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FOREIGN NOTICES OF AMERICAN LITERATURE.
Night. A Poem
Part of the xixth Psalm
The Blind Man's Lament
The Old Man's Funeral
365 Temperature of the Carribbean Sea at the depth of 6000 feet 14
The Summer Wind
To a Cloud
To S- Weeping
Translations from the Greek Anthology
Suffolk Words and Phrases
Translation of the Arabian Night's Entertainments 31
Published on the first and fifteenth day of every month, by Cummings, Hilliard, & Co. No. 1 Cornhill, Boston.---Terms, $5 per annum, payable in July. 4 Vol. I. BOSTON, APRIL 1, 1824.
No. 1. two PROSPECTUS.
occasionally inserted. In freely admitting of every month. Each number will con
prose or poetry of a miscellaneous charac- tain 16 quarto pages-one or two of which jave determined to publish a new ter, we shall not depart from our leading may be used for advertisements and will Prival work, and as many are now principle of making the Gazette a national be printed on paper of superior quality. per Esen in this country, and many more work, because, we may thus assist the de- It will be sent to distant subscribers on the
. the possesid attempted and abandoned, we velopment and cultivation of domestic tal- day of publication, by the mail of that day, D. Rector lavour to state at some length, ent, and the articles we publish will give or in any other way they shall prescribe.
Femalses in commencing another. some indication of the strength and charac- Terms-$5 per annum, payable in six By the aui perfectly aware how difficult it ter of the intellectual power already exist. months from its commencement. SubscripA Treo overcome the indifference, works ing and exerted amongst us.
tions received at our Bookstore, No. 1 CornIn two we propose, encounter at their We shall not aim at giving a value to our hill. CUMMINGS, HILLIARD, & Co. of Linc We do, however, expect success, Gazette by profound researches into science Boston, Feb. 1824. By Dani we are confident of our ability to and philosophy, or by lengthened and intrichusetts Literary Gazette, which shall be cate speculations. Our numbers shall not The editor of this paper is perfectly sen
Pic!useful to the reading public of this be filled with literary gossip; neither shall sible of his inability to sustain alone the Massaj, and to all who are interested in they be composed of articles which are not burthen of such a work as, it is hoped, this
A rs relative to literature, either in the to be understood and appreciated but with will become. But his extensive and very Esf business or amusement. We have a degree of labor almost equal to that re- satisfactory arrangements with gentlemen
seen and felt the want of such a work ; quired for their composition, and cannot be who stand high among the scholars and ti hope to supply an existing demand ; to enjoyed without a singularity of taste and writers of our country, encourage him to fer to a large portion of this community, mental habits. We shall endeavour to avoid believe, that the Literary Gazette, he is a gratification suited to their tastes and not with equal care both these extremes, and about to conduct, will be a valuable addinow provided for them.
we now offer our first number to the public, tion to our periodical literature. We shall endeavour to give to the United that by it they may judge of our plan, and No existing journal, at least none in this States Literary Gazette, a strictly national of the means we have provided for its exe-country, actually performs the uses of a character. If we do not fail in executing cution. We however ask, what in common General Review; and it will be a leading our intentions, it will communicate a dis- equity must be granted, that the difficulties principle in the conduct of the Gazette, to tinct and accurate impression of the literary of making a beginning should be duly con- maintain this character. It is obviously and intellectual condition and progress of this sidered. Many gentlemen have engaged impossible that any individual should critcountry. A large proportion of our pages to contribute to our pages, and in justice to icise justly books of every sort; the editor will be filled with reviews of works publish- them it is proper for us to say, that among certainly would not think of undertaking a ed here, either of domestic or foreign ori- them are minds as highly gifted by nature, task so far beyond his ability; but he has to gin; every book which issues from the press and as well nurtured and disciplined by thank many who honour him with their of this country, and comes within our reach, habits of study and composition, as those friendship, for the kindness, which has promshall receive from us such notice as its employed in the support of any periodical ised to this work the assistance of such a character pretensions We work in this land.
variety and extent of talent and knowlformation we can gather, concerning our with Literary and Scientific Intelligence of the reading community a just account national literature, education, and public Great care and assiduity will be used to of every work, which is offered to them opinions.
ensure to this department of the Gazette, and is important enough to deserve any Books intended to subserve the purposes interest and value. It may be well to re-notice.
T. P. of education, have, within a few years, been mark, that our extensive connexion with greatly improved and multiplied. Much of booksellers, at home and abroad, will enable the best talent and skill of this age has us to supply our editors and contributors
REVIEWS. been employed upon mere school books; promptly, with almost every new publicaand histories, travels, tales, &c. calculated tion of every kind.
Course of Instruction in the Public Schools for the tastes and requirements of youth, No injury to the established Journals, can in Boston Boston, 1823. 8vo. have been written with great power, print- be involved in the success of our proposed Tuis pamphlet is filled with valuable ined in the cheapest forms, and circulated work; many of them are useful and hon- formation. The public instruction providthroughout the community with strem:ous orable to the literature of this country, and ed by the city of Boston for all her citiindustry. Such works must exert a power- we should deeply regret to impede their zens, who are disposed to avail themselves ful influence, either of good or evil; we usefulness or lessen its rewards. We be- of it, is an almost unexampled instance of think they have not received due attention long to the same class of literary works, that true wisdom which is one with just libfrom the journals professcdly devote to but our paths lie in different directions ; erality. It is not the effort of individuals reviewing the current literature of the are; and it cannot be doubted, that literary pub- to build an asylum for resourceless poverty, and shall endeavour to supply this deficien- lications profit each other, by increasing or to establish permanent relief for the cy by making our readers acquainted with and confirming the appetite which demands wretched;—but it is a magnanimous deterthe true character of all books, written to and enjoys them. A successful work, al- mination and endeavour of a body politic, aid them in a work of such importancri as most of necessity, enlarges the circle of to prevent the severest evils which embitter the education of their children.
those, who are prepared to read with pleas- life and render it useless; to remove the Notices of foreign works, which lead to ure another work of a similar character. efficient and fertile sources of misery and topics or considerations applicable to the The United States Literary Gazette will sin, by se postituting the unspeakable good of affairs or interests of this country, will be be published on the first and fifteenth day education, for a childhood and youth of un
share also publish thatever interesting in wesome pages of each number will be filled eagley may airtest ensure to tell the erassels
taught, unreclaimed, and unsubdued igno- child. In these schools the children are tinct school, of the system of mutual intrucrance and wilfulness.
taught to read and spell correctly, and thus tion with very satisfactory success. One The attention paid to education in most to fit themselves effectually for the higher hundred and sixty children, who were too parts of the civilized world, is a striking schools. Pupils are first received at four old for the primary schools and unqualified characteristic of this age, and a proof that years of age, which is quite as soon as the to enter the grammar schools, were receivman is beginning to be blessed with a bet-discipline and instruction of a school caned and instructed in the same branches as ter discernment of the true end and uses of be applied to advantage. These schools are taught in the other schools by one maslife, and a greater willingness to regard are numerous, because experiment has prov- ter at a much less expense. moral and intellectual good, as more valua- ed that fifty or sixty children are as many The English Classical School was estabble than any thing beside. In England the as one mistress can successfully instruct, and lished for the admirable purpose of providefforts of many prominent men, to institute because it is important that the schools ing for lads intending to become merchants a system of general education, are well should be as near as possible to the homes or mechanics, means of more extended and known. The discoveries of Lancaster and of the infant pupils. Their object and effect complete instruction than they could obtain Bell have applied to the work of instruc- is to bring the first rudiments of education at any of the other public schools. There tion, principles of great efficacy. In the near to the doors of all who are wise enough are four instructers, and no scholars are adbest parts of Europe schools of various and kind enough to their children to avail mitted under twelve years of age. The kinds have been established, which in most themselves of them. All the Primary Schools course continues during three years, but instances are supported by the strength of are under the immediate care of a board, the branches of most importance are made public opinion, and, in many, also receive consisting of fifty members, who are divid- to fall within the first year, as many of the princely or royal patronage. Of some of ed and subdivided into various committees, scholars are unable to remain in the school these institutions, the object is to give to armed with proper powers and charged with after they are old enough to do something the highest ranks suitable education; of corresponding responsibilities. The great-, for their own support. The studies in this others, to reclaim the lower classes from est care is taken to secure, by mutual, school embrace Intellectual and Written reckless and irregular habits, by the power ceaseless, and exact report and supervision, Arithmetic, Geography and the use of the of discipline, and to give them useful knowl- a faithful and eflicient execution of this well globes, Grammar, History, Book-keeping, edge for utter ignorance. These indica- organized system. The monthly, quarterly, Elements of some Arts and Sciences, Comtions may be fallacious,-they may promise and semi-annual written reports are made position and Declamation, Geometry, Algeless than we think they do, this progress every year with unvarying regularity and bra, Trigonometry, Natural Philosophy and and tendency, if it exist, may be checked or equal in quantity more than a thousand pages. History, Chemistry, Moral Philosophy, Natmade to retrograde ;—but assuredly it is Each child is faithfully examined at least, ural Theology, Rhetoric, Evidences of Chrisright for us to rejoice in an unquestionable twelve times a year, and many, much of- tianity, Intellectual Philosophy, Political growth and improvement of important hu- tener.
Economy, Logic, and the French Lanman institutions, and to expect therefrom From these schools, scholars who are pro- guage. extensive and valuable influence upon hu- perly prepared, go to the English Grammar The Latin School is the last which we man character.
and Writing Schools, which are in two rooms; shall have occasion to notice, as it comIn this improvement the city of Boston the two branches being kept entirely dis- pletes the course of public instruction. Our takes the lead; we are justified in saying tinct. Each room has a master and assistant, limits will not allow us to speak of this so, because nowhere else has a large city and accommodates three hundred children. school at much length. The Grammars are made an universal and strenuous effort to From the middle of April to the middle of first thoroughly learned, and the course of awaken in her youth a love of knowledge, October girls attend these schools, spend study makes the scholars familiar with seand to fix in them habits of order at that peri- ing half the day in the reading and half in lected parts of Cicero, Horace, Juvenal od of life, when those impressions are receiv- the writing room, and alternating with the and Persius, Xenophon, Homer, Wittened, of which the successive development in boys. It is supposed girls would not attend bach’s Greek Historians, and the Greek some sort constitutes the character. The during the inclement season, and in the Testament, together with Geography, Arithwork is begun as soon as it can be with any half year in which they are excluded, the metic, Geometry, Trigonometry, and Algeprospect of advantage, and is continued un- boys are divided between the rooms; the bra. Very considerable portions of the til that age when the education of schools first and lowest classes being separated best Latin and Greek poets are committed must give way to the business of active from the intermediate classes. The read-to memory. life. The system of public and universal ing schools are subdivided into four classes, One very useful, valuable, and, we beinstruction, in operation in this city, has of which the upper two are peculiarly un- lieve, rather peculiar improvement, is adoptbeen gradually improved as experience and der the master's care, but he is strictly re- ed in this and in the English Classical the sagacity of the directors suggested al- sponsible for the whole. Geography is School. Every one who has had any conterations. It is now in most successful taught only to the highest class, but less is cern with a school, either as a scholar or operation, and a pamphlet has been printed effected in this study than might be with master, is perfectly aware of the great for the purpose of presenting to the consid- more apparatus and greater facilities. A hindrance arising from the classification of eration of the public the various pa of selection is annually made from the best oys according to the studies they pursue, this system, connected as they are into one boys of the first class, who are transferred to and not according to their disposition and orderly and admirable whole. We shall the English Classical or to the Latin Gram- capac ity for making progress in them. The inake a brief extract of the information this mar School, to perfect the studies which they intelligent and quick are thus made lazy by pamphlet contains, certain that, while many have begun or to pursue those of a higher the necessity of imposing only such tasks as even in Boston are ignorant of the great character. In the writing schools the ex- thg dull can learn, and the few who aremost good that is among them, to residents of ercises are few and simple, and a very ju- industrious are retarded by the indolent other towns these facts must be new, and dicious use is made of the system of mutual many. In these schools this difficulty is alto all, everywhere, interesting.
instruction. In July, 1823, the average most wholly obviated. As the boys reach The Primary Schools, instructed by wo- number of boys in each school exceeded two the top of the class they are taken off by men, receive all children of either sex be- hundred, and of the girls, one hundred and ten or twelve and formed into a distinct tween four and seven years of age. In seventy. The salary of the master is $1200 class by themselves. As scholars are ad1823 there were forty such schools for the and that of the assistant $600; the expense mitted but once a year, they soon get sorted white and two for the coloured population, of tuition is about nine dollars for each in this way with great accuracy; those and the whole number enrolled was 2,205, scholar; there are in this city seven schools boys finding themselves together who are giving an average of 52 to cach school, and of this description, besides one in South abile to learn about the same lesson. an average of expense to the public of Boston and one for the coloured population. All the schools—excepting the primary *1.72 per annum for the instructio 1 of each In 1821 an experiment was made, in a dis- schpols—are under the superintendance of
a school committee, consisting of the mayor" emptity.” Whitehead was poet laureate. I loveliness, like a new creation. I cannot and aldermen, ex officio, and one gentleman All new poetry was submitted to the judg- better exemplify my meaning, than by chosen annually by each ward. They are ment of Johnson's powerful but prosaic tracing to its possible originals the following required by their own rules to examine the intellect; Pope and Young were in full beautiful picture of Collins'. schools once a month, and, by a law of the vogue, Thompson was sneered at,-Gray Love framed with Mirth a gay fantastic round
ridiculed,-Collins utterly neglected,-and, Loose were her tresses seen, her zone unbound, state, once a year.
But one objection can possibly be urged to crown the climax, the Reviewer of And he amid his frolic play, against any part of these institutions. Per- Goldsmith's Traveller “in sad and sober As if he would the charming air repay, haps the system of animating the pupils in earnest criticised it as a pamphlet in verse, Shook thousands odours from his dewy wings. to industry by the principle of emulation, on political economy.” This state of things This passage exhibits a striking instance and rewarding them by medals, cards, &c. could not last; but it is with the literary of the blending of various images into one, of which the object is to distinguish them taste of a nation, as with the natural taste and thus presenting a picture entirely new. from their fellows, is carried too far. Emu- of an individual; when it has been pam- Though Anacreon says of Cupid, lation easily becomes envy, and it is obvi- pered with high-seasoned sauces till the
Ρόδα παίς και της Κυθήρης ously better to make the love of doing well appetite is jaded, it craves not nor relishes
Στέφεται καλούς δούλους, the ruling principle of a boy's activity, rath- substantial food, and can only be restored
Χαρίτισσι συγχορεύων. er than the love of doing better than by a course of the simplest diet. This
Lo the son of Cytherea another. book therefore seems to have been neces
Hath his locks y crowned with roses, We close this article with stating one sary to the English nation, before it could
While he dances with the Graces ; fact; that the whole expenditure of Boston, be prepared either to produce, or to receive and though Fairfax, in his translation of city and county, for 1823, was $197,977.60, and relish such poets as Crabb and Joan- Tasso, says of the angel Gabriel, of which $48,611.10 were expended for the na Baillie and Wordsworth and Southey ;
He shook his wings wiih rosy May-dews wet; schools ;-and we will add to this fact, the poets, whose style, simple in artificial orna- and though Milton says of the angel Raphlast paragraphs of this pamphlet, which ment, yet not utterly rejecting it, is the vehi- ael, state strongly, but truly, the effect of this cle of such poetry as would have been
He shook his plumes, that heavenly fragrance liberality.
sufficient, had they only written, to have filled “ Thus we have endeavoured to give a view of raised this age of English poetry to a fair The circuit wide; the means, provided at the public expense, for the comparison with that of Elizabeth. We yet the imagery of Collins does not appear gratuitous instruction of the children of all classes mention these four poets, because, perfect- the less original; for he has compounded it of the citizens of Boston. They are offered equally distinct as they are, from each other, from all the others, and taking something ly to all. The poorest inhabitant may have bis the style of them all is less ornate than that from each, has produced a new image of children instructed from the age of four to seventeen, at schools, some of which are already equal
, of most of their contemporaries, and seems his own. if not superior to any private schools in our coun. more deeply imbued with the colouring of
Every great poet has founded a school; try; and all of them may be so. an earlier and severer literature.
but as each succeeding copy lost something "Indeed if a child be kept at a Primary School It is not often that we are admitted to of the freshness of the original, at length from four to seven, and then at one of the Gram- the workshop of genius, but we know that the samness began to pall upon the reader's mar schools until nine, and from that time till seventeen at the Latin and the English Classical school, men of the most exalted powers must have ear, until some youthful aspirant, warned by there is no question but he will go through a more materials to work upon; we know that the utter failure of his last predecessor, thorough and complete course of instruction, and in writers must form their style both of land perceived that he must cast his projected reality enjoy greater advantages than are provided guage and thought upon the models of work in a new mould, and make a hazarat many of the respectable colleges in the Union." | others. If the first essays of any of the dous experiment to reform the public
living English poets were to be published, taste. Look at the History of Poetry ;Reliques of Ancient English Poetry; con- I doubt not that we should find among them the names of Homer and Virgil and Tasso
sisting of old Heroic Ballads, Songs, and many imitations of the ballads which Percy long kept alive the hope that successive other pieces of our earlier poets, together has collected; indeed Scott and Southey generations might be blest with a successwith some few of later date. First Amer- and Byron have published their boyish | ion of Epics ; but Milton's was the last ican from the fifth London edition. Phil-poems, and among them such imitations Epic,* and he dared to wander so far from adelphia, 1823. 3 vols. 8vo.
are found. These are not however servile, the beaten track, that his Hero cannot be Many critics of the present day, acknowl- imitations, but are evidently the essays of named. Look next at the Romances ;edge that the superiority of Modern Eng- powerful intellects, trying their strength they had their day, but they had become lish poetry over that of the age of Queen in short, low flutterings, and thus imping tiresome in the time of Chaucer, who callAnne, is mainly to be attributed to this their wings for a bolder flight.
ed in the aid of Italian literature, and work. It may seem surprising, that a book It is not by direct imitation of one par founded a new school having him for its so unpresuming in its appearance, as Per- ticular model that excellence can be at- master. Lydgate and Hawes and Gower cy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, should tained; but the course which these poets wore out the style of Chaucer. Allegories have helped to produce so wonderful a rev- pursued was that which has been taken by and Madrigals were popular from the time olution in the public taste, as has evidently all truly great writers—to imbibe the spirit of Spencer and Withers, down to the days occurred since the time of its publication. of those who had gone before them, to of Henry More and Waller. Then indeed But the poetry and criticism of that day select the peculiar excellence of each great it was time to stop allegorizing in verse, were at a very low ebb; Pope ani Addison master of their art, to melt down and amal- when an elegant scholar like More, and were gone; they had themselves been ser- gamate their several beauties in the alem
one whom a competent judge (Southey) vile imitators, and the still more grovelling bic of their own minds, and, out of all, proherd of their imitators, wrote as if smooth duce one harmonious form of elegance that * We say the last Epic, because we conceive metre and ambitious ornaments alone con- should ever thereafter be exclusively theirs. Voltaire's Henriade to be slumbering with Black. stituted poetry; no matter how trite the As with their style, so with their subjects. more’s Eliza and her brothers (whose numbers and thoughts, if the lines were exactly balanc- They made their minds the storehouses of names are forgotten), Wilkie's Epigoniad, Cum
berland's Calvary, Glover's Leonidas, Hole's Ared, nor how prosaic the subject, if an epi- beautiful images, gathered from all quar- thur, Sonthey's Joan of Arc, and many more ; thet were crowded into each hemistichi ters-from nature and from books, -and ITávody a pece raūta cibværs, xai üzemo rouvèr is Whoever has the patience to exannine brooded over them till they had analyzed
'Adas. the Magazine poetry of that day, will itind them, and combined and remoulded them that the only quality for which the popular into perfect form, and could produce them
All together they perished, and went to the trunk
maker's workshop;" poetry was then remarkable, was what a to the world, apparently the work of their and because the narrative poems of the present day critic has well expressed in one word own imaginations, and "gleaming in virginalike disch im the laws and the name of Epic.