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brought into action; and wild beasts, venomous their general character is diversified by local cir: they do; but the Colombian government reptiles, and tormenting insects, enter equally into cumstances, we may observe that the inhabitants of are not, therefore, to be considered so absoa system which man vainly imagines constructed the coast line, and especially of the principal seafor his peculiar use and convenience. The climate, port towns, are the most refined and intelligent: lutely devoid of common sense and prudence though hot, is neither so unhealthy nor
debilitating that the inhabitants of the interior and mountain as the Colonel supposes. They might find as that of the seacoast, the air being refreshed and country, particularly of New Grenada, are the most in the doings of other American congresses, purified by the strong breezes blowing constantly simple in their habits, the least crafty in their dis- which are admitted to be the wisest in the over this grassy ocean, which extends not less than positions, but ignorant, timid, selfish, and inhospit: world, some enactments on a principle not 300 miles in every direction betwixt the Andes and able. The inhabitants of the plains form a totally the Orinoco. distinct class, whose characteristics, as their mode very different from their own.
sume, moreover, that Colonel Hall has Of the vegetable productions of this coun- of life, are peculiarly their own. Nothing is, actry it is unnecessary to speak. It is obvious, pacific than the life of a herdsman, nothing less native land, as well as other matters, in
cording to an European view of the subject, more heard of such things as corn laws in his that there are few, which might not find a likely to engender ferocity or military habits ; it is regard to which the imperial parliament itcongenial soil in some part of this exten. sufficient, however, to have once witnessed the self is somewhat in the rear of the march of sive territory. Among the precious animal mode of tending cattle in South America, to form a products are the pearls of Margaritta and different opinion. The immense herds raised in political science. boundless and unenclosed plains, are gathered,
This work will be most interesting to Goagira, the fisheries of which are now penned, or conducted, as change of pasture may emigrants, for whose use indeed it is more monopolized by a British company, The require by half-naked horsemen, each armed with particularly intended. It will, therefore, be mineral treasures are gold, silver, platina, a lance, whose rapid movements, shouts, and wild
more valuable in Great Britain than it can and emeralds.
demeanour, suggest the idea of a body of Tartar caySo much for the country, which, it must alry. The untamed nature of the cattle themselves, be in this country, for few, we imagine, will be admitted, is a fairer land than our own. the deep and rapid rivers over which they are fre whatever may be its disadvantages, for a
the attacks of wild beasts to which they are exposed, be so Quixotic as to leave a land like ours, We have next to inquire concerning its in- quently to be led, with a variety of circumstances residence in the semi-barbarous republics habitants and government, and here we shall essential to the mode of life of the Llaneros, or of South America. To the indigent agrifind the superiority no longer visible. The Plainsmen, all require and produce those babits by culturists of many portions of England, character of the former is various, and is which they are distinguished; besides being the thus described by our author.
breeders and keepers of the cattle, they are also Colombia will doubtless have charms, and
their butchers, both from necessity and amusement another century will probably find, on the Long habits of slavery and oppression, partially Their chief, we may say their only, pastime, is fertile plains of Venezuela and New Grencounteracted by a feverish interval of liberty, ill drawn from this source : to throw a Lazo, orada, other men and other principles from understood and imperfectly enjoyed; the almost coiled rope, round a bull's horns while at his speed, those which have so long disgraced and total want of education, and absence of that moral to pierce him in the spine, or hamstring him till stimulus, which, under the name of honour or char- they have occasion to kill him; to flay, quarter, and abused this garden of the world. acter, forces every respectable individual of Euro- divide his quivering carcase with all the technicality Many in this country, we suppose, will be pean society to a line of conduct conformable with of our old European huntsman, is the pride and al- curious to learn more particulars of the his situation; all these circumstances have produced most the sole enjoyment of their lives. The revo- actual state of the South American prov. a negativeness
or debility both in thought and ac- lution thus found them a ready-made body of irreg inces, than we have been able to give in tion, which renders them troublesome to deal with, ular cavalry; a popular chief sprang up to give this short sketch; and they will find in the and unfit to be relied on. It is, in fact, impossible impetus and direction to their native spirit, and a to calculate their behaviour except you could be very short time beheld them excellent Guerillas, account of Colonel Hall, a great deal of incertain of the last idea wbich has occupied their and not less expert thieves and cut throats—in their formation, which cannot, as far as we know, imagination, for the feeling of interest most imme- favour we must revoke our negation as to the natu- be found any where else, and much of it of diately
present is pretty generally decisive of their ral cruelty of the Colombians. There is not, per a very interesting character. We shall conconduct Does a merchant contract with a planter haps, in the world, a race of people who shed hu- clude this article with an anecdote, which foraquantity of coffee or cocoa at a certain rate?n man blood with more indifference on withalighted illustrates the nature of the
care which the in vain would he suppose the bargain concluded, temptation; it is difficult to say by what good should another purchaser appear ind offer the qualities, if we except courage, and a strong love Holy Inquisition exercised over the morals slightest advance of price. The readiness with of independence, their defects are redeemed or of the subjects, under the ancient regime. which they break a promise or an agreement, can qualified ; pacific virtues they have none; it is only be equalled by ibe sophistical ingenuity with fortunate, however, that the natural abundance of Garcia,
had two paintings from which he used to
*A painter in Bogota, of the name of Antonio which they defend themselves for having done so. the plains tends constantly to diminish their dispoIn this respect they seem a nation of lawyers, who, sition towards a life of savage marauding; were it study—a Hercules spinning by the side of Omphale, with ease, twist words and meanings as they otherwise, the Llaneros would be to Colorabia, what Commissary of the Inquisition was informed of the
and Endymion sleeping on the breast of Diana: the please.' As the reproach of being a liar is the last the Moors of the Nubian desert are to Egypt and circumstance on the ground that the pictures were insult which can be offered or endured among free- the interior of Africa ?
indecent, searched his cabinet, and bad them cut ia men, so is the term lie the last to be used in decent conversation; here, on the contrary, not only is the
The government is framed according to pieces, which the owner was allowed to keep.' expression a good one, and adapted to the meridian the central system, and is much better in of the genteelest society, but the reproach of being theory than in practice. The distance of a liar may be safely cast on friend or foe with as the capital from the various provinces, the Missionary Journal and Memoir of the liule offence given or taken as the term · Rake' or difficulty of travelling, but above all, the Rev. Joseph Wolf, Missionary to the * Prodigal would cause in a fashionable. London character of a people just emerged from the Jews. Written by himself. _Revised and circle. It is indeed a truth worth a thousand
most degrading slavery, will probably long edited by John Bayford, Esq. F. S. .. homilies' in defence of liberty, that without it there
New York 1824. 12mo. pp. 332. prevent any government, and much more a can be no virtue.
The most pleasing, trait in the character of the republican one, from possessing that effi- There are few things in which sensible Colombian Creoles is good nature. It is easy to ciency, which is necessary for protecting and conscientious men differ so much as in live with them if you require little of them: they individual rights against the encroachments their views of the utility and tendency of have Title or no active benevolence, because such of craft or power. Indeed, as our author missions
. Different minds may, and as they must result from strong powers of imagination and reflection. But they are not vindictive, for revenge observes, the forms of government in the are impressed with different convictions, is both a strong and a permanent feeling; nor are South American provinces must be consid- must have different opinions of the characthey cruel, although this assertion may seem para. ered as yet, as experimental. Liberty, edu- ter and amount of the good and evil from doxical to those acquainted with the history of the cation, and the emigration of foreigners, which they spring, and which they effect. revolution, but we must distinguish between cruel. ties which are the fruit of a savage nature, and such will, in time, enable them to establish one But this difference of opinion must be conas weakness itself may give birth to, when
that shall be better adapted to their circum- fined to their use as religious missions ; for • Roused up to too much wrath which follows o'er in operation. Colonel Hall criticises some ture will receive unqualified acknowledg.
stances than any which has hitherto been their influence upon the interests of litera. grown fears.' Neither are they in general proud or assuming, ex: with severity, supposing them to evince an these interests of value.
of the prohibitory regulations of the congressment and commendation from all who deem cept when they have obtained place or power, on
lo estimating which occasions they are apt to verify the musty ignorance or contempt of the clearest prin their efficacy and importance with respect proverb, "Set a beggar on horseback." As far as ciples of political economy, and doubuess I to religion, inany considerations should be
taken into view ; for, while all admit that mano, with the intent of becoming a mem- walk eight or nine hours. In the first month of my tares are sown with the wheat, who re- ber of the Propaganda Society. Before stay in that seminary, I went with the others to see member that the missionaries, and they long he became convinced that popery was VII., and I considered the canonization not as a
the canonization of Alfonsio Maria Ligori by Pius who send them, are subject to human frail
. not the best form of the religion of Christ; beatification and sanctification, but only as a repreties, and do not believe that the mere send- he suffered some petty persecution in Rome, sentation, or a description of the grace of God ing or going on this errand purifies from left the papal court in disgrace, and arriv-working in the individul ; but I found afterwards, all error,-it is no less true that the Word ed in England in 1819. He was recom- that my idea was not according to the Romish sys
In Rome, they divide the canonization into of God is thus scattered abroad among the mended to the London Society for Promot
two acts, calling the first act Beatificazione, and the nations, and light from Heaven made to ing Christianity among the Jews, and by second Sintificazione: both acts cost the family of penetrate the darkness.
But they who them was sent to Cambridge, and afterwards the saint a great price. The words beatificazione believe that these religious missions are in to the Missionary College at Stansted, in and santifiazione correspond entirely to the Latin efficient as to their principal purpose, or Sussex, at which places he remained two words, beatum facere, and sanctum facere aliquem. that they call into exercise bad passions as years, employed in studying the oriental But how can I believe that a pope can make saints ?
since Rome herself confesses that popes may burn well as good ones, and help to propagate languages. In the summer of 1821, he left in hell. mischievous error, will still admit that their England for Gibraltar; thence he proceed- In November, the Exercitia Spiritualia (which influence upon literature is decidedly bene- ed to Malta, Alexandria, to Jerusalem and always precede the public lectures, and every ficial, whether they suppose this good ef- different parts of Palestine ; at the close of solemn festival) began; a strange clergyman, or fect to be dearly or cheaply purchased. the next year he returned to Malta, and some monk, is invited at such a time to preach to These remarks were suggested to us by soon after went to Palestine a second time, lege are obliged to observe a strict silence two days,
the pupils about their duty. The pupils of the colMr Wolf's Journal, It exhibits a young with two missionaries from this country. and are ordered to meditate and to go every day man of bright intellect, acquiring by bis The bulk of the volume is filled with the three times into the chapel, to hear the sermons or own efforts almost a “gift of tongues," that narrative of his first visit to Palestine, exhortations of the missionary: . The act begins he might be fit for the missionary work. which is contained in his Journal and let- with holy song, 'Veni Sancte Spiritus, reple tuorum He is then engaged in collating the Scrip-ters. Our limits will not permit us to corda fidelium, et tui amoris ignem in eis accende,
emitte spiritum tuum et creabuntur, et renovabis tures and commentaries upon them in va- make an analysis of this Journal, --which, faciem terræ." I heard sometimes, but not often, rious languages, in scrutinizing them rigor- we believe, most readers would find inter- sermons very fine, and according to the Gospel, ously, in disputing upon the remote deriva- esting. It exhibits the character of Mr especially when Prince O., the Stolberg of Rome, tions of words and obscure shades of mean- Wolf in a very favourable light, and proves preached to us in the seminary. He unites the zeal ing, and labouring to understand the pre- him to be possessed of uncommon talents of Elias and true Christianity, with great worldly cise force and purport of expressions, and and attainments. Mr Wolf's sincerity can- and love for the Gospel, the character of a man of
possessions; and adds to an unquestionable zeal to translate them exactly from one tongue not be doubted; and his representation of learning and philosophy into another,—and all this with a zeal and the state and disposition of the Jews in va- The lectures upon Church History occupy four industry, which, were he a mere scholar, rious parts of the world, encourages the years, and yet they only come down to the fourwould ensure him great fame. But we belief, that a spirit of inquiry, a willing-teenth century; Dissertations about celibacy, the may leave the instance before us, which ness to know the doctrines
and evidence of holy wars, and the infallibility of the popes, and
reconciling the fallibility of Pope Honorius with has many parallels, and advert to a few the christian religion is beginning to mani- the doctrine of infallibility, take up the greatest part facts of common notoriety. For almost all fest itself among them.
of the history. The professor's prudence surprised that we know of the twelve hundred dia- We do not know that any part of the me, when he lectured on the history of Henry IV. lects of North America, we are indebted work interested us more than those pages the latter against the emperor, he did it; but when
and Gregory VII. So long as he was able to defend to missionaries. Marshman and Morrison of Mr Wolf's own memoir, which disclose he came to facts mentioned of the pope which he have brought the Chinese language and the actual condition of the papal court, could not defend, he merely read the history, and literature within reach of European schol- and makes us acquainted with the internal left us to form our own judgment. I only found ars; the obscure and almost forgotten Cop- economy, the customs, purposes, and prac- one amongst the pupils of the Seminary, who had a tic language is made to yield up its ele- tices of the seminaries and societies of spirit of tolerance, and knowledge of the Bible. ments to the uses of philology; the anoma- Rome. The following extracts are from
I frequently heard the noise of a crowd of people lous signs and exponents of the Chinese this part of the work.
flocking to the church called Rotunda, and exclaimwords are brought to illustrate the biero
I entered the Sensinario Romano the fifth of ing, “The mother of God opens her eyes and works glyphics of Egypt; and there is scarcely a September, 1816, being twenty years of age. I miracles.". The clergy send soldiers to guard the corner of the earth so remote or so obscure, received a long violet blue garment, and a triangu- image which represents the Virgin; and to deceive that something of its peculiar dialect may time the vacations of the schools took place, which collects money for the mother of God. lar hat like the other pupils of that college. At this the people, one priest reads mass, and another
It is true not be known by him who wishes to learn continued till the month of November: and I found the greatest part of the clergy said to me that this it. Of oriental literature it is peculiarly not so much edification in the Seminario Romano, was only the fanaticism of the people ; but why true, that the study of every department of as in the shops of the German artists. The Semi- does the pope approve such an idolatrous fanatiit is facilitated by the means which mission- nario bas, besides the master and vice-master, a cism, and why do they send soldiers to the altar of ary efforts have wrought out, and which, prefect also, who was a priest like the former, but a that image, and why do priests collect money for the but for these efforts, would not probably day in their
walks, and when they assist any bishop the altar of that image, to show respect and hon
man of no talent. He accompanies the pupils every support of that image, and to celebrate mass before have existed. 'Again, missionary societies or cardinal, or the pope, in any ceremony. He calls our to it? The vicar-general, in a printed declarahave established presses among the princi- the pupils every day for the rosary prayer, and tion, approved the miracles, said to be wrought by pal heathen nations. What incalculable closes the door of the pupils' room in the evening, the image of the Virgin. advantages may be expected from this! and calls them up in the morning. This is the In the month of October, 1819, all the pupils Why may not Asia profit by the exercise month, and his board. When the prefect opens try-house. I saw there the villa of Mæcenas, the
whole duty; he receives for it two crowus per went to Tivoli, where they have a very fine counof this wonderful art, almost as Europe bas the doors, and awakes the pupils, one of them is grotto of Neptune, the ruins of the barracks of the profited by it? At all events, it is a great obliged to recite the Litany of the Virgin Mary, army of Trajan, and the ruins of the temple of the thing to have put so powerful an instru- and they are all obliged to cry, 'Ora pro nobis, Sybil; and I read Horace's poetry in one of his ment into operation.
which they do mechanically, and without devotion! own country houses. I went one day, with the Joseph Wolf was born in 1796, in Wei- After that, they go into the private chapel, and read other pupils, to the church of the triars of that
a meditation taken from the book of the Jesuit town. They were then celebrating the festival of lersbach, in Bavaria. His father was a Segueri, which contains some good things, together St Franciscus Assissi. All the monks of Rome Rabbi; and intending his son to be a very with Mohammedan notions and abominable super- are accustomed to preach sermons on the day of orthodox Jew, he educated him according- stitions. The description of hell and paradise here their patriarch, which they call Panegyrica. I ly. But Joseph was disposed, while yet a given, is the same I once read in a superstitious heard the panegyricum of si Franciscus of Assissi, boy, to become a Christian; when seven
Rabbinical book, and in a surah of the Alcoran ! composed by a Franciscan friar! He enumerated
After meditation they go to hear mass in another all the miracles of St Franciscus, and all the pains teen years old he was baptized, and thrce private chapel, and then breakfast; and in the days of his body, where they observed the fivè wounds years after he entered the Seminario Ro- l when public lectures are given, they are obliged to of Christ. And, after the acconnt of these mira
cles, and these wounds, he said, “I therefore argue, proper means, be rendered intelligible to finding knowledge in the mind we shall that Franciscus Assissi has taken upon himself the it; and what cannot be rendered intelli- first give an account of the introductory sins of the whole world. I said to the pupils, and gible-whether the inability be on the part exercises, with which he would commence to the master of our college, after the sermon was finished, This monk has blasphemed Christ;
for of the instructer or of the scholar-should the instruction of his scholars. The pupils Christ bore the sins of mankind, and not Francis be postponed to a future period.
are supposed to be seven or eight years of cus Assissi. He was a pious and humble man, but Pestalozzi described the minds of chil- age. yet a sinner, who, like ourselves, must be saved by dren as containing within themselves, in Christ.' miniature, all that they will ever contain; whole; and descend from decomposition to decom
Every regular analysis ought to begin by the The style of this book is very peculiar; and made the business of education to con- 'position till the whole subject is fully exhausted. it would be obvious, from the strange - sist solely in finding and unfolding those This rule shall be our perpetual guide.
The first great and natural division of our body, ness of some of the expressions and from principles or truths which are concealed or the general air of the whole, that the folded up in the mind. Acting according which must, and undoubtedly will, offer itself to our English is not the vernacular tongue of the to this principle, he seldom told a child observations, will be its trunk and members
members we shall, of course, divide into superior writer, if his parentage and birth-place any thing except the arbitrary name of and inferior limbs. The trunk of the body will be were not mentioned. It seems to us that whatever he had first contrived to find in naturally divided into the torsel and head. Thus
In other words, -he would give we shall proceed from division to division. On his thorough acquaintance with the He- the mind. brew tongue, and his familiar use of it the names of things, as much as possible, every part we shall afix a convenient name, and in conversation, has given something of subsequently to the knowledge of things. peculiar care will be taken to determine the accu
rate meaning of every term we shall be obliged to the idiom of that language to his general Pestalozzi would not teach any thing dog- employ. style.
matically, but would endeavour by suitable This first operation will enable my pupils to solve questions to lead the pupil to find out the this double problem: an object, or a part of an ob
fact at which he was aiming; and the pu-ject, being shown, to name it; and, again, to show MISCELLANY.
pil's finding it by the exercise of his own the object, or a part of an object, upon bearing its faculties, he called finding it in the mind of
Our second operation shall consist in determining the pupil. It appeared to him, that the the coherency, subordination, connexion, or relation [The system of education introduced by
knowledge sought for, was, in reality, al- between too objects, or between a part and the whole Pestalozzi, or rather first practised by him ready in the mind; and he would not admit, of an object. This operation must enable us to solve
problems of the following nature. upon an extensive scale, has become a sub- when a truth was discovered by any pro
What coherency or subordination is there be. ject of considerable interest, both in Europe cess, that it was received from the world tween the nail on the fore-finger of your right hand and in this country. Its power and ten- without, or from the world within, but that and your body? The answer must, and, of course
, dency recommend it strongly to all whose it was found in the mind, and that it had will be : The nail on the fore-finger of my right attention is drawn to it, and who are com- developed or unfolded. existed there before, needing only to be hand is attached to the inferior phalanx of the fore
finger of my right hand; the inferior phalanx of the petent to form a correct judgment of the Whether this view be metaphysically cor. fore-finger of my right hand
: the fore-finger of my
fore-finger of my right hand constitutes a part of the true nature and scope of a system that dif- rect or not, its practical effect on bis method right hand is a part of my right hand; "my right fers so entirely from those which are sanc- of instruction must obviously be in the high- hand belongs to my superior right member, or arm, tioned by general use. But there are very
est degree salutary. Others would say, that and my superior right member, or arm, is attached few works which will give to a general of knowledge, and that the business of edu- betwixt that tree and the middle rib or membrane the human mind consists of mere receptacles to my body,
What connexion or relation do you perceive reader an idea of the principles and pro- cation is to fill these, and expand them, by of this leaf? cesses of this system, and we have thought such a gradual process as will enable the The tree comprehends the trunk or stem; the the following brief account of it, could not learner to digest and direct to its proper trunk includes the branches; the branches comprebut be interesting to many of our readers,
use every truth when it is received. Others, hend the twigs, that twig includes this leaf, and this again, would adopt a different theory; but leaf
, fically, comprehends its middle rib or mem.if not to all.
In our third operation we shall examine the dumprovided they all result in the same method ber of things. Our inquiries will, of course, be of PESTALOZZIAN METHOD OF INSTRUCTION.
of aiding the mind in the attainment of the following kind : How many toes has the foot of The human mind is so constituted, that find and unfold what the mind already pos- are to be found on the human body? What is the knowledge. What Pestalozzi would do to a man, of a cow, horse, dog, cat, sheep, hog? How
many fingers has the left hand ? How many nails by proper use of the knowledge which, at sesses, might with equal propriety be done number of our incisive teeth? How many borns has any time, it possesses, it is prepared for the by another, to lead it by the exercise of its the ox? How many panes of glass has one window, reception of greater quantities and higher own powers to receive such truths as it is or all the windows of the room? degrees of knowledge. The mind is to be now capable of receiving:
The same gen
Our fourth operation shall consist in pointing out led, not compelled, to this advancement eral rules apply to both theories. Nothing instance, we shall examine where the ball of the
the position or situation of an object. Thus, for This necessarily implies, that whatever is should be sought for in the mind, or pre right eye is situated. We shall
, in all likelihood, presented to it should be accommodated to sented to it, but what it can understand find that it is contained in a hole or cavity, com its powers of understanding; otherwise, it clearly and appreciate justly. The previous monly called the eye-socket, beneath the right lid will be compelled to believe or așsent to attainments of the scholar in the science to of the forehead, above the right cheek, on the right what it cannot comprehend, and the memo- which he is to attend, must be carefully de- side of the upper part of the nose, and on the left ry will be burthened with mere terms and terinined ; and from the simple ideas which of the middle finger of your right hand? The mid
side of the right temple. Which is the position propositions, of which the meaning and use he now possesses, the instructer should lead dle finger of my right hand is placed beneath the are unknown.
him by slow and regular advancement to metacarpus of my right hand, and betwixt the fore The inductive, analytical, Baconian, or the desired elevation in that department;— and middle finger of the same hand. Pestalozzian method of instruction, adopts connecting others with it from time to time,
These problems we shall not fail to propose in as as a fundamental maxim, that the mind is that his prospect during his journey may be inverted order. For instance: What is the name at all times capable of comprehending those as extensive as his powers of vision will al- neath the middle of your forehead, above your up
of that part of your person, which is situated be. truths, which are then most important for low, and that as many of the faculties of his per lip, and between your eyes and cheeks? it to receive; and by the acquisition and soul may be exercised, as can be exercised Our fifth operation shall consist in pointing out use of these, it is prepared to receive those in any orderly and profitable manner.
the qualities of objects. What qualities are rewhich are next in order. Hence it rejects We have probably given as many of the markable in snow, water, lead, lime, ice, wood, the whole system and practice of dogmati- abstract principles of this system as our glass, tipe cherries, apples, pears. Which objects cal teaching. Whatever will be useful to readers will have patience to examine. In dry, humid? What is good, bad, wholeseme, fresh,
or bodies are sour, sweet, green, blue, red, yellow, e mind at any given period, can, by order to illustrate Pestalozzi's method of withered, cool, cold? This exercise would evidently
become immense, infinite, if we extended it over all your surprise will not only subside, but, I trust, | them be sustained as much as possible by the objects which surround us, and we can come at; must entirely vanish.
vely a high interest in the subject itself on which and for this very reason we shall be constrained to I shall not insist on remarking, how extensi limit our excursions.
the foregoing operations will necessarily unfold and they are exercised, and as little as the case The form or shape of an object is nothing else but perfect my pupils' natural powers of observing. will admit, by a love of excelling others, by a modification or å quality of an object. But this examining, analyzing, judging, and speaking; be fear of punishment, or hope of reward. quality being of a peculiar kind, and highly inter- cause those who see clear, will easily perceive it; To preserve in the mind of the scholar esting to us, the consideration of the different whereas the blind will remain blind, were they this genuine interest in his studies, there shapes, under which nature and art present their lighted by a thousand suns.
must be more activity, both bodily and men. productions to our eyes, shall form a separate, and
In proceeding with these exercises, and tal, in his school exercises than is found unconsequently our sixth exercise. What is the form of this table, of such a finger, of our heads, of an all that follow, the golden rule is festina der the common system. He is left to drill arm, leg, thigh, eye, nose, tongue? Which bodies lente, -hasten slowly. The scholar must and drudge alone, with little of that proper are spherical, cylindrical, triangular, circular, conic, leave nothing behind, but make thorough excitement wbich is produced by free conprismatic? What object, or what part of such an work as far as he goes. It is obvious to re- versation, and by familiar illustrations of object, has the form of a bell, a tube, a bottle ?
mark, that the above lessons might be com- what is learned. Besides this, the studies In our seventh operation we shall subject to our menced at an earlier age. examination the different functions which organi
in our common schools are so mixed and cal bodies and their parts perform. The various
It will be objected, that this method blended, without any reference to their real functions performed by our eyes, ears, mouth, would require more instructers than the connexion and dependance, and so little tongue, teeth, nose, hands, feet, legs, arms, shoul- present system. This, however, would not time allowed for the daily exercise in any ders,mwill peculiarly occupy our attention. These necessarily be the case. It would require, one branch, that there is no time nor opobservations we shall not forget to extend to the that the scholars should be of nearly equal portunity given for exciting an interest in plants, and their parts. My readers must perceive, that in proportion as we advance, Oʻir investigations age and attainments; but the number of any thing ; but the scholar is dismissed with become interesting.
these, to which one instructer could profit- an uncouth variety of incoherent notions, Our eighth exercise will be destined to observe ably attend, might equal that in our com- destitute of order and affinity, and possessand investigate the use we make, and can make, of mon schools. In all recitations the scholars ing as little tendency to any given point as the many things which surround us every where. reply simultaneously or alternately, but each the rays of light reflected from a grater. Thus, for instance, we shall attempt to determine, one frequently undergoes a critical examio- Under the Pestalozzian system all his inwhat effects are produced, and may be produced, by the means of a hammer, pen, knife,
bellows, ation, to determine whether he clearly com- terests are engaged in subjects immediately scissors, spade, axe, scythe, plough, hoe. We shall prebends the exercises which have passed. connected with his studies; and these are point out the use we make, and can make, of iron, When the instructer has reason to suspect so varied, and possess so much of practical steel, silver, gold, copper, ashes, lime, chalk, wood, that any one of his pupils has been inatten- use and living interest, as to satisfy him paper, ink, water, wine; of a table, bed, chair, ink: tive to the subject of their conversation, or continually with what he is doing, or, at the stand, bottle, glass; of pears, apples, peaches, cher, to the objects which have been presented farthest, with what this is preparing him to ries, bread, meat. It will, probably, not escape our attention, that of many, if not of all things, we can for illustrating any subject, or for furnish- do. The studies are so arranged and conmake a good or bad use; and, as this subject is of ing topics for conversation, such popil has ducted, that the branches already acquired great importance to us, we shall be likely to expa- the more questions propounded directly to are almost constantly brought into exercise be preserved in good order, or spoiled through care- tion of the pupils to their proper duties; is
, from time to time, introduced. One of žiate on it at some length. That many things may him. This tends greatly to limit the atten- in attaining the new ones to which the scholar lessness, are observations which will, of course, occur to our minds. We shall even examine, how and by having them all on duty at the same bis early studies will be arithmetic, another a thing, that
, through long use or heedlessness, has time, little labour is required in governing writing, another, drawing. The use which been spoiled, may be made fit for use again. the school. The length of the exercises he will make of these will appear, when we
In our ninth exercise, we shall endeavour to de depends on their quality, and on the capaci- say, that he will make books in most of the termine, and to point out the resemblance or simili- ties of the scholars. They are generally branches. He will construct his own maps, tude which two objects present to our senses. We short; but the pupils are frequently attended beginning with the town where he resides, shall therefore examine wherein the eye bears a resemblance to the ear, what similitude exists be by their instructers in their amusements, and and proceeding gradually till they embrace tween a fly and an eagle, an ant and an elephant, in their excursions for obtaining means to the whole world. He will make his own betwixt winter and summer, a finger and a nose, a illustrate the subjects of their lessons, so that dictionary and grammar. In geometry, by sunbeam and a weaver's beam. Many of my read. little of their time is devoted to mere amuse- preserving his drawings, he will have a ers will smile at the novelty of the idea of finding a ment, and few things come under their ob- regular treatise. He is always enabled to resemblance betwixt such heterogeneous objects; servation without being made to furnish perceive the connexion between what he is but if they had my experience, instead of shaking their wise heads, and perhaps taking me for a luna- some profitable instruction. Where the required to learn, and the use which it will tic, they would admire the immense power of mind means can be supplied, regular labour in promote. This is essential to his feeling which a child acquires through the means of such many of the useful and polite arts is requir- satisfied with his studies ; but it cannot be exercises as are here hinted at. I have heard chil. ed, -enough to teach the scholar practically pretended that the common mode of in. dren of nine and ten years of age, point out resem: the use of the knowledge which he acquires. struction has any tendency to accomplish blances between objects more distant from each other than a beam of the sun is from a weaver's We have not room to enlarge on the advan- this object. beam.
tages of this part of the system, but we be- Having got fairly under weigh with this Our preceding operations will put our witty heads lieve them to be almost incalculable. subject, we should not know when nor where to the test.
Our readers cannot fail of remarking, that to stop, were we not reminded, by counting Pour tenth operation shall prove a trial of our this method is admirably calculated to keep our sheets, that we have only room for a consagih
. for in this latter exercise, we shall point the minds of children active without fatigu- clusion. We will, therefore, mention one
halifferences there exist between the left eye and use ight; between a knife and a razor, ice and ing them, or rendering their studies tedious. more advantage of this method of instrucwater, zir ose and a tulip.
We are not advocates for the system which tion, and trust to the good sense of our Our elpventh, and last exercise, will consist in converts all study into mere amusement, readers to supply the rest. making a plain, but accurate, an exact, but precise and indulges scholars in playing their way Io the familiar conversations which daily description of any given object, by melting together to the temple of wisdom; but we do believe, occur between the teacher and his pupils, in one mass, all that has been observed, examined, that the mind should be deeply interested on the several topics to which their atteninvestigateo, analyzed, and determined in our preceding successive operations. I hope my readers in what it is required to learn,- that the tion is directed, the scholar cannot fail of acwill not imagine that this whole series of observa. exercise should be rendered pleasing in it- quiring a facility and accuracy in expressing Lions will be performed in one day, in one month, self, and exempted as much as possible from his ideas, which the common mode of instrucor even in c year. They will, in all likelihood, all circunstances which are calculated to tion is not at all calculated to give. After engage our dention during at least four, and per produce wandering thonghts and feelings, the scholars have severally expressed their haps five yeye one hour every day. That is a time; nted-but , please to consider the lassitude or disgust
. Let the scholar's views on any topic, the instructer explaios extensivene importance of the business, and powers be called into föll exercise, but let' to them how far they are correct; notices
their several errors in opinion and in lan-, and, in a word, admirably suited, I think, wbich not only debases that, but which guage, and rectifies the whole matter in an to make easy, pleasant, and intelligible the will also throw its tinge of gall over all intelligible manner. The utmost pains are highly important subjects of his inquiry. I the honourable ambition and enterprise of taken to cultivate in the pupils the habit of know of few American specimens in didac- our lives. Our elementary instructers expressing their opinions freely; and, under tic writing superior to it. You will see it, should look carefully to this. The rod is a the tuition of a competent and faithful in- by a single glance over any of the pages, to much better corrective of indolence, than structer, how can they avoid learning to be of the author's own composition. And it is bad passions are. Indeed the latter remedy converse with ease and propriety on the deserving of the greater praise in Mr Park. is incomparably worse, on all accounts, numerous topics which will be introduced hurst, because he is evidently a devoted than the disease can possibly become. in the course of a regular education? How admirer of Dr Brown's Lectures on the You will observe that I confine my re. few persons ever learn the art of conversing Philosophy of the Human Mind, which are marks here to the use of emulation in early well; and how little is done by common in their style extremely wordy, prolix, and intellectual education. It is because I modes of education to cultivate it. It can repetitious,-faulls, however, much more would not banish it from the system entirenot be doubted, that the method adopted by excusable in that mode of composition than ly. Very noble, generous feelings are Pestalozzi is admirably calculated to im- in any other.
sometimes awakened and brought forth by prove this faculty,-a talent which, as social When I have said thus much in favour of it. There is scarcely a single game of beings, is the most important with which we the book, I am sorry to add, that it is the skill or of ingenuity, or of any interesting are endowed.
greatest and perhaps the only encomium it yet honourable competition, where it does
deserves as a whole. There is very little, not prevail. It forms the mainspring of Elements of Moral Philosophy: comprising if any, original matter in it. The reason- some of our most innocent social amuse
the Theory of Morals and Practical ings and conclusions, and indeed the order ments, where nothing but the kindest moEthics. By John L. Parkhurst. Con- and arrangement of Brown and Paley form tives can have play. They owe to it, incord, N. H. 1825. 12mo. pp. 257. the great body of the work. Copious ex- deed, all their value, all their delight.
tracts are made continually from those Higher purposes too, have, without doubt, (We sent this volume to a lover of moral phi- highly popular writers. Page after page, been generously accomplished by it. The lososphy for a Review, and in answer to our re- nay, chapter after chapter are taken from classical scholar will scarcely be willing to quest he wrote us the following private letter, which them almost entire; and you will scarcely believe that the rival competitors at the we have since obtained leave of him to lay before open the volume casually without lighting Olympic games secretly envied and hated our readers.)
upon some quotation or reference to them, each other. And perhaps I may say gen
or without perceiving that the author's re- erally that comparatively late in life, when
March, 1825. marks are based altogether upon their the moral character is cast, or at least when DEAR SIR,
maxims and principles. So striking is this the feelings have acquired decisively a I happened to be out of town when in fact, that it appears at first sight rather kind, social, affectionate tendency, it may your little volume was left at my room, and designed for a compilation, or an abstract always be introduced with much advantage, it was not till last evening that I had an with a commentary upon them, than for an and made a very powerful incentive to inopportunity of cutting the leaves, and read- original work itself. It is true, very gen- dustry and enterprise. It is rather a fault ing it, or rather of running it very hastily erous credit is given in the mean time. in Mr Parkhurst, I think, that he makes no
The author seldom takes without acknowl. distinctions of this sort, but wishes the prinIt is not in my power to give you a prop edging to the full amount of his obligation. ciple banished altogether. His reasonings er review of it at present. The innumera- This is but a poor apology however. His upon the subject are indeed able and inble reflections which always crowd upon readers will scarcely excuse him for calling genious. I would advise you to take into the mind whenever a subject in ethics or on them to read over again such long, de- your review large extracts from this chapmental philosophy is fairly presented to it, tailed, elaborate discussions of other phi-ter, as much the most favourable specimen I have no leisure now to digest and arrange, losophers, after the promise he makes to of the writer's talents and good feelings, and if I were to pour them out to you in de them on his title-page.
and excellent taste in the didactic style of tail, they would probably overflow your There are two or three bonourable ex. composition.* pages, and you must publish a number of ceptions to the censures I have just now Generally, however, when Mr Parkhurst your Gazette extra,—and extra tedious, I past, -exceptions which prove the author am sure. Indeed, it seems to me quite im- to have resources within himself, and
* The following are the concluding remarks of possible, within the narrow limits of a pub- must make us lament the more that he
the excellent chapter above referred to. lication such as yours, to do any thing like sbould choose to throw himself so en.
VII. Concluding remarks.
1. Emulation, in every degree and in every justice to a theme of this magnitude. The tirely upon those furnished him by other form, is criminal
, and ought never to have a place subject is altogether too large for its grasp. people. I have now in my eye particu- in the breast. This is evident from what has alIt is most grand and comprehensive, -em- iarly the chapter on “ Emulation,” in the ready been said; but the importance of the subject bracing the greatest number and variety of part which is headed “ Practical Ethics." will justify us in bringing it more distinctly into
view. questions, all equally interesting to every This is very excellent. The nature and
Emulation is a selfish principle ; and is inconclass of your readers, and yet all to be dis- origin of that feeling,-its union with sistent with the exercise of pure and universal becussed in an abstract, refined, and some pride, vanity, hatred, and low ambition,
-nevolence. If it were an innocent or a benevolent what metaphysical manner. I shall at its dangerous tendency ;-that it leads to, principle, a failure of success in striving to Icel, tempt nothing of this sort now.
All you awakens, and gradually brings into action would not produce envy and hatred. It isosis must expect from me is my idea of the gen- the most malignant passions of our nature, right to do this with feelings which can patha
desire and seek our own happiness; bu'ae vel eral character of the book you have sent and that, by its violence and exclusive from rejoicing in the happiness of othcharen me. Perhaps this may save you the trouble occupation of the mind, it frequently de- when they are more successful and me happy of reading it so attentively, though I ad- feats its own great purposes of improve than ourselves. That emulation is inconsistent vise you, as my friend, to burn up these ment and supremacy-are here in these with benevolence, is a proposition which is capable remarks, take it in hand, and give it a pages finely set forth and demonstrated. of demonstration: Suppose that a man occupies a
certain station, in respect to talents, knowledge, thorough examination yourself.
Certainly this principle is used injudicious reputation, and usefulness. To see others inferior But to the work itself. And, in the first ly in our own common systems of early in- to him in these respects, gives a pleasure, which place, the author deserves a great deal of tellectual education. If the head is en- ceases as soon as they are raised fi in equality praise for the style in which he offers it to lightened, it is at the expense of the heart with him, and is converted into pain noon as they the public. This is pure and classic,-sim- We can hardly pronounce knowledge to are raised above him, -although hith at a station, ple and unaffected, -rich, without being be a source of enjoyment when thus ac arises from seeing others destitute øles gred which
all the while, remains the same. ;, par pleasure encumbered with superfluous ornaments; I quired. There is an alloy mingled with it, I he enjoys; ceases as soon as thwoul, 68 alessings