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through the top to let off the smoke, the smooth foot of Vesuvius, the place where the lava first ap- our companions happened to be present the other ness of the walls, and the agreeable light admitted pears, smoke was rising in clouds, which sometimes day, when it was presented and paid, at an English
by the embrasures, are calculated to please the shaded the sun. There we scrambled up a heap banker's. We inquired what was the news from i to of
ness and gloom of the long galleries. Through the flowing a stream of half-fuid matter, in a ditch on the march against the kingdom of Naples, and
, which now proved be the guns discharged from the ships in the bay, have room to follow our traveller through to have been occasioned by two opposite embras- though our guide declared they came from the his whole route. From Rome he went to ures, through which we had seen the sky : for stand-mountain.
Florence, Genoa, and Turin, stopping a ing in a line between them, my eyes ranged over the About thirty yards above this place, was a heap considerable time wherever he found any quarantine anchorage, and soon singled out our of rocks fifty feet high, which marked the spot thing of interest enough to compensate for vessel among a crowd of merchantmen below. On where the lava burst from the ground. Smoke was the Neutral Ground, are the remains of several old passing off hy a hole in the top, while the current the delay. He forgot not that he travelled entrenchments, raised on various occasions; and Howed from its base. Within a short distance, in a land at once cumbered and sanctified though they appeared like works of but little con. there were several other mounds of this descrip- by accumulated ruins, which may be said sequence at that distance, had been important bat- tion, each of which was performing on a small to veil its actual condition with the shadteries. The serjeant was familiar with many points scale the work of a volcano, and was in fact a mim
ows of past greatness; and that around him of local history, and had numerous anecdotes atic Vesuvius. By an accumulation of stones, the command. He pointed out particularly one of the passage gradually becomes clogged, and at length were the most beautiful works of ancient breastworks, which the Spaniarus erecied, to annoy the lava finds a new vent, where it forms a new
or modern art. But no deceptive referthe Windsor Gallery: but it was found impossible channel and a new cone.
ence to the past, appears to have prevented for the guns to carry so high, and the only point Through a hole, we saw the lava just as it issued his forming just views of the present cirwithin their range was an insignificant battery at from the mountain—there it was, fifteen feet be, cumstances and prospects of Italy, nor was the water's edge, under the north end of the rock, low us, in a cauldron it had formed, eddying and he led away by statues, pictures, and palafar on our left. In the mean time, the tremendous almost boiling, like melted iron, shining in its own artillery we had just been reviewing, had pourea infernal light, and possessing an aspect unnaccount-ces, from a close observance of the condidown such a shower of heavy shot, that the posi- ably dreadful, as if it had brought along some of tion, the habits, and the character of the tion was very speedily abandoned.
the horrors of the bottomless pit. Here, we were people. Whoever reads this “ Tour in A flight of steps, cut into the solid stone, brought told, a Frenchman lost his life a few days before. Italy,” may learn from it many things us to the verge of the precipice, on a level with the Whether his death was accidental or intended, we which will help to answer the interesting top of Cornwallis' Hall. It is surmounted by a could not satisfy ourselves. Our guide, the brother conical cap, through the centre of which is the of him who had accompanied the Frenchman, de- inquiry, how far this people are prepared chimney, which lets off the smoke of the guns. As clared he threw himself in : but nobody, I think, for liberty like ours, and what the farther we had become confused by the various objects we could look do - n this chasm and believe it. That course of preparation must be. We will had seen, and the irregular manner in which we he perished here is certain however; and the Nea. quote some remarks relative to this subject had gained this spot; and besides, could see noth- politan saw his remains re-appear below, and float from the journey to Caserta. ing above us but a single mass of rock, we suppos- down the current!" ed ourselves on the suminit: but the guide desired
"This tract of country formed part of the Camus to follow him, and judge for ourselves whether Pompeii and Herculaneum were visited, pania Felix' of the Romans, and to my eyes bears we were yet at the top. We accordingly stepped and all their disinterred memorials of by- no indications of having lost any of that fertility, upon a crag wilich projected near us--though I gone days and nations amply examined. which in ancient times rendered it famous for the confess it was somewhat appalling to observe that
richness and abundance of its productions. It was the cleft between, over which we had to spring, was After seeing every thing in and about Na- in a good degree the luxuries supplied by this soil,
ples on saw the North Pinnacle-a mass of grey rocks, al- Rome ;-being encouraged to pursue bis wealthy Romans under the empire ; and I should most over our heads, and about a thousand feet route by such enticing circumstances as the be slow to believe that the soil alone has degeneratabove us, which, so suddenly discovered, had a following.
ed. In Modern days it has been repeatedly sprinkmost singular effect upon our minds. We seemed
led with volcanic ashes from Mount Vesuvius; but to be shrinking to the size of pigmies, and felt at “ As we were leaving home this morning, we met this should increase its fertility, for the best wine the same time, so strong a disposition to contem
one of our friends going to our lodgings, with an in the neighbourhood is made on the mountain itplate the vast magnitudes around us, tbat, for fear American gentleman just arrived from Rome. He self. No, it is the inhabitants, or rather I should of forgetting ourselves, and falling from the shelf was in the ciress of a diligent and industrious trav: say the government under which they live, that on which we stood, we lay down, and grasped eller, stepped quick, and I thought had a hurried have produced the change. The labourers, apparwith all our might a ringbost
, the only thing we expression in his eye and manner, as if his journey ently living under the full rigor of the feudal and could lay hold on. For a momeni, the crag seemed were not quite finished. We inquired the news. the pontifical systems combined, are crowded toto be shaken, and almost to dance in the air like a
'I parrowly escaped falling into the hands of the gether in little dirty villages, basely ignorant and bird's nest in a high wind, as if separating itselt robbers at Terracina,' said he, in a way that made humiliated, without the power and without the disfrom the precipice.'
us start. They came down from the mountains, position to improve : while the mellow and lusnight before last
, and took off fifteen or twenty cious fruits of their toil are sent to the palace and Thence he sails for Naples, and arrives boys from a school. The schoolmaster and a sol- villa of the indolent and vicious landholder, or the there so as to finish his quarantine before dier were killed in making resistance, and the coun- overflowing treasury of some church or conventthe carnival begins. Of course, our trav- try was in a state of alarm. The courier made the the abodes of sloth and vacuity. * * * * veller climbs up Vesuvius, as in duty bound; heard the news, and they ran all the way to Fondi. strongest marks of a poor and degraded population,
postillion set the horses into a gallop. as soon as he The villages through which we passed bore the and from his story of this adventure, we There is very little pleasure in travelling that road, Some of them must contain five or six thousand extract the following lively account of the I assure you. You hardly see a man in all that people; yet the houses were low and small, and horrors, if not the dangers, which oppose tract of country, who does not look as if he were many of them, I will venture to say, not built since the ascent.
half an assassin.' This intelligence was not very the discovery of America. The windows showed
encouraging, particularly when we recollected that vacant and dirty faces, the doors ill-furnished “The guide now led us towards the foot of Ve- two Englishmen bad lately been taken by this same rooms, and heavy stone walls and floors deeply suvius properly so called, which rises, like an im- band of robbers, and liberated only in considera- worn by the feet and hands of numerous generamense ant heap, about twelve hundred feet high; tion of a large sum of money. They had released tions. Nothing like a new house, nor even an imand all the way we trod on newly-forined lava. one of them with a draft from Lord --, whom proved or a repaired one was to be seen; and I Steams were issuing out on all sides; but at the they detained, for 2000 Napoleons; and one of I made up my mind while passing on, that not one :
the men I saw looked capable of making a chair running up to us with her bair flying. She is not pained at the discord between these lovely or a window-shutter, or even of putting a new but my sister either, but the daughter of my mother-in: sisters, which he is compelled to witness ton on his door.—The streets had once been paved, law: Her name is Maria-sI am Teresa-checked so week after week in the exercises of public but the stones generally lay loose in the dust, and ria! Where have you been to get your cheeks so did more harm than good. Now and then we pass- red? Come here and put on your bonnet. But worship. We do not suppose that every ed the high walls of some forbidden ground, the pre- the bright-eyed little girl refused and resisted,
from one has been sensible of this disagreement; mises of a petty title-bearer, or the garden of some mere excess of spirits ; and though more wild and for it is an evil of so long standing, that it is convent; but every thing was concealed except the roguish
, was quite as good natured as her sister accounted in a manner necessary, and passtops of the nearest trees, and nothing but the own. There, signor
, you see what a trouble she is: she ed by as a matter
of course without notice ers and the birds could conjecture at what they con- won't mind me. She is very bad (cattiva,) do you
But it may well be regretted that tained.
not think so ?-But would not you like to go in and It was an after-thought with me to draw a com- see the church, sir? You will find the chapel of it should be so; for if, instead of uniting parison between these villages and our American San Fabiano, and that of San Sebastiano over his hymns and tunes at random, as is now towns, for there was nothing to make me think of own tomb, Ob, they are very beautiful. You can done, pains were always taken to adapt the it at the time. The houses were as closely built as see the catacombs too, sir, where all the Christians expression and style of the one to the oththose of a city, and the streets as narrow and were buried; and if brother Luigi were only here uncomfortable. There was no neat and tasteful --T'u ring the bell, and then he'll come back, and er, and to regard the sentiment in the permansion which might be the residence of the law tell you a great deal about them. He knows
all formance, it is very certain that the psalyer, the physician, or the clergyman, and there was the chapels, and the statues and the pictures, and mody, which now is so much a mere relaxanot a single brushed coat or tidy gown in the street, where the Christians, used to pray under ground, tion, or a beautiful exhibition, or perhaps a to discountenance the universal poverty and sloven- and bury the martyrs.'
wearisome noise, would become as attract
I was 100 much in haste, and contented myself ive as eloquent speaking, and do as much liness. No one indeed, can cast the most hasty glance with a hasty glance at the interior of the church,
to accomplish the purposes of religious worabout him, without being convinced that the without waiting for the catacombs to be opened, state of society is entirely different from that among concerning which my book confirmed the words of ship.
Mr Willard, in his preface and hymns, ourselves, and so different as to make him doubt my little friend. As I came out she asked me for what sort of change would ultimately prove most
some money, though with a downcast look and an aims at precisely this object; a most combeneficial to the country. The people are ignorant actual blush, which, on account of their rarity; mendable and important one. And if his and poor. Under the present (that is the late) speedily atoned for a specimen of that avarice får state of things, they will always remain so. Over- more common in this country. How can you ask poetical genius were equal to his judgment throw the moral oppression of the priesthood and me for any thing,' said I, when you have nine and taste, we should say that he had made, the political oppression of the lords, and you will large oxen like those, and I have not one, and never not only a most original
, but a most valuamake it possible for them to improve. But
what had any. Please to bear in mind, sigpor," she an: ble book. The hymns are all written by mean time. There must be an interval, and a long men. Please to bear in mind that they are not my ten a hundred and fifty-eight good hymns
, sort of government should be established in the swered, coming nearer with her needle pointed at himself; and as no man ever yet has writone too, between the establishment of a new and oxen. They belong to Giuseppe (Joseph), a gen
our readers of course will not be surprised better system, and the securing of that system by a teman who leaves them with us to be taken care proportionate improvement in the people. It must if
, and pays
. be a government which will not only protect the in Rome. My house (casa mia) is only a little way Many of them are excellent; but as a collives, the property, and the independence of its sub- from here. Will you go and see it? Come, I will lection, we fear they want that richness
, jects, but which will improve their minds and their show it you. Thank you, signor - But if you don't beauty, and melody of composition, which habits. Now in what proportion should be mingled give Maria a baiocch' too, I am afraid she will cry.'
are essential, in this age of poetic refinethe ordinary elements of a supreme power? Maria did indeed begin to look sorrowful
, and was The people will make but
a sorry figure at legisla- just about to cryor, as Teresa expressed it, to ment, to draw a large share of public attion for some time yet to come, if we may judge me herself to weeping-but she could
not dissem- tention. The spirit
of profound piety and from their appearance when at their daily occupa-ble, and broke out in a broad laugh, while Teresa ardent religious feeling which pervade tions; and will the monarchical or the aristocrati- bade me 'addio' with a sweet smile."
them, and their correct language and strong cal branch of the national tree cherish and protect The work appears to have been written expression, will be sufficient recommendathe infant shoot, for the express purpose of allow. hastily and carelessly; the style is unequal tion to devout readers; and we hope will ing it to rise high above and overshadow them and sometimes bad. There are passages of interest them in the design for which they selves? This has not been the inclination usually shown by them in other countries, but it must be so true eloquence, and others where the at- are composed. here, or, for aught I can see, the Neapolitan peo- tempt is too obvious and the success not The main point, as we understand it, ple are likely to gain little by this revolution." very decided. The plates, although mere which our author would secure, is this:
We have hardly room for more extracts, outlines, are not only ornamental but use that in any given hymn the stanzas should but think it due to our author, to show how ful, and it would be well if the fashion of all be formed on the same model, and adapthe writes when upon less sombre subjects. appending such engravings to books of ed to the same tune; so that the modula
** As the old priest had now gone away, the little travels should become prevalent. We have tion of no line in the poetry should contra girl walked slowly towards me, looking by turns at found the want of an index of contents dict that of the
This looks like a the cattle and the stranger, and knitting very se troublesome, and suggest to the author to very reasonable proposition ; and some may dately. "Is this the church of St Lorenzo, little add one when his work comes to a second fancy it like soberly laying down the maxgirl Signor si, (yes sir,) will you go in and see edition,—which we think he has good right im, that if a man have six coats they ought it? Shall I go and call brother Luigi back?" No, I to expect.
all to fit him. It is in fact a parallel propno, I have no time to spare-You have some fine oxen yonder. • Yes, sir, they are very good and
osition; and yet, self-evident as it may be, qything I tell them, although I am a little girl
. Regular Hymns, on a great variety of Evan- it in practice. Nay, so much are we gov. They take care of
it never has been thought absurd to deny There are only nine now; the other has gone away
gelical Subjects and Important Occasions, erned by custom, that we quietly bear to --the companion of that you see on the little bank.
with Musical Directions for all the Va hear fine verses matched to tunes, which I don't believe you ever saw better oxen, sir. Only rieties of Appropriate Expression. By they as ill fit as the armor of Goliath the observe what a good grey colour they have: that Samuel Willard, A. A.S. Minister of the youthful limbs of David. is the best colour for oxen.'-She wore a bonnet made of coarse braided straw, and carried another
First Church in Deerfield. Greenfield,
The system may be better understood by tied to her arm. She had a most amiable little Mass. 1824. 12mo. pp. 132.
our musical readers from one or two examface, and I thought might have been taken for a This work appears to have been designed ples of hymns. The 158th is adapted to New England child, even to the crooked, rusty for the purpose of recommending some im- the tune of Arundel; well known as having knitting-needles she had in her hands. ing, however, was of brown thread ; her knitting- portant principles, which have been too a pause in the middle of the third line, which sneath a hollow stick (perhaps elder), and when little regarded, and by attention to which always interrupts the sense of the verse, she spoke, it was only Italian. 'Is that your first the singing of psalms may be rendered and sometimes divides words asunder. The stocking?
Signor no—1 have knit a whole pair more expressive and affecting. That this is following hymn, though of course it is putbefore this, for you will perceive I can knit almost all day, while the weather is so clear and warm, a most desirable object, must be acknowl- ting a strong case, will do more than a volthough I am sometimes interrupted when the oxen edged by every one having a taste for eith- ume of argument to show the absurd manstray, and very often by my little sister you see there, er poetry or music, who has had his soul ner in which tunes have been frequently
tied to unsuitable verses, and the advanta-| by the writers of songs, and therefore can- | To form their minds rightly, they should ges of the plan proposed. Let any one not be insuperable to the writers of hymns. have descriptions of such things as actually sing it and try; and after singing this, let The profane poet easily accommodates his exist, and not learned discussions, nor abhim apply the same tune to any hymn of measures to the music, even when most stract speculations, nor imperfect rudiments common metre he may select.
irregular and capricious. Witness Moore's of sciences, which cannot yet be learned.
songs for the Irish Melodies, in which he Whoever considers how limited their "] Far from the world we now retire, And raise our eyes to God,
has successfully attempted combinations of knowledge is, will easily believe that they Who in bis love-Smiles from above,
metre before unknown. He would feel are incapable even of increasing it by And cheers our dark abode.
himself disgraced by the plea, that it is many, if not most, of the lessons which
necessary to make some stanzas unsuited compose their books for reading. 2 Author of all the countless worlds,
to the music, in order to render the work The selection of topics in this work, is, The vault of heaven displays, Awed by thy power-Thee we adore,
easy to himself. How much more irration, in general, judicious; the style has but few And chant our evening lays.
al the plea, in one who is writing for the faults, and those are inconsiderable. In
plain and regular melody of church tunes. such descriptions it is impossible to avoid 3 Under those eves, which never close, Besides, that in regard to songs the license the use of many names and terms which We lay us down to sleep;
would be far more excusable, because they cannot be found in a dictionary. The auHearer of prayer—Make us thy care,
are to be sung by single voices; the per- thor generally explains them, but he has And safe our slumbers keep.
former therefore has the power of favour- given the scholar no means for determining 4 Soon as the sun with new-born rays, ing the accent and the sentiment, and, by their proper pronunciation. This diminRelumes the eastern skies,
singing ad libitum, of rendering that con- ishes its value as a school book ; but it will Source of all light-Beam on our sight, formable to the tune which the poet bad still be highly interesting and instructive And bless our waking eyes."
not made so. This is a liberty which a sin- as a book for domestic reading. Let the same experiment be made with gle performer may take, and does take. There is a still more formidable objection the following, designed for the tune of But this cannot be done by a whole choir, to its use in schools. Conversations beBlendon. We are sure that the exact mu- performing a hymn impromptu. They must tween a teacher and a pupil are not suitatual adaptation of music to metre will be adhere rigidly to the notes as they are set, ble for study. Children very soon become felt to give a new beauty to the tune, and however they may thus injure the sense. It unwilling to read simple questions, or readded expression to the verse.
is impossible that they should make up for the marks that are made merely for the sake
want of adaptation, of which the poet has of obtaining replies. It is awkward for one “1 Infinite God-thy glorious nameLet earth and heaven-with joy proclaim;
been guilty. For which reason it is the scholar to read the whole, and if two are Angels and men-Join in the strain, more important that he should be guilty of engaged, they do not converse as equals, Chanting aloud the rapturous theme.
and are not satisfied. After the first peruWe think. Mr Willard has done a great sal of the book, nearly all children will re2 Great is the Lord-whose sovereign sway, good service in calling attention to this gard the questions as tedious; and even at
The sun--and moon-and stars obey ;
subject, and are glad of the opportunity first, most readers who are not absolutely Millions of worlds his power display.
to make known his labours, and, as far infantile, would prefer simple descriptions,
as we can, second his efforts. How far the in which the subjects were regularly an3 Wisdom belongs to him alone,
deep-rooted evil may be made to be felt nounced by sections and chapters. WritTo whom our every thought is known;
and removed, it is difficult to conjecture. ten discourse requires a kind of dignity Holy and just-He is our trust; Mercy forever gilds his throne."
But we are very sure that common psalmo- which is inconsistent with many things that
dy will continue to be infinitely below all are allowed in the freedom and familiarity These examples may prove that one other music in interest and effect, until the of conversation. No one wishes to read great cause of the ill adaptation of tunes, principles laid down in this little book are the common expressions of fondness, which is to be found in the careless manner in understood and acted upon.
pass between a mother and her daughter, which the hymns have been constructed.
nor the full detail of their conversations on Mr Willard's bymns are composed for certain tunes; but most poetry of this sort has Conversations on Common Things; or Guide any subject. But in this work the author been written without any regard to tunes.
to Knowledge ; with Questions. For the whole in its natural style. Still, we have
seems to have taken great pains to give the Poets have forgotten that they were writ
use of Schools. By a Teacher. Boston,
no hesitation in saying, that the book is ing for music; and not only for music, but
1824. 12mo. pp. 263.
valuable in its present form; and we sinfor that of a very peculiar character. Now It is not easy to say of what this little cerely hope that the author will be encourit certainly is absurd, to keep out of view book treats, except by selecting subjects aged to give us another edition on a plan the express object for which the composi- from the Index. There we find nearly better adapted to the use of schools. tion is designed. That object ought, in all three hundred topics, more or less interestreason, to determine the character of the ing, upon which a mother and her daughter composition; the form of expression should converse in a very intelligent and intelli- Evening Entertainments, or Delineations of be accommodated to this, just as much as gible manner. We are gratified with find. the Manners and Customs of Various to the rhyme. Various licenses may be ing an American writer, who duly estimates
Nations. By J. B. Depping. Third given to him who writes what is to be read, the importance of giving to children such
Edition. Philadelphia, 1821. 12mo. pp. which cannot be claimed by him who writes knowledge as will be actually useful to
260. what shall be sung. When he writes for a them, instead of filling their minds with In our review of Worcester's Sketches, we tune, he subjects himself to further restric- vague, and therefore useless notions of sub- took occasion to recommend works of this tions, he agrees to conform to the paces of jects, which are not accommodated to their character, as highly deserving of more atits movements; he puts on, as it were, age. We do not mean to imply that this tention than they receive. We are gratianother chain, and if he cannot walk so point has been hitherto wholly neglected; fied with finding another before the public, gracefully in these additional fetters, let but that our school books are generally which, though less elaborate in its construchim cease to write for singers, and be con- very deficient in facts which children can tion, and less classical, is well adopted to tent to have only readers.
understand, and which are directly adapted its purpose. It embraces that part of the To all that we have heard alleged, or to tell them what they most need to know. information contained in the Sketches, which might be alleged, respecting the re- How much time is spent in teaching them which is peculiarly suited to children; but straints thus imposed, and the difficulties to read mechanically, political, moral, and there are few persons who would not and impossibilities thus created, there is this theological speculations, in poetry or prose, be entertained and instructed by readsufficient reply; that they are submitted to which really give them no knowledge at all. ing it. The style is familiar and intereste 90
LORD BACON AND THE NORTH AMERICAN
ing, the descriptions are comprehensive
the learned had used before, but whicle and just, and the morality is amiable and
had wrought out so little for the benefit correct.
and improvement of man. It sounds strangeIt purports to be an English work; and
ly to our ears, that be was not justified in so it contains the following notice from the
calling it; for it appears to us not only withLondon Monthly Review.
In the last number of the North Ameri- out one single feature in common with that, “ We are told by a Mr Depping, that he proposes can Review there is an article on De Ge- to which its name contrasts it, but as conto unfold all the advantages with which the teach- rando's History of Philosophy, which takes taining more original views with reference ing of Geography is capable of furnishing parents from that work the following, as the lan- to extended and elevated education, than and instructers of youth; and in pursuance of this guage of Aristotle.
all the previous writings on that subject put plan, he has written a series of conversations, in which an intelligent father is supposed to describe “It belongs to experience to furnish the princi- together. to his children every thing remarkable which he ples of every science. Thus astronomy rests on It is not however a new idea that Arishas learned or observed in the course of his travels. ihe observation of the heavenly bodies, by means totle had anticipated the Chancellor, in The dialogues therefore impart so much general of which we discover the laws that regulate their setting forth the method and the uses of
But if the knowledge and amusing information, that we think motions: and so of other branches.
Induction. We have seen this repeatedly the author has not only established his proposition, light of perception fails us, all science fails with stated before; but Mr Stewart, in his last but has produced a very entertaining and valuable it. We derive our conclusions either from inducbook for children."
tion or demonstration. By induction we ascend volume on the Mind, has refuted it so fully, We fully concur in this commendation, and by these, in time, we are able to demonstrate ; the subject, that we are a little surprised
from particular perceptions to general principles, without saying half he might have said on and should think the work deserving of so that all our knowledge rests ultimately upon the
to see it again,- and from such a quarter. more critical attention, were it an Ameri- same basis.”
It is indeed matter of surprise to us, whence can production, or one very recently pub- On which the reviewer makes these re- such an opinion could have arisen at first, lished in our own country. marks.
and how it can hold ground for a moment
" It is curious to see how little the speculations with those, who know any thing about the Mental Improvement ; or the Beauties and of subsequent inquirers, up to the present day, have writings of the two great masters before Wonders of Nature and Art. In a proceeded beyond the positions here taken. In the
Bacon's Induction forins the whole Series of Instructive Conversations.-extracts from Aristotle we find the Baconian theoBy Priscilla Wakefield. 8vo. Philadel- ry of induction, as clearly stated, as it could have body of his work. It is with him a science been by the illustrious Chancellor himself, and we
and a system. This single purpose is al. phia.
can hardly justify him in calling this method a new ways before him throughout;-and we This is still another work, somewhat resem-one, Novum Organum, in opposition to the Organon, know no work among all the elementabling that above described. It has passed or method of Aristotle, which was the name given ry aids of education out of mathematics, through many editions in England and in this by the Stagyrite to his work on logic."
and hardly excepting these, where the country; and we are justified in introduc- The article containing this, is in the leading object is pursued and taught so ing it to the attention of our readers, only main excellent—very able and amusing,— directly and exclusively, in such admiraby the fact, that books of this sort are too and reputed to be-as it evidently is—from ble order, and with so great a variety of little read, and are really scarce, when the pen of one of our finest and most for- principles entirely new, and of thoughts compared with the worthless stories which tunate scholars. But the above remarks and designs entirely original,—to say nothhelp children to waste their time. A work of his may lead his readers into two or three ing now of the bold yet unassuming style of of this kind, if estimated by the number mistakes,—and, unless we greatly deceive its execution,-as this most important art of and variety of useful and interestiug facts ourselves, they contain one error in par- finding out infallibly the great general laws which it communicates, is worth many ticular, which is of no small consequence of nature is, in the Novum Organum of Bathousands of the common nursery books of to the History of Philosophy,--the noble con. But, in running over all the pages of equal cost. When we speak of it as interest- theme on which he is writing. For this Aristotle, we have fallen on only one chaping, we mean that most children above ten reason we wish to make a few comments ter,—which may be comprised in a score of years of age, would receive pleasure enough upon them. If it can ever be our business lines like these,-on the subject of Inducfrom reading it, to lay aside any story or to take notice of errors, it is when they tion, and the perusal of this is enough for us. romance, till this was completed. We cheats are found in so good company as they are He turns Induction into a syllogism of course; our children most barbarously, by multiply- here.
and his object here is to explain its form, ing before them nonsense, clothed in an en- We think it a great mistake to accuse and show how it differs from other sy lloticing dress. There can be no excuse for Bacon of assuming too much in the title of gisms, and that it is much less conclusive this. We but little promote their present his work; for considered as a whole—and than these, though it may appear more plain intellectual pleasure, and add nothing to the word organum plainly implies and di- and familiar to us at first. We had this done their stock of such knowledge as will ulti-rects this the most superficial observer into English for the satisfaction of our readmately be useful. It is altogether a matter must see at a glance its entirely new char- ers, but its technical phraseology would be of deception, except so far as regards the acter. If Aristotle has indeed taught us unintelligible without too much explana. external appearance. Let children have the art of reasoning,-Bacon has taught us tion, and we must therefore keep it back. books of the character indicated by the an infinitely more useful art,—that of col. There is really not a single principle, nor above title, sufficiently well printed and lecting the materials for reasoning. If the even a trace of Bacon in it beyond its bound, and we shall hear no demand for former has put together a profound philoso- name. It is true he borrowed this, and so the idle tales, that are "made to sell." phy of language, and traced out its various he did many other of bis terms, from the
We expressed in a previous number our applications, -as an instrument of thought School logic;—but, as Mr Stewart has opinion of the writings of Mrs Wakefield. and study as well as of communication, and shown, he gave them very different meanThe style of the work before us is not equal the etymology of its common title, logic, ings,—and he frequently declares and exto “ Instinct Displayed,” but it has no great may perhaps indicate this,Bacon, on the plains this himself. Thus, for example, he faults; and in every other respect, the other hand, pointed to the philosophy of often used the word “ Forms”-subtle things work is excellent. The printing and pa-things,-and made man “the interpreter indeed in a Schoolman's mind,- for “the per of this edition are disgraceful. We re- of nature,”and taught him analyze laws of nature," and what is more to our peat, that all works of this kind should be and digest into a code that great body purpose, he says expressly of Induction, executed in a handsome style; and that pa- of her laws, which, since his time, it has that “it must be presented and studied rents need then never believe that their been the business of the practical scholar under a new shape," and that “we have children will prefer the gossiping fooleries to administer and apply. He called his its name alone, but its power and use with which they are now so liberally sup- work a “ New Engine, in opposition to have as yet been totally unnoticed.” It is 1.
that intricate machine of words, which no small confirmation of these remarks
that the learned enthusiast, Dr Gillies, who to the workshop of the artificer,--and tachment he may have for her, by taking has analyzed and translated the best part when we observe how, essential an arti- from his brow one single well-deserved of Aristotle's works, and who seems dispos-cle the regulation of these makes in Ba- plume, and telling him it is borrowed. He ed to find in them the seeds of every great con's system, it is almost sufficient of itself, will certainly go to his work with less spirit modern discovery, has hinted, at no such we should think, to give his the character when he is informed that the ancients, resemblance between his Organon and the of being quite original.
whose industry he can never hope to rival, Novum Organum of Bacon, though he frets If Aristotle had indeed“ as clearly stat- and whose systems have perished, yet knew and is very indignant at the Chancellor for ed the Theory of Induction" as is said, it their true basis as well as we do,-ihan pot treating the Stagyrite with candour. would have been more fully developed long when he sees ours resting on one entirely
Nor is a single doubt raised in our minds before it was. His authority must have new, and which cannot in fact sink till the by the extract from De Gerando. We made it popular at once. He had more whole order of things is reversed and the have been unable to obtain his History, and sway in the republic of letters, if it could laws of nature themselves repealed ;-and know not what he himself thinks on this be called so under his reign, than his royal this is really the case with all those raised subject, nor whether he offers any more in pupil had in Macedon. Never, indeed, did on the plan of Bacon. Science will adsupport of his reviewer's remarks. He may mere man rise to the rank of making his vance just in proportion to the dignity it have taken some insulated passages from opinions so emphatically law, peremptory feels, and the security it enjoys. Ir the Aristotle, and mingled his own inferences and conclusive, as did the preceptor of comparison degrade it not, it is like proper with them, as we are very apt to do when we Alexander. If then he taught the right ty, which, under good and wholesome laws, represent the opinions of another, and thus method so clearly, why did not his follow- where the possession of it is rendered safe made him express ideas, that he never imag- ers adopt it? and why were not its effects and honorable, will be sure to go on and ined nor dreamed of himself. If the above on science visible? Why did not natural indefinitely increase. But how fatally othextract, however, is all, it is absolutely philosophy and the useful arts then spring erwise is it, where the case is reversed ? nothing; and, taking it for an exact trans- up and flourish? and now, while they date This is the first principle in the wealth of lation, it casts not the slightest shade upon their birth comparatively a few years since, nations, and so it is too in that of science. our argument.* It refers at best to that they might have run back their genealogy There is one other minor error in the “ simple enumeration” which Bacon calls for ages, and brought us down an inherit- reviewer's remarks, which we had almost
“puerile and precarious,” or that “mere ance rich indeed. Happy would it have forgotten to notice. The title Organon was | naked observation,” which he says is “ like been for man, if it had been so. The accu- not given, as he supposed it was, by the Stag
groping by night.” That experience is the mulated capital of science would now have yrite himself, to the writings that bear that safest guide ;—that the scholar ought to been immense. Instead of groping about name, nor can we perhaps call it simply study nature ;—that all our general conclu in the dark on the stilts of syllogism for cen- “ his work on logic." It is written and resions arise from summing up particular in- turies, among essences and powers and forms corded in the books of the critics, that this stances, are very good old maxims to be and visionary, unfathomable things alto- is made up of several distinct, independent sure,--probably familiar and trite enough gether, producing of course no good fruits treatises, that they never could have been long before the days of Aristotle,--but no- to be known by, but, on the contrary as Ba- the work of a single hand,--that there is body ever thought of finding in them the con says, only the thorns and thistles of some evidence of their having come down scientific Induction of Bacon, nor the first wrangling and controversy” (disputationum to us from an antiquity far beyond the origin and cause of our stable systems of et contentionum carduos et spinas), it would days of Aristotle, and that if he were philosophy. Ancient philosophy was in- have been at work for man,-ameliorating really their author, he had probably no deed, for the most part, merely contempla- his condition and elevating his mind,- | intention of ever uniting them. His editive. Aristotle knew nothing of the mod- furnishing him then with the most divine of tors did this, and they, and not their ern mode of interrogating nature by ex- all human employments, and leaving us now mighty master, gave them the imposing tiperiments. His rank and station, the feel- the full benefit of his example as well as of tle of Organon. The best edition of his ings of the age, and the elevation of his his labours. We may be assured the Stagy- works, however, has dropt it,- and they own mind, raised him above them, as rite never saw or never pointed out this tru- now appear again in their original form. the historian tells us, and confined them ly “royal road” to learning, or it would The fortunes and fate of this volume have
have appeared more distinctly either in his been most singular, even within the period After the printer had this article, we found in writings or in its effects.
of true bistory, and indeed within the memSay's Introduction to his " Political Economny” the We have dwelt the longer on this point ory of man. There is none, which has so following strictures upon those critics of a day, because another opinion has been given opposed to each other the opinions and who accuse Smith of Plagiarism in bis great work on the “ Wealth of Nations.'
by several very popular writers, and be feelings of the learned. None has held · Que signifient de telles pretentions ?-un cause we think it a question of some so high a rank among the books of educahomme de génie a des obligations à tout ce, qui l'a consequence in the history of philosophy. tion;-none, once admitted, has sunk so entouré,-aux notions éparses qu'il a recueillies - We ought to know that we have found a low. There was a time when the human aux erreurs, qu' il a détruites, aux ennemis mêmes
, new way, and are not not simply swifter mind was not thought rational in its proper qui l'ont attaqué, parce que tout contribue à former ses idées ;--mais lorsque ensuite il se rend propres racers than our forefathers were in an old sense, till its rational powers had been ses conceptions, qu'elles sont vastes, qu'elles sont one,--that our sciences rest on a better drilled in the tactics of the schools. Now utiles à ses contemporains, à la posterité, --il faut foundation than theirs did, and not that we we every day give them the epithets of jarsavoir convenir de ce, qu'on lui doit
, et non lui re- are a little more enterprising in clearing gon,-subtilties,-imposing show of words, procher ce, qu' il doit aux autres.
“ Wher: Siith is read,” says the same author, “ as he ought trious Chancellor,” who is rightly so called place in that great course of intellectual
and rearing on theirs ;-and that the “illus- -and scarcely allow them the meanest to be read, every body must see that political economy did not exist before bis publication." in every sense, originally marked the discipline, which they formerly led and di
Smith stand so high as an original writer in ground, and sketched out slightly the mag- rected. And the wonder is,-not in the the estimation of unquestionably the first judge now nificent proportions. This we thought change of sentiment itself; the light of disbefore the public on that subject, how far beyond the just pride of the moderns, and decided covery will always produce enough of this; the possibility of the reproach we repel, ought the in their favour, on one important point at but no new discovery seemed necessary to same reflections to place Bacon? It is a hard case, if an author is to be stripped of his reputation, be least, the great question of superiority be- produce it in the instance before us. The cause a few in advance of him have dropped some tween them and the ancients. Nordo we look merits and defects of the Organon, such as loose, scattered hints upon a theme, which he has upon this coolly as a mere matter of histo- they are, are intrinsic,--and men of sense enlarged into a science, and made the engine of ry. The pride of the modern scholar is a were as capable of judging of them a thousthe a blest discoveries and the most useful practical results. Under such conditions, we feel safe in sort of national pride. He is the citizen of a and years ago as they are to day. We saying, that we know of no one, who can put in a
new republic, and it is wrong to check are not willing to confess that we know claim for the merit of originality.
the feelings of enthusiasm and patriotic at- enough of it, to pass any opinion on these