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derstand this. This precious argument is a merely of asperity and contempt, but of very And in subsequent periods, and even until lately, very favourable specimen of his logic. If vulgar rudeness; expressions the very re- the preachers had some dregs of this turbulent

spirit. They quaked, they shuddered, and heaved he can prove that a particular doctrine was verse of polite and courteous, and such as held by a bad man, -omne tulit punctum we had hoped that all disputants on reli- up words from the fund of the soul;' but still

they kept on their feet. And in our times in Phil the doctrine is false, We are willing to gious topics in the present day would care- adelphia, there have been specimens of violent believe that the Reverend Mr Brownlee fully avoid.

We shall show, unless the shruggings of the shoulders, and brachial twitches does not perceive, that by adopting this subject grows under our hands out of all and prodigious wry faces, and thumpings on the mode of reasoning, he might prove the allowable limits, that he has endeavoured pews. These, however, are not so much the effects Christian religion false in its fundamental to calumniate the society in every possi- mind in travail, when it has nothing to bring forth.“

of the Delphic Spirit, as the unnatural efforts of a doctrine-the existence of God; it is said, ble way; by charging upon them the we do assure him, that “the devils believe acts, many times abundantly foolish, of

From page 96 to 101, is exclusively ocand tremble ;" of course, all that they be their predecessors, which are no way con

cupied by ridicule of the dress of the Qualieve, is, by Mr Brownlee, held to form no nected with their doctrines, which the man

kers. Upon this subject he is extremely

smart. We had marked a sentence on part of religious truth.

ners of their age go far to excuse or to Having traced the progress of the afore- palliate, and for which the Quakers of the page 97, which we should extract, but that said doctrines down to the time of Crom- present day are just so far answerable as

it is too grossly indecent to be repeated. well, he commences his history of the Qua- William Craig Brownlee is answerable for We are unwilling to disgust our readers kers, in which he rakes up with most meri- the murder of Archbishop Sharpe; by with the vulgarity with which the “ reve

rend” controversialist illustrates his relitorious industry, every old calumny against detailing the mad acts of James Naylor, the early members of that sect, both as 10 John Tolderoy, John Perrot, and others, gious inquiries. That this facetious minis

ter of doctrine and conduct; intermingling dis- for which very acts, as Brownlee well

gospel may have no doubt as to cussions of their principles, which it would knows, those men were expelled from the the sentence to which we refer, we will have been more methodical to have reserv- society; by asserting that the doctrines of tell him it is that which begins tbus ; “ But ed for the second part of his work; and the Quakers lead to certainevil consequen- the small clothes, I cannot find that it is a

as to the make of the last article, I mean concluding with a section in which he ces, which are contradicted not by the charges the Society with divers self-contra- Quakers alone, and not only by all sound sine qua non, that it should exactly resemdictions in their doctrines, and its members, reasoning, but by the plain testimony of ble the mode of that on the fine statue of generally, with living more luxuriously facts before the world; by depreciating and Penn, in the hospital yard of Philadelphia. than he thinks George Fox would approve, damning with faint praise those acts of the

This has got,” &c. were he to rise from the dead. The second Quakers, which even he dares not deny to the Quakers are more avaricious than other

In page 125, the unfounded assertion that part consists of divers “ Dissertations on be laudable; and, though last, not least, by their doctrinal tenets, their worship, min-wilful misrepresentations of facts and doc- men, is set forth in terms of rare courtesy.

Thus, istry, &c.,” in which he asserts among oth-trines. er things, that “their general principles So much for assertion ;-let us now pro

* In the United States, they are, it is presumed, are hostile to the practice of brotherly ceed to our proofs. And first, for the au

on the increase. Remote from the projects of amlove and charity." The work concludes thor's politeness

. In page 68, he very de- for his bloody laurels, and the political convulsions

bitious statesmen, and the struggles of the warrior with two appendixes; the former of which corously applies the language of Butler to of nations, the society has held its way, and followconsists of notes too long to be inserted in Fox, saying, he

ed its own concerns in pursuit of riches, with a the margin, and the latter is a brief notice

“ Had lights where other eyes were blind, step as steady as time, and an appetite as keen as of some of the more eminent writers and As pigs are said to see the wind."

death." ministers among the Quakers.

He quotes the same writer again (consid- He ends the first part of his book with This outline of the contents of this book, ering him, we suppose, excellent helpin a re- the following sentence and note. we thought a proper preliminary to enter-ligious inquiry) in page 72, saying general- "As the steady followers of Fox, the Society ing on a more detailed examination. We ly of the founders of the society, that they makes plainness a distinguished article of their reare not competent to the task, even if we

" Denounced and prayed with deep devotion;

ligion ; yet such is the richness of their dresses, were inclined to it, of attempting to defend

Stole from the mystics all their tones,

the splendour of their equipages, the luxury of the Quakers against the charges, true or And gifted mortified groans ;

their tables, the delicacy and profusion of their false, which this minister of the gospel has Made children with their tones to run fort,

wines,* that, if the same George Fox were to rise here arrayed against them; and neither As bad as bloody bones and Lunford.!"

from the dead, and behold the mournful degeneracy

of his disciples, he would come down in great our readers, nor the Quakers themselves, In pages 93 and 94, occur the following wrath; he would resume his Herculean labours, would thank us for the attempt, were we to courteous and polite paragraphs.

and he would fight all his battles over again, in ormake it. It is our duty, however, to expose “ The convulsions of Apollo lasted, with various ganizing a new sect out of degenerated Quakerism. and reprobate the rancorous spirit by which fame, during the glory of the Delphic Oracle. At * Plumpudding week-(all the world has heard the book was evidently dictated. We call last, that spirit left his shrine. The Quakings of of plumpudding week) affords a fair specimen of our work a Literary Gazette, and consider the Syrian priests, also ceased. So, these · noly this to their country prophets and members. ourselves bound to give notice to all class- 1650, went on briskly till 1660. These ancient tremblings, which commenced about the year

In page 178 occurs the following passage. es of readers, as far as we can, what mat- tremblings were completely outdone by them. We sing before and after sermon only; but ter is provided for them. Now, we suppose Those of the priestess could bear no comparison. their preachers, male and female, monopolizing Mr B. will admit that his great book was Here were the spasms of the delicate female. But the whole, sing both prayers and sermons! and written for somebody to read, and whoever in the Society, not only little children, and women, still their great tenet is not surrendered. For ver

but robust men, were thrown into hideous contor-lily their notes are not according to the carnal this somebody is, if he chances to be a sub- tions. In the former case, a solitary person tilled rules,” &c. &c. scriber of ours, we will do our best to let the temple of the idol with groans and shrieks. In him know what sort of stuff this bulky oc- the latter, prostrate hundreds covered the place as and very argumentative sentence.

In page 187, is the following dignified tavo is made of. in a day of slaughter. And if any credit can be

"Christ'gave the title and true right to those First, and as of the least moment, we shall given to an author (whom in point of candour, we think, Mr B. wonderfully resembles), who was

who turned to the pure light within.' George Fox, show what the author understands by that [says he was) an eye witneus of what he relates, so

Cordwainer, and his coadjutors were the royal “politeness and courtesy which should pre- great was the combat tween the good seed and heirs; they received the whole right and title in side over religious debates.” Did we not the bad seed,' and so hideous were the groans and

fee sidple." have his word for the contrary, we yellings, that in a field adjacent to the meeting, the Seeing that our author's love of truth so should almost think some of his expressions herds of catile, and swine, and dogs, ran about as if far overcame his diffidence, as to permit him against the doctrines he impugns, and mad; and each joining in the potes which nature has given them, they swelled the chorus into some

to make proper mention of his modesty, his rainst the supporters of those doctrines, thing superhuman. Totus autem simul bacchatus candour, and his courtesy, we regret that living as well as the dead, savoured not . est mons.

he was induced to withhold a confession af

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his gallantry;-of his regard for that sex, they founded, or to which they belonged, note, stands thus. It is asserted by Neal, it a regard for whom distinguishes not only are anti-christian? No; he cannot think so; is denied by the Quakers; it is given up as civilized from barbarous nations and ages, and these passages are but the overboil- false by the writer in the Christian Obserbut civilized individuals from savages. We ings of envy, or some other evil passion, ver, and it is believed by Mr Brownlee. gire an extract from the 199th page of this from the mind of their writer. We may Had such an event occurred (and it is not very religious and high-minded work, as a well apply a text from that volume represented as being done in a corner), sample of very many passages.

which the reverend Mr Brownlee will do would it have rested on the sole authority "It is certain no female preacherever yet need well to study when he can find leisure to of Neal? Neal quotes no authority, but ed to make the solemn invocation of worthy and lay aside his Hudibras,-Out of the abund- makes the statement simply. It ought also learned Zachary Boyd, in his printed but unpub- ance of the heart the mouth speaketh. We to be remarked, that Mosheim quotes only Fished version of Job.

have said that Mr Brownlee speaks of the Neal as his authority for this story. Now, * There was a man, and his name was Job, doctrines of the Society with asperity and admitting all these stories to be true, and And he dwelt in the land of Uz;

contempt. As we have already occupied many we think false, we still contend that And he had a good gift of the gab

much space in proving that he speaks un- that they argue nothing against the soundMay the like befal us !'”

courteously of the Society itself, and its in-ness of the doctrines professed by the sober In page 27 of his Appendix No. 2, he dividual members, we shall cite but a single part, the body of the Society; certainly thus notices Elias Hicks, who is a distin

passage to show how he speaks of the doc- they do not tend to prove that they hold guished Quaker preacher, residing, as we trines, and of the sincerity of those who anti-christian principles

. There never was are informed, on Long Island, N. York. hold to them.

a sect, nor a society, of any note, some in“But honest Elias is no philosopher, no chemist,

dividuals of which did not act more or less' (which, of course, unfits him for a teacher of chris- “ There is not a man of reflection in the Society, tianity), no theologian ; and men of his venerable who would not laugh

in his sleeve at the simpleton

' foolishly or wickedly. The apostle Peter

who would believe without evidence, and with the wished to impose unwarrantable restrictions years, are, every where, privileged characters!

deistical Pope who chuckled over the easy belief of upon the Gentiles, and received a sharp re'O dégos Péquexo aúens, rad i ponudozíce his Catholic subjects, would exclaim, * A fine fab, buke from the apostle Paul ; but Peter was γήρατος. rication this which has proved so lucrative to us.'".

a Christian, however he mistook this point. Speaking is the solace of grief, -and garrulity

We have said that he has charged upon Our author adds, that these extravagances that of old age.'

the Quakers, the acts, many times foolish, grew out of their principles. This we We think that the above quoted passa- of their predecessors. Take for example, deny. The same causes produce the same ges (and we have by no means copied all and there are many such passages, the fol- effects. The Quakers of the present day, that we had marked for quotation) fully lowing paragraphs and notes from pages assert that they hold to the same principles, prove the character and extent of our au- 94 and 95.

now, that their ancestors professed, yet Thor's politeness and courtesy. They prove more, -for we must leave the language of zeal of their prophets carried them into extrava- signs. Our author doubtless professes to

" During the first period, and also the second, the they do not now practice going about as irony for that of serious indignation,--they gancies of another kind. To give a brilliandy to believe what his ancestors believed, among prove that he is instigated by malignant their denunciations, and to rouse the public atten. whom was one, at least, who justified the motives; for he could not but perceive that tion, they taught by signs. Some of them went murder of Archbishop 'Sharpe ; and what all these things might be true, and yet that into churches, during service, clothed in sack-cloth, those of our ancestors believed, who exethe Quakers might be as much Christians and their hair sprinkled with ashes. * * *

Ann Wright, having in the same garb made her cuted their law which pronounced Quaas himself or his brethren. They therefore debut into St. Patrick's in Dublin, entered on a pil- kerism a capital crime. Nevertheless, we do not help bis argument, and since they grimage to London, and went in these weeds think, that neither he nor we, should now do not, are merely proofs, that he wished through the chief streets, as a sign of approaching think ourselves justified in murdering a civil to overturn the Quakers , if not by force of judgments. But to crown the whole, these propli magistrate on the highway, however oppres

in public in a Durargument, at least by ridicule. Even bere ing the Commonwealth, and in the reign of Charles sive he may have been; and that neither of he fails; for the passages we have quoted, II., several individuals of the Society went in na- us would vote any heresy a crime deserving are directed, not against the doctrines of ked processions through the streets of London. A death at the hands of mortal and fallible the sect, but the manners of some individ- female came, in a state of perfect nudity, into men. The truth is, that all the founders of uals. What though some of the Quakers Whitehall Chapel, before the protector. The most

new sects have been somewhat enthusiasdid, and still do, use a singing tone when distinguished of these Lupercalian heroes, were they preach or pray? what though their peared naked in the fair; and held on his lectures the wild acts of the Cameronians in Scot

Eccles and Simpson. In London, the former ap- tic,-some more, and some less so; and false, or real sense of sin affect them and denunciations against folly, till the loud whips land, and the Puritans here, and the Quawith nervous tremours ? what though they of the coachmen made him seek safety in flight. kers in England, resulted not so much from find or imagine that a peculiar garb fur- At another time be threw a Catholic chapel in Ire their principles, as from the fervour of their nishes occasion for a greater watchfulness land, into a scene of confusion. In the midst of against sin, over themselves and their as- upwards, with a chafing dish on his head, contain and they were modified according to the

mass, this Lupercus entered naked from the waist zeal against what they considered error; sociates? what though some of their mem-ing coals and burning brimstone; he cried with a feelings of the individuals and the manners bers, in Philadelphia or elsewhere, live loud voice, Wo, wo, to the idol and its worship- of their times. Those times are happily more luxuriously than is becoming Chris- pers! His third feat was performed in a church gone by, and we are sorry to see our autians? (We shall presently, examine the in London. During divine service he came in correctness of Mr Brownlee's sweeping de- nith, he denounced the woes of heaven on the wors of the feelings of his predecessors, and

stark naked; and raising his arms besmeared with thor partake so much as he evidently does, nunciation in this respect.) What though shippers. Simpson continued his naked proces- make such an approximation to their illibone of their elders, in a dream, did sing a sions from time to time during the space of three eral conduct. Still, he is not altogether song which he had learned in his youth? years."

like them; the manners of the present age what though George Fox were a Cordwain- For this valuable fact, he cites Neal's forbid it; and though it is said, that Luther er, and some of his coadjutors, for aught we History of the Puritans, vol. IV. p. 175, in the heat of argument one day boxed know, fishermen? what though their female Bost. edit., Mosheim, vol. V. cent. 17, and Melancthon's ears, and though we suppose preachers make long sermons, and Elias adds,

that our author believes that Luther was, Hicks be no chemist? Does our author seri

“ Sewel has omitted this fact for obvious rea.

notwithstanding, a sincere Christian, and ously suppose that this torrent of invective

I cannot, with the Christian Observer, vol. no heretic; yet we should not be deterred --for though he aims at ridicule, he talls short XIII., p. 101, give this up. It is stated by Neal, from a personal argument with William into abuse-against the habits of some of who was conversant with the men of that period, Craig Brownlee upon any point, by a fear the individuals of which a religious society and though stated publicly by him, it was never lest it should end in fisticuffs. is composed, will help him to persuade his questioned till lately, so far as I can discover."

As to what is said of the miserable fanatreaders that the tenets of the sect which Now, the story that is alluded to in this I icism of Naylor and others, we think that




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it might all have been spared; because, ac- general, without any qualification, leads to of the Quaker who drowned a highway, cording to Mr Brownlee's own showing, endless follies.” As to this charge against man, Mr Brownlee cites no authority whatthe Quakers disowned them and their prin- Quakers, our readers may judge as well as ever, and a good deal would be necessary ciples; and, of course, are no more charge- we, whether their Quaker friends are re- to verify it. We have a better anecdote, able with their acts and opinions, than the markably apt to act foolishly or “ under which we do believe. Robert Barclay was Church of Rome is chargeable with the acts deception."

assaulted by a highwayman with a pistol; and opinions of Luther and Calvin, or of We come now to our last and heaviest he took gently hold on the man's arm, sayFenelon and Madame Guyon. Some of the charge, that of wilful misrepresentations of ing, “How canst thou be so rude ?” and tắe men whom our author mentions, went out facts and doctrines. This, too, we expect ruffian dropped his weapon. In page 117, from the Quakers and founded new sects ; fully and easily to prove. And, first, for the we are told that the jumping Quakers, who and some submitted, and were received misrepresentations of facts. Our readers exist near Albany and in the state of Ohio, again on giving proofs of penitence. will have remarked that Mr Brownlee seceded from the Quakers in the days of

Mr Brownlee says, that he cannot find charges generally against all the Society of Penn, under their leader, Case. Now this that Tolderoy was expelled, or even sus Quakers, “splendor of equipages, richness is, to say the least, incorrect. The sect to pended; but it is obvious that one or the of dresses, luxury of the table, and the which our author alludes had its origin more other was done by the Society, because Mr use of a delicacy and profusion of wines ;" recently, we believe in the latter part of Brownlee admits that he made acknowledge- now, we do assure them, that it has been the last century; and though some of its ments of his errors; and an inspection of our lot occasionally to be entertained at early members may have been Quakers, the Quaker discipline, as expounded by the tables of Quakers, not only here in yet those who were so, had been previously Clarkson, would have shown him, and did New England, but in Philadelphia and its expelled from the society; and the Quashow him, unless he grossly neglected his neighbourhood ; and we can speak of our kers have less concern in the formation of duty as an inquirer into Quakerism, that own knowldge, that this charge, as it ap- that sect than the Puritans had with that for the Society to call a member to account plies to any who have fallen under our ob- of the Fifth-monarchy-men. There are for any impropriety, ipso facto, operates as servation, is utterly false. There may be, other passages the correctness of which we a suspension.

there doubtless are, some individuals of the doubt; but we have not the means of ascerAs therefore Mr Brownlee must have Society, who live more luxuriously than be- taining their truth or false hood. known that the Quakers, as a body, disap- comes their profession, but they are indeed We have already drawn out this review proved of the opinions and conduct of these few; and Mr Brownlee must know it into greater length than we at first intendmen, we cannot but think it unfair in him Here is our assertion against Mr Brown. ed, and shall confine ourselves to showing to cast these things as a slur upon all the lee's, and this is all we can bring, by rea- but one misrepresentation of a doctrine. early Quakers. The passages here allud- son that the case does not admit of deposi- Mr Brownlee charges the Quakers someed to are in pages 87, 88, and Appendix tions being taken and used. He asserts times with Deism, sometimes with SabelNo. 2, page 16.

that the Quakers did not at first condemn lianism, and sometimes with Socinianism; We have said that Mr Brownlee has at- war, but, on the contrary, did advocate it and he says that there is a want of consisttempted to calumniate the Quakers by as- How this may be, we do not know; but we ency in the writings of the Quakers, and serting that their doctrines lead to evil do know, that when he asserts that William that he mentions this particularly to guard consequences, which cannot reasonably be Penn recommended to the legislature of his against an array of quotations from different expected to spring from them, and which colony of Pennsylvania that they should parts of their works, as from the London facts contradict. We had marked many raise a sum for carrying on war, in obedi- Epistles, which contain much orthodoxy in passages as worthy of notice in this point ence to the king's letter, that he asserts their modern form. Well might be guard of view, but feel that Mr Brownlee has what is directly contradicted by Clarkson as he could against quotations, when he has already occupied more than a due propor- in his Life of Penn; and that he takes no accused the Quakers of changing their extion of our columns. We will only notice notice of Clarkson's account of this matter. pressions in order to accommodate themtwo assertions. The first is on page 290 ; According to Clarkson, whose authority selves to prevailing doctrines, all the while “ The first grand tenet of the sect has a ten- we suppose to be indisputable, William meaning that the words should convey a dency to lead men into the wildering mazes Penn communicated the letter to the legis- different meaning to the initiated; and of of Deism.” To this we can only reply, lature, and refused, though called on, to give railing against Socinianism, while they that we have known many Quakers and them his opinion on the subject; and the leg- themselves are Socianian. Probably the very known much of them, but have never islature, being Quakers, did not raise the last thing we shall do, will be to enter into heard a charge of Deism uttered or insinu- money, alleging their scruples of conscience an argument to prove whether the Trinitari. ated against any one of them, and that we for refusing so to do. He asserts, in page ans or the Unitarians are more correct in venture to say this is the first time our read-111, that the Pennsylvanian Quakers rais- their opinions on this much disputed subject; ers have ever heard it. We may recur to ed an armed band, to retake a sloop from but we mean to show that William Craig this subject presently. On page 288, he certain pirates ; and did in fact recapture Brownlee has, on this subject, quoted just such sees fit to say that “The (not even their] her; and he says sneeringly, that “ the passages, and no others, and in such a way, doctrine of supernatural influences carried historians of the society wriggle and twist as he thought would injure the Quakers in out in its legitimate tendency, lays their under the difficult digestion of this morsel the estimation of those who agree with him minds open to endless follies and decep- of their history ;” and refuses to believe on this point. He quotes largely from Penn tion.” Now we suppose Mr Brownlee, be- their declaration that no arms were used, and from Pennington to show that they ing, as aforesaid, a minister of the gospel, because of its improbability. Clarkson's were Socinians. We have not, and could sometimes preaches to his people respect- account of the story is, that some unruly not procure, their writings at full length or ing the being and the attributes of God. persons seized a sloop, and the magistrates in the early editions ; but Mr Brownlee has We should be glad to know whether he issued warrants to apprehend them, which suppressed two very important passages, charges them to believe that God is not a was accomplished, and the circumstance one of which is in Clarkson's Life of Penn, supernatural being, or, that he is wholly in- was magnified by George Keith into a mak- and the other in that copy of Pennington's different towards his creatures, and never ing of war upon the offenders. Mr Brown- works which we for this purpose have progives them the help of his influence. The lee refers also to a story in Sewel's History, cured; passages too, the orthodoxy of which manner and the degree in which this influ- of the recapture of a ship by a Quaker we believe the most rigid of Mr Brownlee's ence is exerted, is, we well know, a subject from the Turks. According to Sewel him- own sect will not dispute, and with which, of controversy among Christians. But we self, not only was no violence practised on we doubt not, every sentence which he has never before heard a gospel minister in this occasion, but the Quaker even landed quoted may be reconciled, if taken with the fact

. utterly deny it, by asserting that “ The his prisoners on the coast of their own context, from which, for his own purpose, he doctrine of supernatural influence,” in the country. As to the story, told in page 108, has disjoined them. The words of Penn,

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p. 100.

to which we allude, are, “ In my confession wants of the poor, their deportment towards the God-daring, Christ-blaspheming, Spirit-disat the close I said, that we believed in Christ, Indian tribes, their labours in behalf of bleeding piting generation of the prodigiously proboth as he was the man Jesus, and God over aught from the laurels which have long and jusuy kers,” have in the mean timne established for

Africa, call forth our applause. I will not detract fane and arrogant sect of Runagad Quaall blessed forever.” Clarkson's Life of Penn, adorned the brows of some of their leaders. I re

The words of Pennington are, vere the memory of Governor Barclay, as a man of themselves an honorable and well-earned “There are two or three things in my heart letters, prudence, and integrity. The name of name, while he and his book have been forto open unto you, how it is with me in re- Penn associates in my mind the ideas of wisdom gotten. We do not know what Brown's adference to them; for indeed I have not and sound policy, built on strict national jus- mirer, Mr Brownlee, may perform hereaf

," been taught to deny any testimony which

ter; but we do believe that his present the Scriptures hold forth concerning the

In his Appendix No. 2, page 25, Mr work will not produce a different result, Lord Jesus, or any of his appearances, but Brownlee thus notices an able champion in nor meet with a better fate than that of his am taught by the Lord more fully to own behalf of the oppressed Africans.

predecessor. and acknowledge them. The first is con- “ A. Benezet. A Short Account of the Quakers, cerning the Godhead, which we own as the and their Settlement in America. The most reScriptures express it and as we have exper- markable thing about this book is, that it has seen A Practical Treatise upon the Authority imental knowledge of it; in which there a second edition. It has no claims to the title it

and Duty of Justices of the Peace in has assumed. It contains the meagre gleanings of are three that bear record in heaven, the a man amiable it is true, but superficially acquaint

Criminal Prosecutions. By Daniel DaFather, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, and ed with his subject

. The most striking of his fan

vis, Solicitor General of Massachusetts. these three are one. This I believe from farades are those about liberty, and about war. Boston, 1824. 8vo. pp. 687. my heart, and have infallible demonstra- Like other Quaker authors, he very unfortunately The design of this work is excellent, and tions of; for I know three and feel three in does not touch the question."

its execution no way inferior to the design. Spirit, even an eternal Father, Son, and Now can it be possible that Mr Brownlee The principal object of the author is to Holy Spirit, which are but one eternal can live in Philadelphia, where Anthony furnish a complete guide to justices of the God. Now consider seriously if a man Benezet spent his days in unremitted exer- peace in criminal prosecutions. It confrom his heart believe thus concerning the tions for the good of mankind, and be igno- tains in the first part, ample directions in eternal power and Godhead, that the Fath- rant of the fact that Anthony Benezet, if these proceedings in every stage of the er is God, the Word God, and the Holy not the first, was one of the first men who process. They are principally selected Spirit God, and that these three are one raised their voices against the slave-trade; from common law authorities; much of eternal God, waiting so to know God, and or knowing this, be willing to speak of him them, however, is original, and founded upto be subject to Him accordingly, is not with studied ridicule? The fact is on re- on the present practice, as settled in the this man in a right frame of heart towards cord; unhappily we could not procure a Supreme Judicial Court of this state. The the Lord in this respect?” Epistle to all copy of a biography of him published a few directions relative to taking bail, and reSerious Professors of the Christian Religion. years ago; but we state from memory, that turning the process into court, and the tax

We might cite much more to the same when the subject of the slave-trade was ation of cost, are full and accurate, and will effect, and from other Quaker writers, brought before the general meeting of the probably be the most useful part of the work. ancient as well as modern, which we Quakers, Anthony Benezet appeared in the The incorrectness, want of information, and have met with on this subject, as well as most conspicuous place with his counte- of punctuality in the justices of the peace, in on the Atonement (which our author also nance bathed in tears, and exclaimed, this respect, have occasioned serious inconaccuses them of denying or allegorizing.) Æthiopia will soon stretch forth her hands veniences and sacrifices to the government. But our object is neither to prove that the unto God.” He said no more, but the effect This part of the work must be regarded by Quakers hold the same doctrines as Mr was electric. This too our author may call a the profession as supplying a want they Brownlee, nor that the doctrines which fanfarade about liberty; but from that time have doubtless often experienced. they do hold are true, but only that he has forth have the Quakers, as a body, with their The second part appears to have been misrepresented them.

accustomed steadfastness, through evil re-extended considerably beyond the original We had almost forgotten that we had port and through good report, been earnest purpose of the author, but we cannot recharged Mr Brownlee with faintly praising in the cause of the abolition of the slave-gret this, as there is almost nothing in it the acts of the Society of Quakers, even trade, and the emancipation of slaves. which can be regarded as superfluous or use. where he could not deny that they were We have done with our charges against less. There are two hundred and thirty prelaudable. We cite the following passages this writer. We think we have fully proved cedents of complaints-drawn with the same and notes to show with what reluctance he that the book is written in a spirit, which accuracy, and in the same form with indicttestifies on this occasion.

will materially weaken the force of its ments. The book, therefore, contains a great “What they have done, they will do alone ; and reasonings,-if any such things there be- number of precedents for the common offenthat little which has been done in this way (that is, with all candid minds. With his arguments ces, occurring in our courts, which, by changas a body) by them, has been confined to some at- we have little to do; we have found mis- ing the captions and conclusions, may form tempts at the civilization of some Indian tribes, and statements of facts and doctrines, and some a useful collection of indictments, perhaps the meliorating of the condition of the Africans.*

of his premises being false, we can have no as good as any extant, for the use of a The extent of their infuence in putting down confidence in his conclusions, on those New England lawyer. The definitions and that most execrable traffic in human beings, the points. We have not had the means of as- preliminary remarks, are taken from the African slave-trade, we cannot strictly. define. certaining the correctness or incorrectness best authorities, and from our own decisions, They gloriously roused up the public mind toa of many of his assertions, but that some of and contain as much of this kind of matter sense of the evil; and then acted nobly and firmly in concert with the statesmen and christian public them are incorrect throws a doubt over the as will be useful or necessary for a justice of the United States and Britain. Palmam qui rest. The Quakers, according to their of the peace. It is, in fact, an abridgment, meruit, ferat."

usual practice, will probably reply to Mr giving the outline of the law relative to We must quote a little more. After speak- Brownlee in set form; that is their busi- crimes and offences. ing of this people, as we have shown, Mr ness-not ours; and we have omitted to We think it our duty to remark, that Brownlee finds himself compelled to ad- comment on many passages which we had the price of the book is one quarter less mit what follows; and yet sends this work marked as objectionable, lest we should than the ordinary price of law books to the printers without expunging the pas

have even the appearance of assuming the containing the same amount of matter, sages we have quoted. defence of that Society.

and we believe the proportion which the “ Their kind and amiable manners have secured

John Brown of Wamphey published his superfluous matter bears to that which them a right to the title of Friends; their females book, entitled “Quakerism the Pathway to is useful, quite as small, to say no more, as are distinguished for their prudence, their morlesty, Paganism,” nearly one hundred and fifty in most law books of this size. The prinand elegance of manners; their attention to the years ago ; but those, whom he calls “ This cipal part of the work, indeed, we may say



pp. 468.

the whole of it, except a few cases decided that peculiar blessing which he and his perseverance, and manual skill and labour, in Massachusetts, being taken from the brethren have. He may also learn, on the are all stimulated by the noble impulses books of the common law, of universal au- one hand, how powerful is the resisting which prompt them to mutual destruction. thority, the work may be useful in all parts force, which in Europe opposes the spread Our first extract will describe some of the of the United States. The forms and pre- and dominion of political truth, and how most celebrated galleries. cedents taken from the New York courts, laborious and long the conflict must be ere add, perhaps, less to the value of the book, the victory can be won ;-and, on the other, rock, and near the north end of it, stands a Moorthan any other part of it.

he may find good reason to hope that the ish castle of uncertain antiquity. It occupies the We understand that Mr Davis was in- cause of justice and of truth must inevita- brow of a perpendicular ledge, containing the exduced to undertake the work, principally bly prevail; that it is perpetually gaining cavated galleries, for which Gibraltar is so famous. by the circumstance, that he had been all the strength which can be derived from We set out this morning, under the guidance of a troubled for many years in his official duties, advancing intelligence, greater unity of de- serjeant, to visit these galleries ; and after a tedious

walk through several streets, on the steep side of by the want of knowledge and of punctu- sign and action, and a rapid increase in the the rock, we found ourselves just below the castle

, ality in justices of the peace, and most of number of its friends, while its enemies, in and at the gate of an old wall stretching down from all, in those justices who belong to the pro- spite of partial successes, are exhausting it. The gate was very low, and of plain and solid fession, and undertake to do this kind of their resources and discovering their weak- architecture; and the walls, which are Moorish, business. We think he may well hope, in ness ;-that while each wave may be re

are formed of rough stones, and large, thin bricks, future, to be relieved from this embarrass- pelled, and the rooted rocks rejoice as the in alternate layers, cemented with mortar. A sub

terranean passage led us under the wall of the gar. ment, for the excuse of unavoidable ig- angry waters are broken into foam and fall rison, and a few steps brought us to the beginning norance is certainly taken away.

down their motionless faces, yet the tide is of the modem works: a dark passage bored through rolling onward ;-ocean is upheaving its the rocks, for a distance of one hundred and fifty

feet. might, and vain must be the endeavour to A little way beyond, is the entrance to AxJournal of a Tour in Italy, in the Year fix upon its power or its progress a chain Whys Gallery era powerful battery, capable of 1821. With a Description of Gibraltar.

playing upon an an height, or a limit. Accompanied with several Engravings.

through embrasures or port holes cut in the face of

He may not only do much good, as an the high, rocky precipice. The passage to the By an American. New York. 1824. 8vo. American among Europeans, teaching al- guns is a gallery, blasted with powder, three hun.

most of necessity, knowledge more or less dred feet long, and large enough for the passing of OF our scanty native literature, the records important respecting our national existence a wagon; imperfectly lighted by the embrasures ; of foreign or domestic travel occupy a large and condition, but may impress upon him- |(mounted, according to custom, on iron carriages),

and where nothing is to be seen, but heavy cannon proportion, nor are we disposed to lament self, and afterwards upon his countrymen, bolted magazines, and piles of shot. This passage This circumstance. It is certainly well that juster views and a deeper sense of the ac- terminates at a shaft like a well, down which we those of our brethren who are able to in- | tual relation which exists between us and went, in total darkness, by a winding staircase, dulge themselves in the pleasures and ad- Europe ;-of the importance of our ex.

where our footsteps echoed like guns, above and

below. Cornwallis' Hall, into which these steps vantages of visiting distant climes, should ample, and the national responsibility which led us, is a room about forty feet across, supplied go to seek from those ancient nations that grows out of our national prosperity. with a magazine, and three pieces of cannon. are now in their maturity, if not in their de- This good work, the book now under no- Going up the dark staircase again, and walking cline, much valuable knowledge, which the tice has done, or at least may do to a very through a level passage, more than a hundred feet many peculiar circumstances of our compar- considerable degree; although the author in length, we came to the brow of the precipice, atively novel policy and institutions refuse may be surprised at our

thinking his journal which may be a hundred and fifty feet high, and

whence a breastwork and several forty-two pounders to impart. We do not only mean, that it is capable of so much usefulness. He seems to overlook the bay, and at a great distance below, desirable to cultivate the taste by a study have intended little more than to make an the Moorish castle; while the peaks of the mountains of those works which art and labour have amusing work, which should give to those who above, seemed yet as distant as ever. There are created for the enjoyment of refined luxury could not travel in Italy, a correct though also two or three mortars mounted here, of the diat the bidding of boundless wealth; or to very general idea of that country; and he ameter of thirteen inches. There is one in the improve and animate the sense of beauty, has certainly offered to the public' a book garrison, half an inch, or an inch larger; and that,

a soldier told us, was taken from the Spanish, and by looking upon the most beautiful ob- which all will find entertaining. But he was the largest ever made. jects, which the utmost efforts of human has done something more; he enjoyed very Our guide now led us up still further; and at skill, combined with the efforts of nature, peculiar opportunities for acquiring much length, passing between broken rocks, some of have been able to produce. This is a interesting information, and availed him- which jutted out overhead, and made a roof for the valuable advantage, but the least of those self of them fully. He was in Italy

, when edge of a precipice, five or six hundred feet high

path, we suddenly found ourselves on the very which an American should derive from the Austrians were advancing upon Naples; and leaning upon a slight railing, looked down upon foreign travel. The spirit of republican- he journeyed from that kingdom through the Neutral Ground, which stretched out in a sandy ism is paramount at his home, and not the principal cities of Italy, to Piedmont, as plain, on the left to the bay, and on the right to the only so, but, perhaps without his conscious- the invading army was marching south, Mediterranean; while in front, it was bounded by ness, in his heart, and perpetually exerts a and arrived at Turin just as the revolution bills and mountains, in the neighbouring parts of

Spain. powerful influence upon most of his thoughts in that country broke out. He travelled By a dark hole just at hand, we entered the or emotions. It may be well, therefore, in the public conveyances, and stopped at Windsor Gallery, which is formed on the same that he should leave this republic awhile, farm-houses and the common inns, and was plan as Wyllys'. It is, however, at a greater and go to the kingdoms of the earth, and see thus brought into close contact with many of height— quite out of the reach of an enemy's artilthat spirit, which is the governing and ani- that class who are of necessity the most nu-lery, and about tive hundred feet in length. The mating principle here, meeting with little merous in the body politic, and who are apt larity of the rocky surface, through which their em

guns too, are larger, and on account of the irregucheck or bindrance, either from ancient de to say what they think or feel with little dis- brasures are cut, the gallery is sometimes quite dark, lusion or from popular ignorance or passion, guise or reserve; and his free and frequent and so irregular, that it is difficult to proceed. We

- there, subdued, at least apparently subdued conversations are very pleasantly related. next reached the most admirable part of these and almost crushed ; in some corners strug- Our author sailed from New York on the magnificent works-St George's Hall. Externally, gling to come forth and act, in others coun- 19th of October, 1820, and arrived at Gib- side of the precipice, which the Rock of Gibraltar

it has the appearance of a round tower, against the teracted and well nigh extinguished, not raltar on the 29th of November. The for- presents towards the Neutral Ground. This is only by external force, but by those rooted tifications of this celebrated Rock are very partly the effect of art : but the skill of the engiprejudices and that universal and exces- strikingly described. We do not recollect neer has been chiefly devoted to forming a beautisive ignorance, which mingle with pure and to have met with so full an account of these lul circular apartment within, about forty feet in powerful principles, elements of opposition, works ;—which prove, perhaps, more than diameter, and vaulted overhead. The floor is per

fectly smooth, and the walls are pierced for six weakness, and decay. He


thus learn any other works of art, how much men sixty-four pounders. The care taken to keep every | value aright and watch with jealousy I may accomplish, when their ingenuity and thing in perfect order, together with the shaft cut


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