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EDINBURGH

| A G A ZI N E,
M A G

,

JANUARY-DECEMBER,

18 51.

EDINBURGH:
SUTIIERLAND AND KNOX;
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL AND CO., LONDON; AND JOHN ROBERTSON, DUBLIN.

MDCCCLI.

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PAGE. Adventure at a Buffalo-hunt 623 Isbel's Ground .

604 Alterations in the Poor-law

325
Jack Raven's First Murder .

246 Ariadne, The, or the Bagman Afloat

590
Last from Delphi, The

421 Biographical Book-making 164 Last Stage-coachman, The .

554 Bishops and their Incomes, The 505 Law Reforms of the Session

585 Brooke, Sir James, and the Pirates of the Eastern

Legends of Ulster. By Frances Brown:-
607
The Burning of Belfast Castle

157 Badgets and Bunglers

180
The May-eve's Yarra .

361 Bureaucracy and Military Systems in France and Literature of the Day, 60, 120, 183, 253, 322, 381, 447, Germany

1

514,578, 643, 707, 767

151 Carlisle

, Lord, on Pope. By T. de Quincey, Esq. 229, 311 Little Difficulty in French Literature, A Carlisle, Lord, Pope and Mr. de Quincey 482 Louis Kossuth

692 Cathedral Trusts and their Fulfilment 389 March Gales and the Government

249 Cares of Æolus, a Visit to the 445 Messenger, The .

653, 718 Chamisso and the Shadowless Man

356 Money! All the Gold and Silver in the World 80 Church and College in Scotland 453 Monks and Martyrs

220 Church and School in Scotland. 638 Monsieur Hyacinthe of Geneva

738 370 Mourning and Half-mourning

762 Coal-mines, How to put in Air and put out Fire in 660 Music, Drama, and the Fine Arts

55, 117 Coal-pit , A Peep at a, and the People in it

535

Oliver Cromwell, Speech of, on Opening Parliament 52 County-courts and Bar Etiquette

713
Parliamentary Session of 1851

517 Craigallan Castle 11, 71, 134, 197, 277, 330, 398, 457, 525

143 Curiosities of Cowel's Interpreter

Pearl Divers, The
216
Philosophy of Murder, The .

171 193 Pigs and Pig-worship, An Essay on

315 435 | Places I have Seen. By Peregrine:Dissolving Views of Life

560
Darrynane, Valentia, Cahirciveen

20 Early Rising, An Essay on

494
Hever Castle

106 321 Playbill Reminiscences

760 Ellendeen, The Pools of 432 Pope. By Thomas de Quincey, Esq.

407 Popinjay Vindicated, The

557 170 Fine Arts-- British Institute, The

177

POETRY:-
The Pre-Raphaelites

512
Anacreon. Ode xx.

310
The Royal Academy
377 Anniversary of the German Revolution

237 726 Arthur's Seat. An Apology.

667 Ghost-seer of Tresillion .

Barbarossa

683 677 Clyde, The

23 261 Dean of Badajoz, The

36 Bat of the Future, The .

109
Death and the Doctor

215 Heine, his Works and Times

618, 679
Departure of Summer, The

91
551
Doctors' Commons

307 732 Ermengarde

339 373 Gethsemane; or, the Death of Julia

615 Industrial Investment in Lands and Houses

575
Latona

192

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POETRY:-(Continued)

PAGE.| Reviews :-(Continued)
Lay of the Briefless, A

443
Italia Militans

570
The Finale
502 Lavengro

270
May
292 Pre-Raphaelitism

626
O'Donoughoo and the Devil
168 Queens of Scotland, The

238
Saint Peter's Eve
209 Sir Reginald Mohun.

308
Soul Death
397 Stones of Venice, The

286
The Temples. The Templar's Luncheon
223 Scottish Archäology

92
Thunder and Small Beer .
79 Wordsworth, Memoirs of William

368
Trolls for the Times
10, 105, 163 Scottish Cavalier of the Olden Time

744
Public Companies
63, 452,516, 647, 712 Scottish Universities, Reform of the .

65
Quaker in Harness

Sie Sollen Ich Nicht Haben
85

486
Quakerism, Internal Life of .

245
Siege of Smithfield, The

424
Queen Victoria

Sketches of Irish Society
649

668
Sorrows of Thespis, The

600
Reaction, Its Origin and Limits

674
Recollections of Texas

Tales from the Old Dramatists. No. II.-The

210
Roundheads before Pontefract, The .

Duchess of Malfi

24
39
Temple Laundress, The

559
REVIEWS:

Tenant-right and Farming Leases

129
Carlyle's Life of Sterling

699
Triumph of Despotism

113
Chalmers, Life of Dr.

561
Charles II., Personal History of

353
Vault-house Bell, The

489
Dahomey and the Dahomans
300 What is it all About?

43
Dreamers and Workers
304 Whig Family Compact, The

316
Eastern Travels of the Season

467 Working-man's Way in the World, 146, 224, 293, 345,
Goth and the Hun, The

495

413, 473, 542, 629, 684, 750
Hartley Coleridge.

267

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TAIT'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

JANUARY, 1851.

BUREAUCRACY AND MILITARY SYSTEMS OF FRANCE AND GERMANY." Ix our two previous notices of this work, we con- government, and have more or less political liberty ; fined our attention to the sub-division of landed but they have no more civil liberty, and no more property, and its operation on the economical, sense or feeling of it, than when they had no consocial, and political condition of the European stitutions at all. They live, act, and have their nations among which it prevails. We now pro- being under a system of interference in every ceed to investigate the second of those peculiar man's movements and doings, precisely as in features which distinguish the social structure of Austria, Prussia, and States without any constitu. continental countries from that of Great Britain, tions or political liberty. ... The reality of civil and which we have called bureaucracy: Mr. liberty in the free use of time, industry, and Laing calls it functionarism, which is, perhaps, a capital, and in the free action of the individual, is vetter name. This is a difference which, even unknown to the continental man. It is amusing more than that connected with the partition of the to hear a German or a Frenchman discussing consoil, pervades the daily and domestic life of the stitutional forms of government, universal suffrage, nation, and modifies its whole aspect as presented the qualifications of representatives, the equal to the eye of the passing stranger. In England rights of citizens; and, when he has settled all the civil servants of the Government are few, un- these points to his satisfaction, in a theory which connected, and unobtrusive; on the Continent they proves very clearly that we enjoy no real liberty are innumerable, omnipresent, and constitute a in England, and do not understand its first prinseparate, organised, and powerful class. In Eng- ciples, to ask him to take a jaunt with you to Tours land they confine themselves to absolutely neces- or Marseilles, Cologne or Leipsic. 'Oh,' says he, sary functions ; on the Continent they interfere in 'I must run to the bureau for our passports. I every transaction and event of life. "In England, must get them signed by the proper authorities, as a general rule, a man is only reminded of their countersigned by other proper authorities, viséed existence by the annual visit of the tax-gatherer, by the proper authorities in every town we stop at unless, indeed, he has to appeal to the law, or has on our journey, in order to prevent trouble with rendered himself amenable to it; on the Continent the police; and I must get this done before the scarcely a day passes, scarcely an operation can be bureaux are shut for the day, or we shall have to concluded, without coming into contact or collision wait till to-morrow. To be free and independent with one or other of their number. Many of the in the sense that the common man in England is duties performed by officials on the Continent are free and independent, seems not to be a want in here performed by elected parish or municipal the mind of the continental man, even of fortune functionaries, many are left to individual discre- and education. The English traveller in France tion, many more are not performed at all

. With or Germany, who has gone himself to the Hotel de us a man's free-will is limited only by his neigh-Ville or the passport-office, to have his passport bour's free-will or his neighbour's rights; in viséed and signed, instead of leaving it to his valet France and Austria it can be exercised only sub- de place, and who has seen the crowd of tradesject to Government permission previously obtained. men, country dealers, travelling artisans, and peaRestriction is the exception here, it is the rule sants from the neighbouring villages, who have there. Throughout the Continent a citizen cannot been at the fair, standing for hours to have their engage in business, build a house, or take a journey, papers examined and signed, will return with a without leave; and leave is only obtained through pretty distinct idea of the difference between polian established routine of tedious and annoying tical and civil freedom, between the mind, spirit, formalities. “In France, Switzerland, Belgium, character, and social state of the English, and of the and the constitutional States of Germany,” says Mr. continental people." Laing, “people call themselves free, because they In order to make the operation of this system of enjoy more or less of the forms of representative bureaucratic supervision and interference intelli

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* Observations on the Social and Political State of the European People in 1348 and 1849; being the second series of “ The Notes of a Traveller.” By Samuel Laing. London : Longmans. 1850.

FOL. XVIII-NO. ctv.

B

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