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by anything of Fra Angelico's, while in plastic saics for the facade of the duomo of Orvieto, qualities in the modeling of the heads and but they have long been replaced by more flesh- they are far beyond the suggestions of modern work, and even the designs have perany of his contemporaries or predecessors. ished, for I could find no trace of them in the Orcagna, as we have seen, designed the mo- archives of the cathedral.
IV. J. Stillman.
NOTES BY TIMOTHY COLE, ENGRAVER. ORGACHI
RCAGNA’S fresco of the “ Last Judgment," from wall of the same chapel. It measures about twenty
which the detail of the kneeling figure of the Vir- six feet wide by about thirty-three feet high, not gin is taken, is represented above and on the sides of including the frescoed border or frame which runs the window of the Strozzi Chapel in the north transept around it. The top is arched and terminates at the of the Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence. Above ceiling of the chapel. It is disposed into three is seen the Son of Man in glory, half of his figure visi. divisions, running from top to bottom, which are ble above the clouds, that portion surrounded by light filled in the following manner : In the upper por. almond or heart-aureole, from which radiate sharper tion of the central division (which measures seven beams. His head is crowned with the celestial diadem, and a half feet wide) are seated Christ and the Vir. and encircled by a golden nimbus in which appears the gin Mary side by side — the Virgin upon the right figure of the Cross. His aspect is full of majesty and hand of Christ - upon a magnificent throne. They grave almost to sadness, as with his left hand he con- are colossal in size, being about three times larger demns the wicked, turning softly from them with a than the other figures about them. This occupies glance and action befitting the words “ Depart from about fifteen feet down of the middle division. me." His right hand is less consciously extended in Underneath this and down for about ten feet is a blessing towards the good. The fresco thence extends clear space in the center of which are two angels downward on each side of the window, terminating upon the clouds. One is playing upon a viol and the at the dado, and is symmetrical in its distribution, side other is in an attitude of adoration looking up toanswering to side. Issuing from the clouds on each wards the throne. Below this is the company of the side below Christ are his attendant angels sounding redeemed men and women in the dress of the times the trumpet of the dead and exhibiting the emblems from which the detail is taken. The divisions on each of the crucifixion — three on each side. Below these side of this central one are filled from top to bottom are seated the apostles upon the clouds, six on each with the saints and angels of heaven, twelve rows each side in two rows of three each : preceding the group and seven in a row, an angel and a saint alternately, on the left of Christ is John the Baptist, kneeling in but the two lower rows on each side are of female adoration; and in like attitude preceding the group on saints only. Most of them are distinguishable by the the right of Christ is the Virgin,- the subject of the emblems which they bear. In front of the lower row engraving,- her countenance full of veneration and as of the right-hand division an angel is seen leading a though inspired. Underneath these groups, and sepa- woman to join the central group of the redeemed, who rated by the thick bright cloud on which the apostles sit, seem to be about forming into a stately dance. These is shown the “Resurrection,” which occupies the lower figures measure about five and a half feet high. The figportion of the fresco. The condemned represent the ures become larger as they near the top, and approach rich and powerful wicked ones of the earth, and are the colossal forms of Christ and the Virgin. The colormade up of kings and emperors, popes and cardinals, ing is a delightful play of cool gray tones, enlivened here princes and princesses, arch heretics, false prophets, and there with sweet clear bits, the whole delicate and and the like. Among the blessed on the right hand unobtrusive and yet gay in its tints, with shimmerings of Christ are kings and princes, popes and cardinals, of golden halos around the heads of the saints, which martyrs and saints, and the poor of this world, rich in are engraved in rays radiating from the center. A faith, among whom the head of Dante in profile ap- finer wall-decoration could not well be conceived. pears unmistakable, his hands together as in prayer, Wonderful and magnificent as this is, it is not the looking up towards the Virgin. How beautiful is the thing that would appeal to the ordinary tourist, who, action of her hands, and what an unconscious expression unfortunately, has no time to lose, and gets not a of purity there is about her countenance! The peculiar glimmer of its beauty. One must come prepared to adjustment of the veil over the chin and forehead and see it in a calm state of mind and ready to devote at about the neck seems to be a favorite fashion with least two hours to it. The morning light is the best, Orcagna. Fra Angelico sometimes uses the same cos- for then the sun shines upon the opposite wall and tume. The background to the Virgin is a deep blue. reflects a pleasant glow over all. The attitudes of the
figures are graceful; they have a noble bearing and a The detail of the group of women is from Orcagna's quiet dignity, and their faces are sweet and refined, exfresco of “ Paradise," which adorns the entire western pressing in some instances a glow of subdued rapture.
SAMOA: THE ISLES OF THE NAVIGATORS.
IRCUMSTANCES which PC ,
The group is made up of three large islands, were entirely unexpected Savaii, Upolu, and Tutuila, and of five others of compelled us to visit Polynesia inferior size, Manuua, Oloosenga, Ofu, Main the early part of 1886, and nono, Apolima, making a total area of about
the greater portion of that year three thousand square miles, and containing at PSNRENCES
was passed in visiting the vari- the present date not over forty thousand in
ous groups of islands scattered habitants, although at one time it is said to throughout the Pacific.
have been peopled by over fifty thousand souls. Again, in the beginning of 1887, we found The position of these islands has been known ourselves sailing away to the South seas, with since 1722, when the Dutch navigator Roggefair prospects of prolonged sojourn among wein visited the Pacific with his three ps; those remote and interesting islands. It was but his explorations in this particular group our good fortune that much of the time was were of little importance. Nothing was defipassed in the Samoan group.
nitely known of them until the renowned French
The American steamers of the Oceanic line running monthly
TUTUILA 1. between San Francisco, Auckland (New Zealand) and Sydney, Australia, call en route at Honolulu in the Sandwich Islands, situated a little over two thousand miles in a south-westerly direction from navigators Bougainville and La Pérouse visCalifornia. Leaving Honolulu, the steamers ited them, the former in 1768 and the latter in continue in much the same course for a dis- 1787. It was Bougainville who, observing the tance of twenty-two hundred miles before skill of the natives in paddling canoes, aptly reaching the Samoan group of islands, which gave to the group the name of the “Isles of are in the direct line of the steamer's route. the Navigators.”
During La Pérouse's visit to Samoa an un- of Savaii is the beautiful island of Upolu, perhaps fortunate occurrence took place on board the the most important of the group, having an area ship Astrolabe. While some natives were in- of five hundred and sixty square miles, diversispecting the vessel an accidental discharge fied by mountain peaks three thousand feet of firearms caused the death of a native. The high, volcanic caverns of symmetrical shapes, savages were so provoked that a few days plateaus of remarkable fertility, and many after the accident they attacked a boat-load of valleys of exceeding beauty. The volcanic sailors, among whom were the Comte de Langle fires having been extinct perhaps for many and M. de Lamanon, a naturalist who accom- centuries, the three craters on Upolu have been panied the expedition, and massacred almost the curiously changed into lakes of great depth whole crew. On account of this ferocious act the and beauty, unknown except to those bold natives were supposed to be generally cruel and enough and strong enough to climb the rugged warlike, and they were accordingly feared and mountain trails through a trackless growth of avoided until about 1830, when the London tropical foliage. Missionary Society established a mission among The seat of government, Apia, a town of them, and found them to be a gentle and peace- fifteen hundred inhabitants, is situated about able race, with few if any atrocious acts of vio- the bay of the same name, on the northlence such as were characteristic of cannibal- western side of Upolu. Here the various ruling istic Fiji. This mission continues in operation monarchs have from time immemorial lived, up to this time, and has accomplished much ruled, and held their court. The bay is an ingood for the people.
complete semicircle in form, extending from The steamers of the Oceanic line pass Matautu point on the east to Mulunuu, a low through the group but do not stop, merely point of land stretching away to the westward “slowing down” off the western end of the over a distance of two miles. The ever busy island of Tutuila sufficiently to transfer the coral insects have thrown up a barrier reef, exEuropean and American mails to the small cutter which is used for the purpose of transporting to Apia the monthly mail matter.
Savaii, the westernmost and largest of the group, is some forty miles long by twenty in width, and is unmistakably of volcanic origin. It is ridged with lofty, cloud-encircled mountains, which are covered with a mantle of dense rich tropical foliage, giving to them an evenness of outline and a softness which delight the eye of the new-comer.
Ten miles to the eastward
SAMOA: THE ISLES OF THE NAVIGATORS.
In Apia the California redwood cottages of the foreigners built along the thoroughfares, which extend parallel with the outlines of the beach from Matautu to Mulunuu, are surrounded with flowers and tropical plants. One of the old landmarks by which ships steer their course into the harbor is the Catholic mission church, situated near the center of the town, built entirely of coral blocks cut from reefs near by, and inclosed within a wall of the same material. Half a mile distant, on a hill in the rear of the church, stand a college and a chapel belonging to the same Church, in which native men are educated for missionary purposes. The mission also possesses a convent school for the education and training of Samoan girls. Some of the native women renounce the world, take the same vows and assume the same garb as their white sisters, and devote their lives to acts of charity and mercy.
Continuing forty miles to the eastward, we come to Tutuila, a mountainous island nearly a hundred miles in circumference and containing eight thousand inhabitants. The interior of Tutuila is so rugged and the jungle is so dense that it is seldom visited by the natives.
There are comparatively few inland villages, Kenyon Coya after photograph- 1889.
most of the inhabitants living in proximity to the sea. On the south side of Tutuila is the en
trance to the magnificent harbor of Pago-Pago. tending from point to point, which receives and The natural beauty and grandeur of this bay dissipates the hugeswells of the Pacific, whereby are extensively known throughout all Polyunder ordinary conditions of the weather pro- nesia. Being land-locked, and bounded by tection is secured to ships at anchor in the bay. mountains on one side and a perpendicular wall During certain seasons of the year, however, of solid rock fifteen hundred feet in height on when hurricanes prevail, the anchorage be- another, it affords the safest refuge to ships of comes unsafe.
all sizes during the hurricane season. It was conceded to the United States by King Malietoa in the treaty of 1872, for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a coaling station for ships of war, and for a number of years past the United States naval vessels cruising in the South seas have drawn their supply of coal from this place.
Sixty miles to the eastward of Tutuila we find what is generally known as the Manuua group, which comprises Oloosenga, Manuua, and Ofu. These are as much a part of Samoa as are any of the inhabitants still retain many pagan customs other islands mentioned; but it is a curious and superstitions regarding their king, whom fact that the inhabitants of these three islands they do not allow to drink water, to bathe in live apart from the others, have a king of the sea, or to walk from place to place. their own, make laws to suit themselves, take Three miles off the westward end of Upolu no hand in the political differences of the are situated the two small islands of Manono others, and will not submit to any interference and Apolima. The latter is an extinct volcano by them.
projecting out of the sea, one side of which It is from this group that the royal family has tumbled into the water and forms an enof Samoa is supposed to have sprung. The trance into the interior.
FROM THE U.S. COALING STATION.