till he could find a like it. Mrs. W. is now arranging dyes for the home. Boarding houses have all been broken thread to be woven into dresses for herself and up, and the army has occupied the few houses the
girls. Sometimes her hands are a curiosity. that were for rent. To-day H. secured a va- The school at the nearest town is broken cant room for two weeks in the only boarding- up and Mrs. W. says the children are growing house.
up heathens. Mr. W. has offered me a liberal Oak Haven, Oct. 3.- To get a house in V. price to give the children lessons in English proved impossible, so we agreed to part for a and French, and I have accepted transiently. time till H. could find one. A friend recom- Oct. 28.— It is a month to-day since I came mended this quiet farm, six miles from here. I only wish H. could share these bene(a station on the Jackson Railroad]. On last fits — the nourishing food, the pure aromatic Saturday H. came with me as far as Jackson air, the sound sleep away from the fevered and put me on the other train for the station. life of Vicksburg. He sends me all the papers
On my way hither a lady, whom I judged he can get hold of, and we both watch careto be a Confederate “blockade runner,” told fully the movements reported lest an army me of the tricks resorted to to get things out should get between us. The days are full of of New Orleans, including this: A very large useful work, and in the lovely afternoons I take doll was emptied of its bran, filled with quinine, long walks with a big dog for company. The and elaborately dressed. When the owner's girls do not care for walking. In the evening trunk was opened, she declared with tears Mr. W. begs me to read aloud all the war that the doll was for a poor crippled girl, and news. He is fond of the “Memphis Appeal," it was passed.
which has moved from town to town so much This farm of Mr. W.'si is kept with about that they call it the “Moving Appeal.” I sit in forty negroes. Mr. W., nearly sixty, is the a low chair by the fire, as we have no other only white man on it. He seems to have been light to read by. Sometimes traveling soldiers wiser in the beginning than most others, and stop here, but that is rare. curtailed his cotton to make room for rye, Oct. 31.— Mr. W. said last night the farmers rice, and corn. There is a large vegetable felt uneasy about the “ Emancipation Proclagarden and orchard; he has bought plenty of mation " to take effect in December. The stock for beef and mutton, and laid in a large slaves have found it out, though it had been supply of sugar. He must also have plenty of carefully kept from them. ammunition, for a man is kept hunting and “ Do yours know it?" I asked. supplies the table with delicious wild turkeys Oh, yes. Finding it to be known elsewhere, and other game. There is abundance of milk I told it to mine with fair warning what to and butter, hives for honey, and no end of expect if they tried to run away. The hounds pigs. Chickens seem to be kept like game in are not far off.” parks, for I never see any, but the hunter The need of clothing for their armies is shoots them, and eggs are plentiful. We have worrying them too. I never saw Mrs. W. so chicken for breakfast, dinner, and supper, fried, excited as on last evening. She said the prostewed, broiled, and in soup, and there is a vost-marshal at the next town had ordered the family of ten. Luckily I never tire of it. They women to knit so many pairs of socks. make starch out of corn-meal by washing the "Just let him try to enforce it and they will
cow-hide him. He 'll get none from me. I'll 1 On this plantation, and in this domestic circle, I take care of my own friends without an order myself afterward sojourned, and from them enlisted in the army. The initials are fictitious, but the descrip
from him.” tion is perfect.-G. W. C.
“ Well,” said Mr. W., "if the South is deVol. XXXVIII.—125.
feated and the slaves set free, the Southern marriage, and she had never heard from him people will all become atheists, for the Bible since. After months of weary searching she justifies slavery and says it shall be perpetual." learned he had been heard of at Jackson, and
“You mean, if the Lord does not agree came full of hope, but found no clue. The sudwith you, you 'll repudiate him.”
den breaking down of her hope was terrible. “Well, we'll feel it 's no use to believe in The conductor placed her in care of a gentleanything."
man going her way and left her sobbing. At At night the large sitting-room makes a the next station the conductor came to ask her striking picture. Mr. W., spare, erect, gray- about her baggage. She raised her head to try headed, patriarchal, sits in his big chair by the and answer. " Don't cry so, you'll find him odorous fire of pine logs and knots roaring up yet.” She gave a start, jumped from her seat the vast fireplace. His driver brings to him with arms flung out and eyes staring. “There the report of the day's picking and a basket he is now!” she cried. Her husband stood of snowy cotton for the spinning. The hunter before her. brings in the game. I sit on the other side to The gentleman beside her yielded his seat, read. The great spinning wheels stand at the and as hand grasped hand a hysterical gurgle other end of the room, and Mrs. W. and her gave place to a look like Heaven's peace. The black satellites, the elderly women their heads low murmur of their talk began, and when I in bright bandanas, are hard at work. Slender looked round at the next station they had and auburn-haired, she steps back and forth bought pies and were eating them together like out of shadow into shine following the thread happy children. with graceful movements. Some card the cot- Midway between Jackson and Vicksburg we ton, some reel it into hanks. Over all the fire- reached the station near where Annie's parents light glances, now touching the golden curls were staying. I looked out, and there stood of little John toddling about, now the brown Annie with a little sister on each side of her, heads of the girls stooping over their books, brightly smiling at us. Max had written to H., now the shadowy figure of little Jule, the girl but we had not seen them since our parting. whose duty it is to supply the fire with rich There was only time for a word and the train pine to keep up the vivid light. If they would flashed away. only let the child sit down! But that is not allowed, and she gets sleepy and stumbles and knocks her head against the wall and then
VICKSBURG. straightens up again. When that happens often it drives me off. Sometimes while I read the (Here follow in the manuscript the writer's bright room fades and a vision rises of figures thrilling experiences in and throughout the siege clad in gray and blue lying pale and stiff on the of Vicksburg, as already printed in this magablood-sprinkled ground.
zine for September, 1885. It is just after the Nov. 15.— Yesterday a letter was handed me fall of Vicksburg that she resumes.) from H. Grant's army was moving, he wrote, Aug. 20.- Sitting in my easy chair to-day, steadily down the Mississippi Central and might looking out upon a grassy slope of the hill cut the road at Jackson. He has a house and will in the rear of this house, I have looked over meet me in Jackson to-morrow.
this journal as if in a dream ; for since the last Nov. 20. (Vicksburg.) — A fair morning date sickness and sorrow have been with me. for my journey back to Vicksburg. On the I feel as if an angry wave had passed over me train was the gentleman who in New Orleans bearing away strength and treasure. For on had told us we should have all the butter we one day there came to me from New Orleans wanted from Texas. On the cars, as elsewhere, the news of Mrs. B.'s death, a friend whom no the question of food alternated with news of tie of blood could have made nearer. The the war.
next day my beautiful boy ended his brief life When we ran into the Jackson station H. of ten days and died in my arms. My own was on the platform, and I gladly learned that illness caused him to perish; the fatal cold in we could go right on. A runaway negro, an the cave was the last straw that broke down old man, ashy colored from fright and exhaus- strength. The colonel's sweet wife has come, tion, with his hands chained, was being dragged and I do not lack now for womanly companalong by a common-looking man. Just as we ionship. She says that with such a pre-natal started out of Jackson the conductor led in a experience perhaps death was the best for him. young woman sobbing in a heart-broken man- I try to think so, and to be glad that H. has
Her grief seemed so overpowering, and not been ill, though I see the effects. This she was so young and helpless, that every one book is exhausted, and I wonder whether there was interested. Her husband went into the will be more adventures by flood and field to army in the opening of the war, just after their cause me to begin another.
TO A DOG'S MEMORY.
When all the reeds ride low with level spear;
Together roam no more!
The world, all grass and air,
Our leafy Auburndale.
Soft showers go laden now
The plume upon the larch.
There is a music fills
Weigh, even in a dream ?
But thou, instead, hast found
Louise Imogen Guiney'.
TOPICS OF THE TIME.
cals. All this work is characterized by thoroughness
and sincerity. He was the first to correct, and acknowl. THE LATE PROFESSOR ALEXANDER JOHNSTON.
edge, as he discovered them, the few errors in fact or WE
E recall to our readers with sorrow their loss and judgment which he made. With such powers it is no
ours in the untimely death on the 20th of July wonder that his reputation had crossed the sea, and that last of Professor Alexander Johnston of Princeton the editors of the great “ Encyclopædia Britannica” College. He had been for a few years past a frequent found him the fittest guide for their public as for and acceptable contributor to this department of The ours in matters of American history. “The Pall Mall CENTURY, and those who have found in his acute dis. Gazette" playfully remarked, in reviewing the“ History cussion of current themes an impulse to deeper inter- of American Politics,” that with such a handbook the est in contemporary history, and a help to the more British editor would thereafter put aside his too wellaccurate knowledge and juster appreciation of the great known habit of blundering over American politics, social and political movements of their fellow-citizens, and in the absence of a similar guide to the story of will find a sad interest in a short account of his work. English parties disport himself in ignorance of his He was born in Brooklyn forty years ago, on the 29th native land. of April, fitted for college in the preparatory schools of It was therefore from the hand of the lawyer, the that city, and graduated with the highest honors from scholar, the author, the professor, that came the terse, Rutgers in the class of 1870. The direction of his incisive, and intelligent criticisms of current politics studies up to that time was exclusively along the old which we were happy to lay so often before our fashioned college course, and he excelled in the classics, readers. Professor Johnston's mind was eminently winning the more important prizes in that department. practical, and his success in the class-room, aside from For the next five years his time was divided between his gracious manner and warm interest in his pupils, teaching and the study of law, and in 1875 he was ad. was, we hear, largely due to the concreteness of his mitted to the bar of New Jersey. Not long afterwards teaching. It was his habit to make concise statements he removed to Norwalk, Connecticut, where he founded of principles and then flood them with a mass of adea classical school, still in existence, and began his lit- quate illustrations from the everyday world which enerary career. His success as an author brought him in thralled his hearers and fixed his instruction in their 1884 a call to the chair of jurisprudence and political mind, showing as it did the immediate value of coreconomy in the College of New Jersey. He carried to rect theory. The same characteristics marked his his new field enthusiasm and ripe scholarship, the editorial work in this department. He had learned in disposition and experience of the teacher, and enjoyed his studies the basis and development of American for the short but illustrious remnant of his life such institutions, and was therefore little affected by modern unbroken success and increasing popularity as only sciolism. He valued above all else the old-fashioned genius and goodness can command.
idea of personal freedom with its corollary of personal The list of his published works is a long one for a initiative and responsibility, emphasized at all times life comparatively so short, and argues not only untiring the essential character of local rights and government, industry but the possession of the literary gift in a and the subservience of political theory to historical inhigh degree. He wrote for Lalor's "Cyclopædia of duction. Add to this the high ethical plane on which Political Science” the articles over his signature on his mind worked, his keen scent for reforms and American political history; the article on American judicial appreciation of their value, and we have such history in the American Supplement to the Philadel- an outline of his character as it is permitted a friendly phia edition of the “Encyclopædia Britannica”; “The co-worker to draw. It seems to us that the moral of Genesis of a New England State,” No. 12 of the Johns his life is to be found in the words at the head of this Hopkins Historical Series; edited the three volumes notice — the value to a sane, practical mind of the study of “ Representative American Orations,” and wrote for of history not merely for the construction of a science the periods into which the selections are divided a of politics, but for the formation of sound opinions about series of comprehensive and charming summaries; daily life and about politics as a discipline and an art. Chapter VII. of Winsor's “ Narrative and Critical His. tory of America,” that on Political Parties, is by him ;
Disasters. the splendid account of our history in Vol. XXIII. of the “Britannica,” itself a volume of perhaps four hundred ONE of the dreadful aspects of such recurring horpages; and several other articles in the same encyclo- rors as the flood at Johnstown and the burning of pædia, notably that on Washington, are also from his Seattle and Spokane Falls, which, with the hurricane pen. His separate and independent publications are of Samoa, will probably be the extraordinary events his well-known “ History of American Politics," a of the year's annals, is the easy facility with which, school “ History of the United States," and the volume after all, the public mind is disposed to deal with them. on “Connecticut" in the American Commonwealths The Pennsylvania misfortune seems to have lacked Series. Much of his most original research, moreover, none of the tints necessary for the darkest of pictures. was printed from time to time in reviews and periodi. The population of a whole mountain region is put into
imminent peril of life and limb; death carries off public opinion may furnish the best stimulus for the about as many as it claimed during any of the great judicial conscience, so that the law's perception may battles of the civil war; and the scenes of pathos or not stand still, or wait for statutory enactment which despair, by day and night, from flood and flame, seem is likely to be weighted with obsolete circumstances. to have made our newspapers a mass of harrowing But there remain other fields, perhaps of less defidetails for the possible instruction of posterity. Apartnite limitation, but of probably greater public imporfrom the loss of life, the fate of the Northwestern cities tance, in which still greater service may be done by a seems to have had its own dramatic elements. The trained public opinion. If it be admitted, as it surely region is one where but a few years ago the poet found must be, that both the avoidable and the unavoidable synonyms for desolation in the long roll of the solitary perils to human life and property are increasing with river, but where the enterprise, industry, and thrift the density of population, that fact should be enough of American men and women have established civili- of itself to establish a rising standard of municipal care zation, have built up new States like magic, and have and forethought. Indeed, the standard should rise endowed them with rich and splendid cities whose faster than population increases, for the dangers innames are still hardly familiar to the rest of the coun- crease more rapidly. Why, for example, should that try. It reads like a mockery of history that the burn- heathen abomination the fire-cracker be tolerated in ing of a single city in this new region should already one of our growing American cities for even a single entail losses such as, fisty years ago, constituted the additional year ? The increase of the danger from this “great fire" of our great commercial city. The popu- source over last year or ten years ago is not merely in lar impulse is the same in either case. The response the ratio of the intervening growth of population, but of the popular heart is as instant as electricity. Money, very much greater. material aid, personal assistance, are hurried to the It is not enough, then, that public opinion should point of need; for some time no one can think or talk rest content with public benevolence, or that it should of anything else; a few lessons from the pulpit or write off its responsibility as the last car-load of supthe press serve to point a moral of one sort or other; plies is shipped to the scene of disaster. Every such and then the débris is removed and the usual struggle recurrent event is a warning to other centers of popufor existence is renewed until, perhaps, it is interrupted lation that it is time for public opinion to push the by another case of the kind.
standard of municipal care yet a little higher. In many And yet there are lessons which should be scored of our cities there are still hordes of men who lay into the popular intelligence by every new case of the hungry claim, as political rewards, to offices for whose kind. One is that we must no longer expect that such duties they are not competent. The disasters of this calamities, if they are to occur, are likely to be small year are a new and louder warning to every such city ones; it is one of the penalties for our growth of pop- to bar out such applicants more strenuously, and to anulation that they are now increasingly likely to be dire nounce more definitely and clearly that it can no longer misfortunes. The great earthquake of 1811 has left take such risks or afford to permit its offices to serve its transient marks in a few swamps and lakes along as political rewards. The question is no longer one of the Mississippi and in some wild stories of the early money, or of taxes, or of the formation of an “officesettlers; but such an event could not occur in the holding class "; it has taken the more fundamental denser population of our times without reviving and shape of the increased, the immeasurable, extent to strengthening our memories of the overthrow of which disasters of every grade may be multiplied beCharleston. We see the ancient track plowed by yond their natural limits, by incapacity or carelessness the meteorite through earth and rock: what if such a in the occupant of even the minor administrative offices visitant should have its billet to some great house and of our modern cities. In this and innumerable reladistinguished audience in one of our modern cities? tions of the kind public opinion may find its most It is but in the nature of things that those natural ca- cheering work in the regeneration of our cities; and lamities which must be reckoned with as non-prevent. by raising the standard of municipal management and able and inevitable should nevertheless find more and municipal civil service it may defeat some disasters almore shining marks as the surface of the country together and reduce and hold down the evils even of swarms more thickly with population, industry, and those which are inevitable. wealth. But this impossibility of obviating the growing peril
A New College for Women. of modern life from inevitable natural calamities only adds a keener point to the growing necessity for care THERE have been three distinctly marked stages in the in guarding against the results of preventable events. higher education of women in America : co-education, In the case of many of these events responsibility is pure and simple, first tested at Oberlin, in 1833; then already fixed and measured by law; but there is still separate colleges for women, in which line Vassar, in danger enough that the judicial conception of this 1865, made the first departure; and last the “annex meas
easure of responsibility will continue to be limited plan, marked by the opening of the Harvard Annex in by the smaller facts of the past, and will not grow, as 1879. In England, on the other hand, the first effort it should, with the growth of the attendant perils. The to give collegiate training to women came from colfool who flings about firebrands and death, and says, leges open exclusively to women (Queen's, 1848), and “ Am I not in sport ? ” becomes a greater and still in 1869 Girton made the first trial of the annex plan. greater offender with the passage of every year and the No important co-educational scheme, as we understand consequent development of more important human co-education, has been tried in England. interests which may fall indirect victims to his folly. The most popular and widely known women's col. The theory of progressive culpability is one in which leges in England are Newnham and Girton, “annexed”