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whole basis for the tradition was in the artistic call in all the art of the Renaissance. But there sacrilege the artist committed in adopting a is still nothing realistic in it in the sense which living type of womanhood as the sacred image I have given to the word in writing of Masacalike of saint and Madonna. That a certain cio. The main motive of the work is decorative; want of ecstatic susceptibility was characteristic ornament is used much as the earlier men used of the Frate is clear, not only from his absolute it; the distinction between frescos and easel dependence for his types on physical presence, pictures is more marked; and we begin to see but in a certain mental heaviness and in indif- the foreshadowing of a form of art which the ference to real ecclesiastical qualifications. He Venetians carried to great perfection. The was of the true modern artistic temperament, color is perfectly pure and bright— qualities which is rarely notably reverential of sacred due to the tempera basis, and only slightly afthings; and the simple fact that he drew a fected by the oil painting in transparent color living woman as the Madonna may have been over it. The blackening, which is the chief to the religious feeling of the day a worse of- vice of oil painting, does not appear till about fense than the abduction of a nun.

the time of Fra Bartolommeo, who in his easel The innovations introduced by Fra Filippo pictures appears to have used oil only as his were not limited to the type. The use of oil vehicle. over his tempera painting is clear, and to this When we go from the Coronation in the is no doubt due an advance in color which Accademia to the frescos at Prato, large in could otherwise have been the result only of a manner and masterly in execution, we can esfacility of retouching and overworking such as timate the technical power of Fra Filippo as he did not possess in tempera. The“ Corona- readily as we can his originality when we comtion of the Virgin" in the Florentine Accademia pare his conceptions of the sacred personages is a masterpiece in this direction, which antici- with those of Masaccio, and can see our way pates many of the finest qualities of the best to place him, as I must, as the first great masmodern French art; and the group at the apex ter of modern art in the sense in which modern of the composition, Christ crowning the Virgin, art is distinguished from that of the schools is as subtle in every way as any work I can re- sprung from the Byzantine.

W. J. Stillman.

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NOTES BY TIMOTHY COLE, ENGRAVER. HE “Madonna Adoring the Child Jesus," by Fra relieved against the evening sky, which is of a neutral,

warm, or greenish tint. Then comes a pile of rocks in his very finest panel pictures. It is painted in tempera which the fissures and coarse texture are minutely on wood, and measures two feet wide by three feet high, painted — too delicately worked to be given adequately exclusive of its beautiful frame of fruit and flowers. in a small engraving. To the left a river winds through

It is a very pretty allusion to the text of Scripture: cultivated fields, losing itself among distant hills dotted " For he shall give his angels charge over thee. with clumps of bushes and trees. Towards the fore. They shall bear thee up in their hands.” (Ps. xci. II, ground is seen a little red-topped cottage, part of which 12.) The Virgin is by an open window and the infant is visible through a portion of the elaborate, transJesus is seated upon the sill, when she becomes aware parent headdress of the Madonna. It is a chapel, of the presence of the ministering spirits. She is in perhaps, as it has a cross on top. The coloring of the an attitude of adoration, looking off somewhat as in a whole is rich, though somewhat faded. Perhaps the revery. The farther angel, who stands on the other darks have grown darker and the lights lighter. The side of the window, has just caught the pious look of robe of the Virgin is a dark green of soft, rich tone, the Virgin as he glances up between the arms of Jesus; the flesh tints are yellowish. The robe of the laughing his mouth is full of the innocence of childhood. The angel is of a fine purplish tinge, tipped aside as it is, other angel, full of childish glee, turns to look at the which brings it more in shade. His white garment in spectator. This face is remarkable for the sweetness the soft light is delicately felt. of its smile. It is most captivating to look close into This illustrates a tender and graceful phase of the it and observe the refinement of its treatment, and the master's work, and was a favorite subject with him ; young, guileless purity of expression. These are real but to see him in his grandeur we must pay a visit to Florentine boys, and I know of two just such, who the Duomo at Prato, a short distance from Florence, might have been the identical models that Filippo Lippi where are his most important works — large, grand used — the difference of time not considered. They frescos, which are among the highest creations of the need only wings clapped to their shoulders to make art of the fifteenth century. (See Morelli, “ Italian real angels.

Masters in German Galleries.”) I regret very much The group is gracefully and naturally disposed and my inability to engrave an example from these picforms a charming composition against the quiet back- tures as well; but circumstances were against it, and, ground, which also is full of interest. To the right in after all, no mere detail could convey any idea of their the distance is a walled city with spires and towers magnificence.

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“THE VIRGIN ADORING THE INFANT CHRIST,” BY FILIPPO LIPPI.

(IN THE UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE.)

Vol. XXXVIII.—113.

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IN
N the twenty-first chap- discovered guiding his flocks of sheep and goats.

ter of Judges a Jewish A long caravan of camels and donkeys laden
city is located with un- with American kerosene may often be seen trail-
usual exactitude —“On ing slowly and demurely along the narrow, zig-
the north side of Bethel, zag mountain paths. It is one of the busiest

on the east side of the neighborhoods in Palestine. The cultivated highway that goeth fields line both sides of the “highway "- only up from Bethel to a narrow bridle-path — until the ruins of the old Shechem, and on the crushed city are made out. What remains of south of Lebonah.” Shiloh is located on a knoll a little higher than The Bible name of its neighbors. As soon as this is reached all the the city is Shiloh. The light seems to go out of the picture, so quickly modern Arab calls it do you climb from the delightful to the deso

Seilûn. It was the late. Some walls of an old castle, quite four feet ZION'S GATE, JERUSALEM.

chief resort of the Is- thick, are standing. Several sturdy buttresses

raelites for a long brace them up, and broken columns, capitals, time before the gates of Jerusalem were opened and here and there a doorway tell how Shiloh to them. There, after the battle of Ai, Joshua was built to bear the brunt of battle; but they had moved the Tabernacle from Gilgal, and also tell what the Almighty “did to it for the made it his headquarters until his death; there wickedness of . . . Israel.” At the southern the division of the land took place; there Eli base of the hill is a low, square building which lived; and there Samuel spent his boyhood and the Bedouins call a mosque. In it the cattle was “established to be a prophet of the Lord.” now gather to escape the fierce rays of the sun

The route from Bethel to Shiloh is exceed- when the shade of the splendid old terebinth ingly rough; but the large olive orchards, which stands close by cannot accommodate all. the rich grain fields, and the millions of flowers The camera has done its best, with such rough which come into view compensate one for material, to secure a representative view of the hard traveling. As the journey proceeds the scenery grows sublime. The mountains rise higher, come more closely to one another and narrow the valleys; then, for a time, they are lower and farther apart, and the widening valleys present a picturesque and busy scene. The brownarmed

peasants are plowing; girls clad in gay attire are pulling tares from the grain, and children, singing merrily, are helping them. Frequently the tinkling of a beíl attracts attention to the pathways which wind around the cliffs, and a tall Bedouin, with a striped aba and a long fowling-piece

swung across his shoulders, is

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AT SHILOH.

SCOPUS FROM THE MOUNT OF OLIVES.

and Ashtaroth. For twenty years after the ark was taken no priest offered sacrifice, and but few were reverent enough to visit it while it rested quietly at Kirjath-jearim. The only ray of sunshine in all this moral and physical darkness was the devout Samuel. It was he who kept alive what little grace there was left. His work was a personal one for a time, for he did not dare at first to call a public assemblage. But when the Philistines found it was an injury to them and to their gods to hold the stolen ark, they concluded to restore it, and did indeed with great pomp send commissioners with to Beth-shemesh. Samuel, with keen insight, understood their fear, and grew more bold. He called the famous assemblage of Mizpeh ; prayed for the people; sacrificed a lamb at the altar “wholly unto the Lord: ... and the Lord heard him." The battle of Mizpeh followed; the Philistines were

defeated, and so subdued that no more trouble 敦 came from their quarter while Samuel lived.

The Bible does not define the location of Mizpeh as exactly as it does that of Shiloh.

Nevertheless it is agreed that the long ridge Shiloh. Part of the walls of the ancient city called Scopus, which continues northward from are in the foreground, while beyond, on the the Mount of Olives, is the spot where Samuel side of a second hill, are the ruins of the build- took the oath of allegiance from the wandering ing to the thick walls of which reference is people, and that not far from there he set up made. The prospect is not a familiar one; and the stone of Ebenezer. yet almost every Christian child on the face of

How marvelous is the view! You can see the earth is told the story of the youth who from the hill of Scopus better than from any became the great prophet of Shiloh. Probably other point how much lower is the hill on which Hophni and Phinehas, the renegade sons of Eli, descended this very pictured hill when, bearing the sacred ark with them, they went forth to the fatal battle of Ebenezer, where they lost their lives and the ark of God was taken. Not very far away " Eli sat upon a seat by the wayside watching: for his heart trembled for the ark of God.” It may have been very near this “ that he fell from off the seat backward by the side of the gate, and his neck brake, and he died.”

Matters did not move on prosperously at Shiloh. Consequently on all sides the opinion grew that some of the neighboring nations were managed better. The Israelites had long been in the grip of the Philistines. Among other sore grievances forced upon them was the necessity of carrying their plowsand other farming implements to the Philistine blacksmiths for repairs; because no Israelite was allowed to swell the bellows and swing the sledge lest he forge spears and armor, to say nothing of making iron chariots such as some of the invaders had. The hearts of the older and more serious Israelites were broken by seeing the masses forsake the God of Egypt, the God of Sinai, the God of the Wilderness of Kadesh, the God of Eli, for the diabolical worship of Baal

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66

THE CAVE OF ADULLAM.

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