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man, as you profess to be, and let us fight it out his delusive conduct, seized and disarmed the whole the case stood, or rather bung with their If you kill me, my men shall be yours; but if I kill without the loss of a man.

, you, your men shall be mine. Miantonimoh re: with his Pennacooks, and others who had agreed squaw horse, who uphorsed their mare and plied," my men came to fight, and they shall fight.' on the peace, were released: the others being fugi- brought her to her former tameness.” Uncas instantly fell upon the ground, and his mentives from Philip, were retained prisoners, to the

The latter part of this story, we observe poured a shower of arrows upon the Narragansets number of about two hundred, and afterwards sent en passant, which speaks of the iron-heels, and with a horrible yell, advanced rapidly upon to Boston, and seren or eight of their leaders hang. rather forgets the beginning, which would them and put them to flight. Uncas and his men ed; the remainder were sold into s.avery in for- seem to imply that the animal had been pressed on and drove them down a precipice, scat- eign parts.

long enough in the woods to get clear of tering them in all directions. Miantonimoh was overtaken and seized by Uncas, who by a shout deception had his reward.

Truly the contriver of this abominable her shoes. called back his furious warriors. About thirty

The work remaining to be noticed in Narragansetts were slain, and many wounded, The seizure of the Indians by Major Waldron this articie, is the first fruits of the New among whom were several noted chiefs. Finding was not forgotten. Sone who had been sold into Hampshire Historical Society. The great himself in the hands of his implacable enemy, slavery abroad, had found means to return home, benefit, which has accrued to the interests Miantonimoh remained silent, nor could Uncas, hy and with impatience awaited an opportunity to res of literature and science, by the division of any art, force him to break his sullen mood. Had venge themselves. A confederacy was formed by you taken me,' said the conqueror, • I should have the Pennacooks and Pigwackets, and soine others, literary labour effected by various associaasked you for my kife. No reply was made by to surprise Waldron and his neighbours at Dover. tions, is too well understood and appreciatthe indignant chief, and he submitted without a The place was then defended by five garrisoned ed to need any consideration io this place. murmur to his humiliating condition. He was af- houses, situated on each side

of the river, in which we may only observe that the objects of terwards conducted to Hartford, by his conqueror

, the people generally secured themselves in the the various historical and antiquarian soand delivered to the English, by whom he was held night. But as the Indians were frequently in the in duress, until his fate should be determined by town for the purpose of trading with the people, no cieties in this country are particularly the commissioners of the colonies.

suspicions were entertained of their hostile plan, praiseworthy. Much bas thus been already After an examination of his case, the commis- and the guards had become very remiss.

preserved, that would long since bave prob- 1 sioners resolved, • That as it was evident that Uncas The night of the twenty-seventh of June was ably been lost to the world and much more could not be safe while Miantonimoh lived; but chosen for carrying their plan into excution. In will doubtless be collected, that is now in either by secret treachery, or open force, his life the evening iwo Indian women were admitted into would be constantly in danger, he might justly put several of the garrisoned houses, which gave them

a fair way to become so. such a false and blood-thirsty enemy to death; but an opportunity of observing the manner in which Among the various interesting articles this was to be done out of the English jurisdiction, the gates were opened. They informed Major contained in this work, we shall notice one and without cruelty or torture.' Miantonimoh was Waldron that a number of Indians would arrive or two which we think particularly so. delivered to Uncas, and by a number of his trusty the next day to trade with him; and an Indian Nearly half the volume is occupied by a men marched to the spot, where he was captured, then at the house, hospitably entertained, said to attended by two Englishmen, to see that no torture the Major, while at supper, · Brother, what would reprint of Penhallow's Narrative of Indian was inficted; and the moment that he arrived at you do if the strange Indians should come. Wal Wars from 1703 to 1726, a book so exceed. the fatal spot, one of Uncas' men came up behind, dron replied, that he would assemble one hundreding scarce, that it was with great difficulty and with his hatchet split the scull of the unfortu- men by the motion of his hand. No suspicions that a perfect copy could be found in the nate chief. It is stated that the savage Uncas then however were excited by these insinuations, and country. It is an entertaining account, but, cut out a piece of the shoulder of the dead body, the family retired to repose. In a short time a and ate it, with triumph, exclaimingIt is the large body of Indians entered the town; Waldron's like all other original accounts, is too fresweetest meat I ever ate ; it makes my heart gate was opened, and they rushed into his room. quently such as to be little creditable to the

“ When I strong.". The body was buryed on the spot, and Springing from his bed, and seizing his sword, he morality of the first settlers. a heap of stones piled upon the grave. The place drove them back, but as he was returning for his asked one of the chief sachems," says Pensince that time has been known by the name of gun, he was stunned by the stroke of a hatchet-hallow," wherefore it was that they were Sachem's Plain, and is situated in the town of Nor- drawn into his hall, and seating him

in a chair

, so bigotted to the French, considering their wich in Connecticut.

they asked, Who shall judge Indians now. They traffic with them was not so advantageous

then proceeded to torment him, by cutting his body Horrible as the action of Uncas on this and face in the most horrid manner; and at length as with the English? he gravely replied

, occasion must appear to every one, it was despatched him, took the other people, pillaged the that the friars taught them to pray, but that of a savage, whose education had not house, and set it on fire.

the English never did,” and he admits taught him better things; and we have no The author, while speaking of the Indian that the argument was well founded. hesitation in considering it less worthy of deer traps (which were made by bending Among other stories in this account, we detestation, than the treacherous conduct down a sapling, having a loop affixed to the have one of the conduct of an Indian at Cocheco, of Major Waldron, a man edu- end, and securing it so as to be easily dis- widow, which shows that the natives were cated under the light of christianity, and engaged by an animal passing through it) not always without a certain share of what one of place and authority among a people alludes to an anecdote related, in a very lu- Touchstone calls, “ natural philosopby." who valued themselves upon the purity of dicrous manner, by Wood in his New Eng- Samuel Butterfield, who being sent to Groton as their religion. The account is thus given land's Prospect. As one of our principal a soldier, was with others attacked as they were by Mr Hoyt.

aims in this Gazette is to amuse our read- gathering in the harvest ; his bravery was such,

ers, we shall extract the account from that be killed one and wounded another, but being coast into Maine, still continued, and most of the Wood, though not particularly to the pur- and it happened that the slain Indian was a saga

, ; settlements in that quarter partook of the general pose of this review.

more, and of great dexterity in war, which caused calamity. The Massachusetts forces were now at “ An English mare, having strayed from a matter of lamentation, and enraged them to sach liberty to turn their arms in that direction; and her owner, and grown wild by her long so- a degree that they vowed the utmost revenge: some Captains Sill and Hawthorn, with two companies, journing in the woods, ranging up and down were for whipping him to death, others for burning were sent to Cocheco, where they joined Major with the wild crew,stumbled into one of these him alive, but aiffering in their sentiments, they Waldron at that place. At this time about four

submitted to the Widow, hundred Indians had assembled in the vicinity of traps, which stopt her speed, hanging her, ing she would determine something very dreadful; the Major's house, part of whom were Pennacooks, like Mahomet’s tomb, betwixt earth and but wben the matter was opened, and the fact conwho bad agreed on terms of peace, but now began heaven; the morning being come, the Insidered, her spirits were so moderate as to make desirous of attacking them, but the Major finally venison traps had brought them, but seeing if by killing him, you can bring my husband to to show a hostile spirit . şill and Hawthorn were dians went to look what good success their no other reply than Fortune L'guerre. Upon

which some were uneasy, to whom she answered, devised a plan to seize them by a stratagem. He proposed to the Indians a training and sham-fight such a long-scutted deer prance in their life again, i beg you to study what death you whe next day. With the forces he had with him, merritotter, they bade her good morrow, please ; but if not, let him be my servant;' which thank as to join the two companies of Sill and Haw- crying out,“ What cheer, what cheer, Eng- he accordingly was, during his captivity, and bad it, whe, which were to form one party, and the In- lishman's squaw horse ?” having no better favor shewn offered up other, and the latter agreed to the play epithet than to call her a woman-borse ; We suspect that Butterfield was comely of the Crossne appointed the parties met, and Wall but being loth to kill her and as fearful to aspect, as well as strong of arm, performed rmmander, diverted them some time, and had before hir harmless fire; he then contrived to approach the friscadoes of her iron-heels, We were much interested by the last Maker of Herm, and closing in his troops, changed they posted to the English to tell them how I will and testament of Standish, the famous which they dedi sumption was, th

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Plymouth commander, which is here pub- In the work before us, the author has not the country, might, like Fontenelle, thank lisbed entire. We have usually suspected attempted to make the thorough reforma- bis stars that he has not yet learned wbat the worthy captain, if his descendants will tion, which, we suppose, he would agree grammarians call a preposition. There is allow us the expression, to have been a with us in thinking desirable. Although very little exaggeration in this. It is ac. kind of Gallio in too many things, and he has introduced some valuable improve tually true, that very few of our eminent were gratified to find the following among ments, he has retained the general system scholars of fifty or sixty years of age, can the codicils of his will.

of grammar taught in all our schools. We parse an ordinary paragraph according to Further my will is, that Martha Marcye Roben regard this systein as radically, and almost common grammatical rules; and many of son, whom I tenderly loue for her grand farthers totally false ; and the study of the common them never learned to do it. sacke, shall haue three pounds in some thing to go books which teach it, as one of the most It may be said, that most of the learned, forward for her two years after my decease which useless and stupid exercises ever imposed who did not make English grammar a sepamy will is my overseers shall see performed.

upon the growing mind. We shall not new rate study, yet acquired much knowledge That be had some longings after the detail our reasons for this opinion, as most of it from studying the Latin and Greek. “ flesh-pots of Egypt,” appears from the of them have been given to our readers, in There is some iruih in ibis ; but much less last devise.

the remarks which have been published in than is commonly imagined. The study of I give vnto my son and heire aparent Allexander several numbers of the Gazette, “ On the these languages affords great assistance in Standish, all my lands as heire a parent by lawfullCominon Systems of English Grammar.” determining the exact meaning of the words deceat in Ormistick, Borsconge, Wrightington,

We do not mean to deny, that the study in our own; not only of those which are de, , , and Isle of Man, and given to mee as right heire by lawful de- of grammar is attended with important ad- rived from the Latin and Greek, but of all cent but surruptuously detained from mee, my vantages; but we believe, that tew of these that are brought into use during the study. great grandfather being a vond or younger brother advantages result from the system itself

. The constant use of the dictionary for the from the house of Standish of Standish.

They appear to be almost wholly incidental. purpose of determining what English word We think this matter worthy the atten- The mind is exercised in determining the will express precisely the meaning of the tion of the heirs male, if there be any now meaning of words, phrases, and sentences, Latin or Greek word, gives the mind a remaining of this intrepid soldier. Who and, by this means, acquires the babit of habit of selecting terms for expressing its knows but the broad lands of Borconge, attending carefully and critically to the meaning with facility and accuracy, and Maudsley, &c., more substantial matters sense of what is heard and read. This is greatly enlarges its stock, from which the than the landless coronet of the Dudleys, nearly all the advantage that can be de- selection is to be made. Add to this, that may one day find, like that, á lawful claiin- rived from studying the common treatises when the etymology of an English word is ant on this side the Atlantic.

on grammar, and it is obvious that this does discovered, its exact meaning is generally Towards the end of the volume is a re- not depend on the correctness of the sys- better understood, and less liable to be forsolve of the Commissioners of the United tem. Some of the rules of orthography are gotten. Colonies concerning the Qnakers. This, useful, but these belong to a child's second These are great and important aids towhich is in the usual bigoted and intoler. Spelling-Book. A few definitions of words wards an extensive and correct knowledge ant style of the day, we should not have are given more accurately than in our dic- of our language; and we think, that they noticed, but for a qualification annexed to lionaries; these, with the examples of in. constitute the principal advantages which the signature of Governor Winthrop, which, correct modes of expression, and some of are derived from studying the dead lanif we rightly understand it, is in the high- the rules for punctuation, are useful. It is guages. The grammatical structure of these est degree honourable to him. “ Looking,” commonly supposed, that parsing is of great is so different from that of our own, tbat very says be, “ at the article as a query, and not consequence, from its disclosing the rela- little advantage can be derived from comas an act, I subscribe.”

tions which exist between the several words paring them. We close this desultory article with the in a sentence; but this will appear of much In these prefatory remarks, we shall not be expression of our best wishes for the suc- less account, when it is observed, how very understood as casting any censure upon Mr cess of the respective authors of the works, few of these relations are accurately defined. Picket. He has doubtless a more favourawhich bave given occasion to it, and our It cannot add much to the scholar's knowl. ble opinion of the common system of English best acknowledgments for the entertain- edge, to tell him, that a preposition shows grammar than we have expressed, or he ment they have afforded us.

the relation between two words, while the would not have made it the ground-work of nature of that relation is not explained; or his book. But our objections to the general

that a conjunction connects two words, while system cannot be applied to this, more than Analytical School Grammar. Picket's Gram- the connexion is undefined.

to other grammars; and the author has mar of the English Language, comprising If a knowledge of the common system of made some very important improvements, its Principles and Rules : Adapted to the parsing the English language be so impor- that give to his work a real value, which business of Instruction in Primary Schools. tant as is generally imagined, how comes is we can concede to no other within the By A. Picket, Author of the American to pass that so few good writers of any age reach of the public. Our business, thereSchool Class Books, the Jurenile Spelling, have been at all dependent upon it? It is fore, with him, is to give him credit for all Book, fc. &c. Second Edition modified, scarcely a century since parsing was up the good he has done, and thereby encourand greatly improved. New York. 1824. known. Our aged fathers all tell us, that age him, and others, to make further ad13mo. pp. 252.

it was taught little or none wben they went vances in the work of reformation. PROBABLY many of our readers already to school. Even the most literary men The first of these improvements, which know, that Mr Picket has for many years among us, those who are distinguished for we shall mention, consists in the definitions been a most faithful and efficient labourer good writing and speaking, have rarely which are given to the technical language in the good cause of improving our system much acquaintance with this notable ari. of this science. These definitions are given of education. We cannot say, whether bis Had we a sent. nce hard to resolve accord in the form of explanations and remarks exertions have been uniformly judicious; ing to the principles and rules of Murray, after the 'several sections; and they are but we believe his principles io be gener- we surely should not consult a president or much more numerous, clear, and compreally correct; his labours have certainly a professor of a college, except he were bensive than are to be found in the works been great; and we regret to learn, that very young, nor a learned clergyman, nor in common use. Many of them are, howbis compensation has been far less than his an eminent lawyer or judge. Nay, if both ever, partial, obscure, or erroneous, owing services have merited. His principles have houses of congress would make your ques to the general vaguepess and falsity of the been considerably in advance of those which tion the order of the day, in committee of system which they are designed to illusare applied in most of our schools, and the the whole, it is doubtful whether they could trate. But enough is well done, to encourpublic cannot be immediately prepared to afford any aid ; and many a one of them, age the scholar greatly in the important appreciate them.

wbose eloquence is celebrated throughout habit of inquiring carefully and critically

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into the meaning of every thing that belongs

Verbs ending in ate, draw after them a family of responding rules in other grammars; but, to his lesson. This habit is so essential, that terminations in ant, or, ory, acy, ation, and ive; as, in general, there is little improvement. I the value of every school book must be con- from operate, come operant, operator, operative is sufficient to say, that Mr Picket has se

and operation; from derogate, comes derogatory; lected the best part of other grammars; sidered as depending in the degree in which from expiate, comes expiatory. it is calculated to promote it. Picket's Ize, or ise, is a verbal termination, and signifies that where he has deviated from them, he Grammar will encourage inquiry, and sat- to make; as, apologize, to make a pology; equalise, has made some improvement; that he has isfy it, far better than any other that we to make equal.

lze produces ist in the personal noun, and ism in ouring to make this science intelligible to

set a very important example, in endeavhave seen.

, , But the part of this book which we most baptism; from catechise, come Catechist, catechism: the scholar in every stage of his progress; highly esteem, consists of nine pages, in

Ify, or ty, signides to make, or to become ; as, to and that most of his definitions of prefixes which the common prefixes and affixes of beautify, to make beautiful; justify, 10 make, or and affixes are very valuable additions to the English words are defined. Whatever will prove just ; signify, to make a sign; petrify, to common stock of grammatical knowledge.

become stone. aid the scholar in learning the exact mean

Before closing this article, we wish to

Adjective Terminations from the Latin. ing of terms, is of real value to him. We

Ant, expressing quality, is purely the active par- express the opinion, that nearly all artifihave already remarked, that, to ascertain ticiple of the Latin language, changing ans into ant cial rules for writing and speaking would the etymology of a word, generally aids the It may be best explained by the English participle be rendered unnecessary by a work which mind greatly in fixing its true signification. in ing; as, abundant, abounding; attendant, a: should supply the deficiencies of our dicThis idea is ridiculed by many, but it is not tending; pleasant, pleasing.

tionaries. We need little instruction as to

The reader will observe that no words are given, the right manner of using words, which we the less correct. No one pretends that the original word or words, of which a modern except such as are purely English, when the termination is removed.

perfectly understand. If any one is comone may be found to be composed, furnish Ent is the Latin participle under another form, petent to give the etymology of English precisely the meaning now given to it; but meaning the same as the preceding; as, adher: prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs, and but to ascertain the radical meaning, and ent, adhering; indulgent, indulging ; provident, to define the radical ideas which they now then observe the modifications inform providing: and meaning, which it has undergone in

Ous is merely the Latin adjective termination in express, we believe he can do a more im

Its meaning is the same as the preceding, and portant service to philological science iban passing to its present state, exercises the may be expressed by the words having, or being. any man has yet done. A work of this mind sufficiently to make a lasting impress. This termination also signifies plenty; as, advan- character, faithfully executed, would renion. Interest is excited, facts and circum- tageous, famous, dangerous, ruinous, courageous, der the greater part of every grammar upstances are brought to light; and the sense furious, monstrous, &c. of the word, which, but for these, would this termination and the Saxon word wise, meaning

There is a considerable resemblance between of the meaning of these words, by numerous

necessary. It should contain illustrations have passed through the mind with little manner; as, rightwise, for righteous.

examples; and also point out the common notice, will now abide in the memory. Ar, signifies belonging to; as, angular, belonging errors which are committed, from ignorance

Horne Tooke applied the science of ety- to angle ; circular, belonging to circle; singular, of their true meaning. If Noah Webster, or mology to the most difficult class of words belonging to single.

any one else, can do this, we think he should in the language. Let any person who has oracle, single, title, takes u into the last syllable for his labour.

Each of those words formed from angle, circle, do it, and that he would be well rewarded used the Diversions of Purley say, whether but one, in conformity to the idiom of the Latin

We mention Mr Webster, he has not a more definite idea of the mean language, from which ihey were derived.

because we have no evidence, that any other ing of the prepositions, conjunctions, and Ward is derived from the Saxon verb wardian, gentleman in this country is so competent to adverbs, of which the etymology is there to look, and signifies in the direction of looking to the task ;-and, also, because the brief acgiven, than he could possibly bave obtained ward; as, forward, backward, eastward, westward. count of the work which he is now engaged from common dictionaries, or from attending beggarly, that is, beggarlike; stately, statelike ;

Ly is, in all for like

in publishing, contained in the newspapers, to the meaning given them by modern usage. frankly, franklike.

permits us to hope, that he has attempted We believe, that no person who reads that Y appears to express plenty of that of which the something of this kind. work attentively, can fail of observing, that primitive is the name; as, wealthy, plenty of wealth; those who disregard the science of etymolo-worthy, plenty of worth.

Analysis of Vocal Inflections, as used in

Negative Adjectives. gy, however learned they may be in others, • The negative adjectives express the negation of

keading and Speaking, designed to renare very liable to use the minor parts of those qualities which the preceding confirm. The

der the principles of Walker's Elements speech vaguely and incorrectly. Every one negative is formed in two ways; either by the pre

more intelligible. Andover. 1824. knows that the principal difficulties, attend- fix un, or in, or by the termination less. The for. We have understood that the Rev.Dr Porter, ing the formation of a correct'style, arise mer has been already explained.

Less is the imperative of the Saxon verb lessan, and that it was originally prepared for the

of Andover, is the author of this pamphlet, from this class of words. Few scholars have any means for determining, detinitely, their less

, without a friend.
and signifies to diminish; to take away; as, friend-

use of his students. It may be thought not signification. If they consult their diction.

Termination of the Personal Noun. altogether a proper subject of criticism, but aries or masters, the case is equally hope. Er may be considered as the genuine English as it is an uncommoniy practical, compreless. We greatly need a dictionary which termination of the personal noun. It is the German hensive, and judicious treatise, on an elegant shall give the etymological signification of pronoun of the third person, answering to our he; accomplishment, and a useful branch of eduthese “ winged words” in a manner so fa- as, accuser, he that accuses; seller, he that sells. miliar, as to be comprehended by the mere the same ; as, liar, begyar.

Ar is a variation of the foregoing, meaning nearly cation, we are not willing to lose the oppor

tunity of recommending it to our readers. English scholar, together with such exam- Or is a Latin termination, having the same sense The Analysis is designed to facilitate the ples as will show how they have passed to as the preceding and derived from the same source; study of Walker; and something of this kind their present form and use. as, collector, he that collects ; director, he thai

was wanted. Walker was, perhaps, undirects. But, to return to Mr Picket; who, we Ary is also a frequent termination of the personal

rivalled as a viva voce exemplifier of those said, had done well to define prefixes and noun: as, adversary, one that is averse to any thing; principles, the discovery and the exposition affixes. We shall give an example relating missionary, one that goes on missions.

of which do his name much honour. In the to affixes, commencing on page 120.

Eer is a variation of the terminatoin er; as, practical department of elocution, be may

auctioneer, one who sells at auction. En is a verbal termination expressing force or

have had no superior. But, as a writer, be

An, as a termination, signifies belonging to; it is energy; as, from the noun heighi, comes the verb

one of the signs of the possessive case in the Saxon must be acknowleged to be often vague, 10 heighten; from the adjective dark, comes the language, and may be explained thus : he that is prolix, and obscure. His mind, if we may verb to darken; from the adjectives less, hard, deaf, of, or belonging to ; as, grammarian, he that pro-judge from his writings, does not seem to come the verbs to lessen, to harden, to deafen. Ate, signifies to make or act; as, alienate, to make tessses to be acquainted with grammar; republican, have been trained and disciplined to metd

one belonging to a republic. alien; personate, to act the person; assassinate, to

odical arrangement. His thoughts were conact the assassin; criminate, to charge with crime; In examining the rules of syntax, we no- stantly and exclusively directed to pract:thbricate, to make a fabrication.

ticed a few which are better than the cor-cal excellence; and, accordingly, his works

on elocution are, in many places, too diffuse dissolve.” You will hardly believe this pos- chandelier, the effect of which is excellent. and miscellaneous, and have too little of a sible, and yet it is literally the fact. It The music is likewise very good. The first systematic form to make good class books. requires two or three days' attendance to tune usually played in British theatres, is With reference to Walker's remarks on drill one's muscles into proper order for the “ God save the King,” when all rise and inflections, Dr Porter says, “The conviction occasion. Oratory indeed is not the forte uncover. The company is very tolerable, that he (Walker) was treating a difficult of the Scotch. I have heard but few speak. and the pieces, whenever I have been pressubject, led him to the very common mis. ers at the bar, but they were no better than ent, have gone off well; the house is best take of attempting to make his meaning the professors. In short, I have not yet attended on Saturday evening, as private plain by prolixity of remark and multi- heard in pulpit, forum, or college chair, a parties on that night must break up at plicity of rutes ;" and, with regard to his single speaker, who would be considered twelve, and of course they are not so comown work, “ The view of these elements, above mediocrity on our side of the Atlan- mon as in the preceding part of the week. to which he (Walker) devotes about a hun- tic, and the majority are intolerable. A few days since, B- and I visited dred and fifty pages, after he enters on in- They have here a custom, indecorous in Holyrood, where we saw a series of grim flections, I here attempt to comprise in a the highest degree, that of applauding the kings, from Fergus to James the Seventh, short compass. The rest of his work may lecturer by clapping and stamping; I hardly the greater part of whom never existed anybe read with increased advantage, if the new recollect when my nerves have been more where, except on the walls of the palace, classification which I have given, should be “horrified” than they were by the first or in the noddles of certain addle-headed intelligible.” To our clerical readers, in specimen of this kind of salutation to a historians. The full length figure of Robert particular, we would recommend Dr Por- venerable professor. Moreover, as soon as Bruce is a very fine one, and that of Queen ter's tract. They will find that it bases the the hour appointed to each teacher expires, Mary, though somewhat defaced, is the most infections of elocution on those of conver- the hearers rise without the smallest cere- beautiful picture I have ever seen of her. sation; that it compresses the phraseology mony, and leave him in the lurch. Once, I do not mean that the painting is remark. of the rules, and thus places the principles indeed, I knew this to happen in the very ably good, but only that it gave me a better of the rules in a much clearer light. midst of a story, of which the lecturer re- idea of the beauty of the original, than I

We regret that the author of this pamph- sumed the thread the following day, as if have been able to get from any other. We let did not add to bis analysis of infections, nothing had happened. To do equal justice, were then shown Mary's apartments, in a simple theory of tones as expressive of however, I believe the same, or similar cus- which, by the way, no genteel domestic of emotion. No department of elocution is, in toms prevail in Philadelphia.

the present day would endure to reside. our opinion, less understood than this; and in Many of the churches are uncomfortable Rizzio's blood on the floor, Lord Darnley's none are there more or worse errors in read- beyond all conception. Last Sunday I was armour, boots, gloves, &c. were among the ing and speaking. The whole apparatus of present at one, which, in this particular, curiosities of the place. The boots resem. analysis, definitions, and rules, are no where would beggar description. I have been try- bled those which fishermen now use, on more wanted than bere. What is commonly ing in vain to hit upon some mode of con- the banks of Newfoundland. In one of the called a tone in reading or in speaking, is veying to you some idea of it, but language apartments were two pictures, one of Jane nothing else than the substitution of the tone was unfortunately made before people had Shore, and the other of Nell Gwinn, both of one emotion for that of another, or the any notion, that it was ever to be employed very beautiful faces, but the latter so exexpression of emotion where none is implied. for such a purpose. I have seen edifices, quisite, that it is difficult to cease looking Now the best possible remedy for such faults, in the construction of which, beauty was at it. I do not believe that any woman is a thorough analytic investigation of tones. sacrificed to convenience, and vice versâ ; was ever so beautiful. We cannot but hope, that an author so well but here beauty, convenience, light, and The days at this season have a very gloomy qualified for the task, as the writer of this air were disregarded, without any one pos- appearance, even when they are perfectly analysis of inflections, will be induced to sible equivalent. The fact is, that they di- clear. The sun is so low, that noon looks publish a brief and practical treatise on this vide an old Gothic cathedral, when they like our evening, or rather afternoon just interesting subject.

can find a whole one, into two, three, or before sunset. He rises and creeps along more separate places of worship, and crowd a few hours, just above the Pentland hills,

them with pews, so narrow, that a seat in casting long shadows across the streets, and MISCELLANY.

them is little better than one in a Yankee slides down again, leaving us in need of canstage-coach, containing sixteen insides, the dles by four o'clock, or earlier. He is now,

last being rammed in by the driver, who, like however, on the ascent again. I caonot No. VII.

nature, abhors a vacuum, and, with his shoul- say that this arrangement suits me quite as

der applied to the door, secures the whole well as our own more vertical suns, and am Edinburgh, January 5, 18

mass as effectually as the contents of one glad that I am not called on to remain here MY DEAR FRIENDS,

of their own trunks. In much the same the remainder of my days. To make up for The number of students attending manner was I crowded into one of the afore- the present short allowance of daylight, the lectures, during the present session, is said pews, snugly constructed behind an im- they have a superfluity of it at midsummer, about twenty-five hundred, of whom six or mense pillar, which served to conceal the when there is scarcely any darkness. The seven hundred are medical. The lecture preacher, as well as a considerable portion weather is quite mild yet, nor is it ever so rooms are by no means so beautiful as those of the congregation, and was fain to relieve cold here as with us, but the winters are more in our own Medical College, nor do the pro- the tediousness of a great portion of the unpleasant, rainy, and foggy, and the streets fessors generally lecture as well, that is, service by decyphering the inscription on an are shockingly muddy. Indeed, to judge from not as eloquently, though perhaps more old monumenta: plate, which commemorated our experience hitherto, a Scotch winter is learnedly. Dr Hope, for instance, rants as the assassination of the Regent Murray. certainly a very different matter from a New badly as any understrapping actor, whom There are a great many Americans here England one. It is fall weather, and that I remember to have heard; and any thing this session, and a considerable portion of is all. There has nothing appeared, as yet, like rant, connected with a performance so them are Yankees. There is no city, if you like snow, and hardly any frost. I do not rigidly didactic in its nature, as a chemical will allow me the parody, but is vexed by know where Thomson got his description lecture, produces an effect of the most lu- their phizzes. Strangers, however, are no of a man perishing in a snow-storm. The dicrous kind. Just conceive of a professor vexation to Auld Reekie, for the gude town inbabitants, however, seem to be agreed, in a black gown, delivering such a sentence is in a great measure supported by visitors that the present season is unusually mild. as this : “ The sea-water is evaporated in of various kinds.

They are generally very careless of themlarge shallow pans," with arm extended, The theatre in Edinburgh is small, but selves. Every one seems to have a cold, and all the circumstance of a school orator very pretty. It is illuminated by gas-lights, and there is soinetimes so much coughing spouting, “ Yea, all which it inberit, shalil arranged in the form of a single superb lin the lecture rooms, that it is difficult to

LETTERS FROM A TRAVELLER.

hear the lecturer. They laugh at me, some- had gone half way, it rained, and when I nite present and the indefinite past; and, times, when I go out in the evening nufiled reached home, it was again clear. Hap- agreeably to the principle we have prein a plaid cloak, and they are quite welcome pening to remark to a gentieman the other viously stated, these are the only tenses so to do; I have no ambition to make one in day, on the beauty of the preceding even- which should be recognised in our gramthe interesting class of consumptives, which ing, he said he was sorry that he could not mars. In some cases the past participle as. abound here, as might be expected. agree with me, as he had been wet to the sumes a form different from the indefinite

I see, occasionally, in my walks, the robin- skin. It appeared, on investigation, that I past tense, as take, tonk, taken; but the partired-breast, so famous in nursery ballads. It had been abroad at a quarter before ten, ciple does not express any tense of the verb is a pretty, sociable little bird, and I feel a and he a quarter after. You may smile at different from the form of the indefinite past. great respect for it, on account of that affair this account of the weather, but I assure

We call both the present tense and the of the Babes in the Wood. It is very like you, it is far enough from being matter of past indefinite, because they do not definitea wren, or small sparrow, having the neck sport to me. If it were always stormy, one ly determine the time of the action. What and breast brownish red, and quite different might be always provided, and the reverse; we have denominated the indefinite present. from either of the birds which go by the as it is, I make out but badly. The natives is no more nor less than the simple form of name of robin in New England. As winter seem to think calculations about the state the verb, which expresses being, action, or approaches, it becomes very tame. of the atmosphere quite out of the question. passion without denoting any thing of time,

It is a custom in this city, on the eve of They appear to dress always in the same it therefore applies to all times, without the new year, for the lower class of people way, and to take the changes as they come, designating any time. We shall not conto run about the streets, as soon as the clock with laudable composure.

tenå for the correctness of the name here strikes twelve, with the most extravagant I bave lately visited, with B-, the applied to it; but we are confident in asdemonstrations of joy, wishing every one a Botanic Garden, which is situated between serting, that it is indefinite, and that the happy new year, staking hands with all the Edinburgh and Leith. It is a very good common definition, which makes it denote men, and kissing all the females, which one, and the plants are well arranged. what is now passing, is quite incorrect. ceremony, every one, whether gentle or Even at this season, the holly-hedges, and This will be sufficiently proved by a very simple, is obliged to submit to, who happens many of the shrubs are quite green, and few examples. The sun rises and sets every to be abroad, even ladies in their carriages, soine small plants, as the snow-drop and day in the year. He lives virtuously. When if the mob choose it; though, of course, no others, in flower. In the green-bouse were you retire from the labour and bustle of the female ventures out, without urgent neces- inany curiosities, of which it is unnecessary day, think of One who is always mindful of sity, if she has any objection to the process. to give any particular account. A red-breast you. In these examples, and thousands of B and I sallied out about one, when had here taken up his abode, enjoying the others, it is obvious, that this form of the the uproar was at the highest ; our hands genial temperature, and twittering and hop- verb has no particular reference to present were nearly shaken from our bodies, but, ping about with greatglee, amid palms, aloes, time; and, generally, when the simple form fortunately, we were assailed by none but and bananas. We were much pleased at the of the verb is not inarked by any peculiar those of our own sex, in which we had bet- sight of a large pitch-pine, such as those emphasis, it has no reference to time. When ter luck than HG a former comrade of that abound in the woods of Massachusetts, we place the simple form of the verb in opmine in the medical staff of that renowned standing alone in the garden; we recog- position to the past, it receives the peculiar body, the Massachusetts militia. One of nized him as a countryman, and felt proud emphasis to which we allude ; but even in the fair sex seized him, and insisted upon to remark how majestic and noble he looked, these instances, the tense is more commonly his kissing her, which he was obliged to do, though far from his native soil.

denoted by other words. as a refusal would have been not only un- Among the phrases in frequent use in this

In like manner, the past time does not gallant, but somewhat dangerous.

city, none is more troublesome to us Yan- define the time of the action, but merely I have several times mentioned the varia- kees than the word “clever.” It means denotes it to be past. When accompanied ble nature of Scottish weather. This is more here smartness and intelligence, while, with with auxiliaries, it is made to express the remarkable, perhaps, in Edinburgh than us, it may be, and indeed commonly is, ap- time of the action with any degree of preelsewhere. The following are instances of plied to persons of moderate abilities. Here cision that is required; these auxiliaries this: A few days since, the morning, at eight it is high praise, but at home, it is at best make no part of the verb, and they more o'clock, threatened a storm, or rather it was but a nugatory denomination, and an old frequently consist of what are termed adsomething between clear and stormy, and acquaintance of mine used to assert, that verbs and nouns, than of verbs. It is often somewhat cold, with a high wind. Nine his father was once prosecuted for slander, necessary to use a great number of them, o'clock gave some intimation of fair weath- because he had called one of his neighbours in order to mark the time with exactness ; er; at ten the clouds began to break away, a clever kind of a man.

as, I dined at half past two on the twenty and the sun seemed on the point of appear- I bear little of home; D-'s engage- second day of last February If we admit ing; at eleven, twelve, and one, it rained ment was the latest piece of informa- the use of auxiliaries in forming tenses, all torrents, blew a burricane, and was as dark tion. This did not surprise me much; for, the words in the above sentence are of this as black clouds could make it; so that one as old Burton saith, “ how should it be class, except the first two; and it might could hardly see to read; attwoit began again otherwise ? The opportunity of time and be that all the words in a volume, with the to be clear, and at three we had a lovely, place, with their circumstances, are so for- exception of one term, would be auxiliaries. mild afternoon, with bright sunshine, almost cible motives, that it is unpossible almost They would not be auxiliary verbs, but they unclouded sky, and scarcely any wind; at for young folks, equal in years, to live to- are used not the less to aid in forming and half past three, rain again; at four, clear, gether, and not be in love; especially where fixing the tense of the verb. If we admit with a prospect of a fine evening; at five, they are idle, in summo gradu, fare well, tenses of sense as well as of form, we shall thick, dark, misty, and cloudy; at six, beau- live at ease, and cannot tell otherwise how therefore have as many as there are diftiful moonlight, with a few fleecy clouds; to spend their time." But, however this ferent times expressed by combinations of from seven to ten, cloudy and dark ; at may be, I trust you will all, time and place words. We can imagine no reason for limeleven, moonlight again, and clear; and half fitting, follow so good an example, and, as iting the number to six or even six millions, an hour after, as dismal a night as one would old Edie says, “ that I'll live to sce it.” if we exceed the two which are expressed wish to witness. The other evening, being Farewell.

by different forins of the verb. Why should at B-'s, without an umbrella, I felt some

we make the English language conform in aların at hearing the rain pattering against

this respect to the Latin, rather than to the the windows. I remained a short time

Greek ? We can express, with the aid of longer, and the scene was changed to a

No. V. fine moonlight evening. My walk home

other parts of speech, and sometimes with

THERE are only two tenses expressed by the aid only of verbs, many more teases occupied about twenty minutes; before I distinct forms of English verbs, the indefi- I than are given in the grammars of other

ON THE COMMON SYSTEMS OF ENGLISH

GRAMMAR

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