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than Book of the Church” is intended to be, and is, lent party, who identify church and state, father's throne, and acquire greater power a panegyric upon the Church Establishment and cling to them as if they formed indeed of the Anglo-Saxon princes had possessed before of England. The author distinctly avows their rock of temporal salvation. Now what him; and he asked of him, in requital for these

happy fore-tjdings, that when they should be ful. bis purpose. He conceives that so many of proof can be so cogent, as to force upon the siled, he would listen to instructions which would his countrymen would not be insensible to, belief an absurdity so great, as that Mr then be offered to him, and which would lead him and ungrateful for, the benefits which they Southey, in composing this work, felt and into the way of eternal life. This Edwin readily derive from their church, if they knew how wrote as a strictly impartial historian. On promised; with that the stranger laid his hand upon many and how vast these benefits are, “and the other hand, he knows well, that the the head of the royal exile, saying, When this sign

shall be repeated, remember what has passed beat how dear a price they were purchased for sources of information to which he must tween us now, and perform the word which you our inheritance; by what religious exertions, resort are accessible to all ; that the facts have given. what heroic devotion, what precious lives, upon wbich he must rely are seldom obscure

Edwin afterwards subdued bis enemies, consumed in pious labours, wasted away in and uncertain, and that he will be watched dungeons, or offered up amid the flames.” by those, whose ability and zeal it must be recovered his kingdom, and married a chrisHe has written his work, and now offers it difficult to elude. One would suppose, there- tian princess. One day, while he was medito fathers, and all who with parental feel fore, that he would lean strongly to the side tating in solitude, Paulinus, a missionary

from Rome, entered the room, ings discharge parental duties, because a of his church; that his statements would be knowledge of these things

coloured, and a few obvious facts and prin- and laying his hand upon the king's head, asked might arm the young heart against the pestilent ciples overlooked, and a little ingenuity him if he remembered that token ? Startled at the

But it could not be appeal,

as if á spirit was before him, the king fell errors of these distempered times. I offer, there exerted in its favour. fore, to those who regard with love and reverence expected, that he would go beyond the de- at his feet, a Dehold,' said Paulinus, raising him

up, thou hast, through God's favour, escaped from the religion which they have received from their bateable land, which bounds the region of the enemies of whom thou wert in fear! Behold, fathers, a brief but comprehensive record, diligent. strict historical accuracy, nor withhold all through God's favour, thou hast recovered thy king. ly, faithfully, and conscientiously composed, which the truths which make against him, nor ad- dom, and obtained the pre-eminence which was they inay put into the hands of their children. sions and inhuman rites the inhabitants of this plausible, nor any assertion which could be this temporal kingdom, may deliver thee also from Herein it will be seen from what heathenish delu- vance any argument which should not be promised thee! Remember now thine own promise,

and observe it; that He, who hath elevated thee to island have been delivered by the Christian faith; said and proved to be a downright false- eternal misery, and take thee to live and reign with in what manner the best interests of the country bood. A perusal of the work would realize himself eternally in heaven! Edwin, overcome as were advanced by the clergy even during the darksuch expectations.

if by miracle, hesitated no longer. He called his est ages of papal domination; the errors and crines of the Romish Church, and how, when its corrup

The narration begins with the religion of chiefs to council, that, if they could be persuaded

to think and believe as he did, they might be baptions were at the worst, the day-break of the Refor the ancient Britons. Some account is then lized at the same time : and when they were as. mation appeared among us: the progress of that given of the religion and philosophy of the sembled, he required them each to deliver his Reformation through evil and through good; the Romans, and of the doctrines and rites of opinion concerning the new religion which was establishment of a church pure in its doctrines, the Danes and Anglo-Saxons. The history preached among them, and the propriety of receivirreproachable in its order, beautiful in its forms ; of the introduction and establishment of ing it: and the conduct of that church proved, both in ad

Coifi, the Chief Priest of Northumbria, was the verse and in prosperous times, alike faithful to its christianity into England, is exceedingly first who spake : - As for what the religion is, which principles when it adhered to the monarchy during interesting. Unquestionably many circum- is now propounded to us," he said, "O King, see a successful rebellion, and when it opposed the stances of that period, related by the monk thou to it! For my part, I will assert, what I cermonarch who would have brought back the Romish ish historians of a later age, are to be con- tainly know, that that which we have hitherto held, superstition, and, together with the religion, would sidered as resting upon slight authority. is good for nothing. For among all thy people, have overthrown the liberties of England.

Enough, however, is certain, to astonish there is no one who has given himself more diliSectarians will of course be governed by one with the rapid progress and wide spread inany have received greater benefits, and obtained

gently to the worship of our gods than I ; and yet their respective partialities in judging of the of christianity in its earliest ages. Perhaps higher dignities, and prospered better in whatever merits and character of this work. They who no single instance is more striking than the they undertook. But if these gods had possessed love and venerate the Church of England, conversion of the king and people of North- any power, they would rather have assisted me, who will regard it as a candid, eloquent, and umbria. Edwin had been driven from his bave endeavoured so carefully to serve them. Il irreproachable history of their church ; throne in childhood, by Ethelfrith, and fled ceived that these new things, of which we are told,

therefore, after due exanıination, you have perwhile the dissenters, whose “pestilent er- to Redwald, king of East Anglia, who, after are better, and more efficacious, let us, without derors” it is intended to beat down, will be protecting him for some years, was about to lay, hasten to adopt them.' disposed to bring against the author a heavy comply with the demand of Ethelfrith, and

Another speaker delivered an opinion, more charge of guile and falsehood. Our opinion give him up.

creditable to his disposition and understanding lies between thesc; and is preciso ly that

than that which had been given by the Chief Priest :

This resolution was taken at night-fall, and im..O King, the present life of man, when considered which a consideration of Dr Southey's mediately communicated to Edwin by a faithful in relation to that which is to come, may be likened character, condition, and avowed object friend, who went to his chamber, called him out of to a sparrow flying through the hall, wherein you would have led us to form, if we had never doors, exhorted him to fly, and offered to guide him and your chiefs and servants are seated at supper, seen his book. He stands forth the cham- to a place of safety:

in winter time: the hearth blazing in the centre,

Bot Edwin would not again encounter the per- and the viands smoking, while without is the storm pion of his church ;-and it must be remem- petual danger and anxiety of a wandering life. To and rain or snow; the bird flies through, entering at bered, that he is enthusiastic, and wants, in bly, he said, would be a breach of confidence on his one door, and passing out at the other; he feels not his valour, its better part, and often merges part; he had trusted to the Uffinga Redwald. wbo, the weather during the little minute that he is withhis judgment in his feelings, and is the same as yet, had offered him no wrong; and if he were in; bui after that minute he returns again to winman now, as when, at the age of twenty-one, Ufinga himself than by an ignoble hand. And, Such is the life of man; and of what follows it, or

to be delivered up, better that it should be by the ter, as from winter he came, and is seen no more. he wrote Wat Tyler, and, after his years indeed, wbither could he betake himself

, after hav- of what has preceded it, we are altogether ignorant. were doubled, wrote and published a letter ing, for so many years, in vain sought an asylum Wherefore, if this new doctrine should bring any to a member of parliament, in defence of through all the provinces of Britain? Resolving, thing more certain, it well deserves to be followed this most miserable farce. He is the cham- therefore, to abide bis fate, whatever it might be. The rest of the assembly signified their assent to the pion of the church, and its enemies are his be sate down wournfully upon a stone before the change; and it was then proposed by Coifi, that enemies; the “ungrateful” and “disaffect- palace, when a venerable person, in a strange habit, Paulinus should fully explain to them the nature

is said to have accosted him, and inquired where of the new religior, which they were called upon ed” to the hierarchy are also disaffected to fore he was sitting there, and keeping watch at an to receive. When the prelate" had concluded his him, and do what in them lies to stain his hour when all other persons were asleep? Edwin, discourse, the Chief Priest exclaimed, that he had good name, by the exposure of all his errors omewhat angrily, replied, that it could be no con- long understood the vanity of their old worship, beand faults. Moreover Dr Southey is bon. cem of his whether he chose to pass the night with cause the more he sought to discover its truth, the oured by the institutions incorporated with that he knew the cause, and bade him be of good cars and temples of the idols, and the sacred inclo

in doors or without. But the stranger made answer, less he found; he proposed, therefore, that the althat church, and his temporal interests are cheer, for Redwald certainly would not betray him; sures in which they stood, should be overthrown strictly the same with those of that preva- | he assured him further, that he should regain his and burnt. The king demanded of him who ought


to set the example of violating them, and the priest | long descent which even tradition and fable, the primate are imputable, because he was in poghimself offered to begin. He asked the king accord can scarcely measure, bas stricken them session of great part of the sequestered lands. He ingly for arms and for a horse : gint a sword to his deep into the natures of the people who supplied soldiers enough to overpo.ver the knights .

, of the people beheld him, they thought that he was cling to them. But we think there are other bury, if resistance should be attempted. They en seized with madness, because in bearing arms, and circumstances of great moment, which Mr tered the city in small parties, concealing their riding on a horse, he broke through the prohibitions Southey does not duly consider. One of arms, that no alarnı might be excited. The abbot attached among them to the sacerdotal office. He these is, the unity of doctrine and ritual of St Augustine's, who was of the king's party, rehowever, rode resolutely towards the temple, and then existing in christendom. A missionary ceived them into his monastery, and is said to have at once desecrated it, by throwing his lance within the enclosure ; his companions then, as he exhorted of that day spent no part of his time in un joineul counsel with them. About ten in the morn

ing, they proceeded with twelve knights to Beck. them, set fire to it. The scene of this memorable doing the work of his brother; nor was the et's bedchamber; his fainily were still at table, but event was a little east of York, upon the river Der- willing neophy te perplexed by seeing men, he himself had dined, and was conversing with went, at a place then called Godmunddingaham, the all claiming to be christians with equal pre- some of his monks and clergy. Without replying home of the protection of the gods. The village which tension, accusing each other, with equal

to his salutation, they sat down opposite to him, on now stands upon the site, retains the name, with no

the ground, among the monks.

After a pause, other change than that of a convenient abbreviation zeal, of dreadful falsehood. It is not easy Fitzurse said they came with orders from the king,

to see bow this hindrance can be wholly and asked whether he would hear them in public from five syllables to three, Godmundham

The new converts acted with indiscreet zeal in avoided, however honest and zealous indi- or in private? Becket said, as it might please him thus destroying what appears to have been the most vidual missionaries may be,—while chris-best,--and then, at his desire, bade the company noted place of heathen worship in Northumbria. It tians of all denominations live among the withdraw; but presently apprehending some vio had been the wise advice of Gregory to Mellitus, principal pagan nations, and most established sent proceeding, from Fitzurse's manver, he called

them ished; but that he and his fellow-missionaries should sects make exertions to spread their tenets, Barons

, that whatever they had to impart might be cast out and consune the idols

, and then purify the and Papist and Protestant, Calvinist and delivered in their presence. Fitzurse required him buildings themselves with holy water; and erect al. Arminian, Trinitarian and Unitarian, con- to absolve the suspended and excommunicated preltars and place relics there, in order that the people scientiously believe, each that his opponent ates: He returned the old evasive answer, that it might be better disposed to receive the new religion, holds dangerous, if not fatal,

errors. When was not he who had passed the sentence, nor was seeing its rites performed in the fanes which they the nations of the heptarchy were converted ensued, in which Becket insisted that the king had

it in his power to take it off. A warm altercation were wont to frequent. Godmunddingaham having been destroyed, a wooden oratory was bastily erect to christianity, the whole diposable force of authorized his measures, in telling him he might, by ed in York for the cereinony of ihe king's baptism, christendom, so far as that force was avail- ecclesia ui al censures, compel those who had diswhich was performed there on Easter-day, A. D. able for the purposes of proselytism, was at turbed the peace of the church to make satisfaction; menced upon the same spot, inclosing the oratory: church of which he was the supreme head, to that purport;--and indeed Becket himself must 627. A church, of stone, was immediately com- the control of the sovereigo pontiff. The this, he aftirmed, had been said in Fitzurse's pres

ence. Fitzurse denied that he had heard any thing It was conferred upon Paulinus, as bis see, and he superintenaed the building. The king's example drew into its bosom the finest and strongest have known that if such permission had ever been was readily followed by the people; and Paulinus spirits ; it offered not only the best asylum given, it certainly was not in the latitude which he is said to have been employed six-and-thirty days, for the meek, but the highest rewards for now chose to represent. from morning till evening, in baptizing the multi: the able and ambitious, and the widest scope quired, that he, and all who belonged to him, should

The four Barons then, in the king's name, retudes who locked to him at Yevering. Oratories for the efforts of the active. The extract depart forthwith out of the kingdom, for he had had not yet been built, nor baptisteries constructed; the converts, therefore, were baptized in rivers, by which we have just quoted, shows us the broken the peace, and should no longer enjoy it. immersion, according to the practice of those recompense-it may or may not bave been Becket replied, he would never again put the sea ages.

the object-of Paulinus. The missionary between him and his church. Their resolute man. Mr Southey devotes a chapter to the con- pilgrim, after he had won his bishopric, ner only roused his spirit, and he declared that if sideration of the causes which promoted the might stretch forth his hand for the cardi- any man whatsoever infringed the laws of the Holy

Rumau See, or the right of the church, be that man success of christianity among the Anglo-| Dal's hat, and hope for the papal tiara. It who he would, he would not spare him. "In rain, Saxons. Contrasted with the slow, imper- was a necessary consequence of this state said i e, do you menace me if all the swords in fect, questionable success of the missionary of things, that a large proportion of the England were brandished over my head, you would efforts of these days, it seems indeed mirac- moral and intellectual energy of that age find ine foot to foot, fighting the battles of the Lord! ulous. We cannot give even an abstract of was devoted to the work of prosely tism.

He upbraided those of them who had been in his Mr Southey's views upon this subject. Some,

The history of the church in England, monks to guard bim, saying, they should answer

service as chancellor. They rose, and charged the perbăps all, of the causes that he assigns for during that stormy period while the popes for it if he escaped ; the knights of his household the different results which have attended and their ministers were perpetually con- they bade go with them, and wait the event in efforts for a similar purpose in different pe- ficting with the civil government, and al- silence. Becket followed them to the outer door, riods, operated with great force; but we most always subduing it, is very interesting saying, he came not there to fly, nor did he value

their threats. • We will do more than threaten! think there were other causes, of which he in itself, and loses nothing in the hands of does not rightly estimate the efficiency. No this author. He chooses to relate it by fix- Becket was presently told that they were arming doubt the missionaries prevailed the more, ing upon prominent individuals, and narrat- themselves in the palace-court. Some of his serbecause they came froin Rome, the heart ing their lives with great minuteness. Dun- vants barred the gate, and he was with dificulty of the civilized world,—the sovereign city, stan, Lanfranc, Anselin, and Becket have persuaded by the monks to retire through the cloiswhose name was still great upon the earth, each many pages given to them. The biog; had now begun. He ordered the cross to be borne

ters into the cathedral, where the afternoon service and whose majesty survived in the inherited raphy of Becket occupies one hundred before him, retired slowly, and to some who were feelings and opinions of men, long after her pages. At his death,—we may say by his endeavouring 10 secure ihe doors, he called out, actual supremacy had departed. Certainly, death,—the papal power triumphed. We forbidding to do it, saying, 'You ought not to make too, these missionaries were favoured, in that have never seen the particulars of his assas- a castle of the church; it will protect us sufficiently the paganisin they were called to combat, sination narrated so circumstantially as in resist, but to suffer. By this time the assailants,

without being shut; neither did I come bither to was not deeply rooted in the hearts of the this work; taken in connexion with some after en eavouring to break open the abbey gates, people. The Druids had been chased from passages of his life, they almost compel one had entered, under Robert de Broc's guidance, their sacred groves by the Ronans, whose to believe, that this turbulent, ambitious, through a window, searched the palace, and were religion, if religion it was, ere many ages, and obstinate rebel, actually believed him- now following him to the cathedral. He might still

have concealed bimisell, and not improbably have encountered the horrors of that Scaldic self labouring and dying in a good cause.

escaped. But Becket disdained this: with all its mythology which the Danes brought with

The result of Henry's counsel was the legal and errors, his was an heroic mind. He was ascending them. Thus the heathenism of the Saxons proper measure of sending over three Barons to the steps of the high altar, when the Barons, and was fluctuating and uncertain; of various arrest Becket. These messengers were too late. their armed followers, rushed into the choir with origin, and sanctified by no long and uni- The ministers of vengeance, who were before them, drawn swords, exclaiming, "Where is Thomas à versal tradition. It is otherwise with the landed near Dover, and passed the night in Ranull Becket? where is that traitor to the king and kingo superstitions with which christianity must bad excommunicated on Christmas-day, and to de Broc's castle, -one of the persons whom Becket dom?' No answer was made; but when they called

out with a louder voice, · Where is the Archbishop?" cope now; ages have rooted them, and a whom interested motives for his marked enmity to he then came down the steps, saying, "Here aml;


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was the answer.

357 no traitor, but a priest; ready to suffer in the name command that the body should be honourably buried; , these observations are equally honourable of Him ho redeemed me. God forbid ubat ! should for, though

the primate had been bis enemy while to his candor and to his good sense. fly for fear of your swords, or recede from justice.' living, he would not persecute him when dead, but They required him, once more, to take off ihe cen- remitted to his soul whatever offences he had com- The corruptions, doctrinal and practical, of the sures froin the prelates. “No satisfaction has yet mitted against him and his royal dignity. This was Roman Church were, in these ages, at their height. been made.' was the answer. “and I will not absolve acting as became him, convinced as he was, that in They are studiously kept out of view by the writers them. Then they told him he should instantly die. the grounds of the dispute he stood justified to his who still maintain the infallibility of that church; * Reginald,' said he to itzurse, 'I have done you own heart, and to his people. If he did not per- and in truth, that a system, in all things so unlike many kindnesses; and do you come against me severe in this dignified and becoming course, it is the religion of the Gospel, and so opposite to its thus armed ?' The Baron, resolute as himself

, and because a sane opinion may be subdued, though spirit, should bave been palmed upon the world, and in a worse purpose, told him to get out from thence, insanity is invincible when the world appears com established as Christianity, would be incredible, if and die; at the same time laying hold of his robe. bined against it.

the proofs were not undeniable and abundant. Becket withdrew the robe, and said, he would not As the pope had authorized and enjoined prayers

The indignation, which these corruptions ought move. •Fly, then,' said Fitzurse, as if at this mo- to the new saint, that he should intercerle with God properly to excite, should not, however, prevent us ment a compunctious feeling had visited him, and for the clergy and people of England, Henry, either from perceiving that the papal power, raised and he would have been glad to see the intent frustrated, from prostration of mind, or in policy far less to be supported as it was wholly by opinion, must originin which his pride, more than his oath, constrained excused, determined to implore his intercession in ally have possessed, or proinised, some peculiar and him to persist

. «Nor that either,' was Becket's an- the most public manner, and with the most striking manifest advantages to those who acknowledged its swer; if it is my blood you want, I am ready to circumstances. Landing at Southampton, he there authority. If it bad not been adapted to the condi. die, that the church may obtain liberty and peace : left his court and the mercenaries whom he had tion of Europe, it could not have existed. Though only, in the name of God, I forbid you to hurt any brought over, and set off on horseback with a few in itself an enormous abuse, it was the remedy for of my people.' Still it appears, that in some, at attendants for Canterbury. When he came within some great evils, the palliative of others. We have least, there was a wish to spare his life : one struck sight of its towers he disinoupted, laid aside his but to look at the Abyssinians, and the Oriental him between the shoulders with the flat part of the garments, threw a coarse cloth over his shoulders, Christians, to see what Europe would have become sword, saving, • Fly, or you are dead! And the and proceeded to the city, which was three miles without the papacy. With all its errors, its cormurderers themselves, afterwards declared, their distant, barefoot over the finty road, so that in many ruptions, and its crimes, it was, morally and intela intention was to carry bim prisoner to the king; or places, his steps were traced in blood. He reached lectually, the conservative power of Christendom. if that was impossible, put him to death in a place the church trembling with emotion, and was led to Politically, too, it was the saviour of Europe; for, less sacred than the church; but he ciung to one of the martyr's sbrine; there, in the crypt, he threw in all human probability, the west, like the east, the pillars, and struggled with the assailants. Tracy himself prostrate before it, with his arms extended, must have been overrun by Mahommedanism, and he had nearly throwr. down, and Fitzurse he thrust and remained in that posture, as if in earnest prayer, sunk in irremediable degradation, through the perfrom him with a strong band, calling bim pimp. while the Bishop of London solemnly declared in nicious institutions which have every where accomStung by the opprobrious appellation, Fitzurse no bis name, that he had neither commanded nor ad- panied it, if, in that great crisis of the world, the longer hesitated whether to strike. A monk, Ed- vised, nor by any artifice contrived the death of Roman Church had not roused the nations to an ward Grines, of Cambridge, was his name, inter- Thomas à Becket, for the truth of which he ap- united and prodigious effort, commensurate with posed his arm, which was almost cut off by the pealed to God; but because his words, too incon. the danger: blow. Becket, who had bowed in the attitude of siderately spoken, had given occasion for the com- In the frightful state of society which prevailed prayer, was wounded by the same stroke in the mission of that crime, he now voluntarily submitted during the dark ages, the church every where excrown of his head. His last words were, ‘To God, himself to the discipline of the church. The monks erted a controlling and remedial influence. Every to St Mary, and the Saints, who are patrons of this of the convent, eighty in number, and four bishops, place of worship was an asylum, which was always church, and to St Dennis, I commend myself, and abbots, and other clergy who were present, were respected by the law, and generally even by lawless the church's cause!" The second blow brought him provided each with a knotted cord; he bared his violence. It is recorded, as one of the peculiar to the ground, on his face, before St Benedict'saltar; shoulders, and received five stripes from the prel- miseries of Stephen's miserable reign, that during he had strength and composure enough to cover ates, three from every other hand. When this se- those long troubles, the soldiers learned to disregard himself with his robes, and then to join his hands vere penance had been endured, he threw sackcloth the right of sanctuary. Like many other parts of the in prayer, and in that position died under their re over his bleeding shoulders, and resumed his pray- Romish system, this right had prevailed in the peated strokes, each pressing near, to bear a part in ers, kneeling on the pavenient, and not allowing a heathen world, though it was not ascribed to every the murder. Brito cleft his scull; and an accursed carpet to be spread beneath him; thus he continued temple. It led, as it had done under the Roman man, the subdeacon, Hugh of Horsea, known by all that day, and till the .midnight bell tolled for empire, to abuses which became intolerable ; but the appellation of the lu Člerk, scattered the brains matins. After that hour, he visited all the altars of it originated in a humane and pious purpose, not over the pavement from the point of his sword. the church, prayed before the bodies of all the saints only screening offenders from laws, the severity of No-single circumstance shows more clear-votions at the shrine till day-break. During this wrong, affording time for passion to abate, and for

who were there deposited, then returned to his de- which amounted to injustice, but, in cases of private ly how deeply the fetters of Romish super- whole time he had neither eat nor drank; but now, the desire of vengeance to be appeased. The cities stition had sunk into men's souls, than the after assisting at mass, and assigning, in addition to of refuge were not more needed, under the Mosaic terrible penance which Henry II. under. Other gifts, forty pounds a year for tapers, to burn dispensation, than such asylums in ages when the went for his hasty utterance of feelings, perpetually before the martyr's tomb, he drank administration of justice was either detestably inwhich were certainly justified, if any meas

some water, in which a portion of Becket's blood human, or so lax, that it allowed free scope to

was mingled. He then set off for London, where individual resentment. They have therefore genure of provocation can justify anger. His he found himself in a state incapable of exertion, erally been found wherever there are the first rudienemies did not pretend that he wished to and it was necessary to bleed him. The believers ments of civil and religious order The churchsuggest the assassination of Becket, or that in Becket bave not failed to remark, that on the yards also were privileged places, whither the poor the death of this prelate did not decply af- morning when Henry completed his reconciliation people conveyed their goods for security. The flict him. He was the actual, but the

invol- with the canonized martyr, the king of Scotland was protection which the ecclesiastical power extended defeated and taken.

in such cases, kept up in the people, who so often untary, cause of his death;. and for this offence, a powerful monarch, who was, to

The tenth chapter gives a “View of the lachment to the church. They felt that religion

stood in need of it, a feeling of reverence and at. say no more, no way deficient in intellect Papal System,” and no part of the work had a power on earth, and that it was always exor moral energy, suffered thus.

appears to have been composed with more ercised for their benefit. When the news reached Henry, he was at once

We regret that the limits which the The civil power was in those ages so inefficient struck with remorse for the cause of the crime, and nature of the work imposed, prevented Mr for the preservation of public tranquillity, that when alarmed for its consequences. At first, he broke Southey from enlarging upon a fact in the was liable to be disturbed by private wars, indi

a country was at peace with all its neighbours, it out into loud and passionate lamentations, then bistory of religion of much interest, which viduals taking upon themselves the right of decidseemed to be overpowered and stupified by the has lately been much ilostrated. We mean ing their own quarrels, and avenging their own violence of his emotions ; he put on sackcloth and the obvious and direct derivation of a large wrongs.

Where there existed no deadly feud, ashes, and for three days was incapable either of part of the ritual and practices, and not a pretexts were easily made by furbulent and rapa

. vice of those who, næeantime, had consulted what lew of the tenets of the papal church, from were not scrupulous whom they seized and impris

cious men, for engaging in such contests, and they might best be done in these unexpected and most the classical paganism which it supplanted. oned, for the purpose of extorting a ransom. No critical cireumstances, an embassy was sent to the But a part of two paragraphs is all that is law, therefore, was ever more thankfully received, pope, and inessengers to Canterbury:. The latter given io this subject. Before he speaks of than when the Council of Clermont enacted, that, were instructed to inform the clergy of that church, the defects and abuses of this system, he from sunset on Wednesday, to sunrise on Monday how deeply the king grieved for the death of Becket, and abhorred the murder: to say, that if any guilt makes an eloquent admission of its vast in every week, the truce of God should he observed,

on pain of excommunication. Well might the ins attached to him for words rashly spoken in his anger, usefulness, and remarks upon its adaptation offensive and peaceable part of the community it might best be expiated by their prayers; and to I to the state of society in which it existed ; (always the great, but in evil times, the inert, and




passages as these:

therefore the suffering part) regard, with grateful ject to any secular authority, seeing that they could The truth is, that the idea of toleration devotion, a power, under whose protection they create God their creator !

had not yet found its way from heaven into slept four nights of the week in peace, when other- Christ bad bestowed upon the pope, when be wise they would have been in peril every hour. spake as such, the same infallibility which resided men's hearts; bigotry, fierce, intolerant, and The same power by which individuals were thus in himself

. And were he utterly to neglect his persecuting, was the common reproach of benefited, was not unfrequently exercised in great duty, and by his misconduct drag down innamer all those who had the power of exhibiting it. national concerns; if the monarch were endangered able souls to Hell with him, there to be eternally A wiser and better principle may have been or oppressed either by a foreign enemy, or by a tormented, no mortal man might presume to reprove planted there, but it repined in other ages, combination of his Barons, here was an authority him for his faults. Even this monstrous proposic and was of tardy and imperfect growth. We to which he could resort for an effectual interposi- tion has been advanced, that, although the catholic tion in his behalf; and the same shield was extended faith teaches all virtue to be good, and all vice evil; suppose that few of the descendants of the over the vassals, when they called upon the pope to nevertheless, if the pope, through error. should en- puritans will be indignant at the assertion, defend them against a wrongful exertion of the sove- join vices to be committed, and prohibit virtues, the that our fathers brought with them, and ex. reign power.

church would be bound to believe that vices were ercised upon each other, a spirit of intoler

good, and virtues evil, and would sin in conscience ance akin to that from which they fled. The The reverse of this picture calls forth all were it to believe otherwise. He could change the

“ Lords Bretbren" wure not the mitres of the author's powers. His eloquent exposure nature of things, and make injustice justice. Nor of the horrible false hoods and villanies of was it possible that he should be amenable to any the “Lords Bishops," but they were not the church must satisfy the most violent secular power, for he had been called God by Con- far behind them in a spirit of persecution,

stantine, and God was not to be judged by man: hater of the papacy. The seven-billed city under God, the salvation of all the faithtul de pended her church peculiar glory from the reforma

nor do we know why England can claim for is to him a moral and spiritual Gehenna;- on him, and the commentators even gave him the and one cannot but think, as he reads the blasphemous appellation of Lord God the Pope! It tion. This was a glorious event, and they closing paragraphs of this chapter, that Mr was disputed in the schools, whether he could not who forwarded it are worthy to be held in Southey must have permitted the works of abrogate what the apostles had enjoined, determine everlasting remembrance; but they were unauthorized writers to inculpate the church to the creed ; whether he did not, as God, partici- so boundless in its range and in its effects,

an opinion contrary to theirs, and add a new article not Englishmen alone. A change so wide, of Rome further than justice would allow, pate both natures with Chrlst; and whether he and have thrown upon this church an entire were not more merciful than Christ, inasmuch as Wickliffe have due bonour ; but let it be

was not the result of partial causes. Let responsibility for the monstrous errors and he delivered souls from the pains of purgatory, crimes of individuals. We refer to such whereas we did not read that this had ever been remembered that Huss, and Jerome of

done by our Saviour. Lastly, it was affirmed, that Prague, and Luther, and many noble spirits

he might do things unlawful, and thus could do of many nations toiled and died for the same If the bourdless credulity of mankind be a mourn. more than God!

cause in which he and his hrethren laboured. ful subject for consideration, as in truth it is, it is All this was certain, because the church was in.

We are unable to follow Mr Southey yet more mournful to observe the profligate wick fallible. Where this infallibility resided, the Roedness with which that credulity bas been abused. manists have differed among themselves, some vest. through his second volume, and must omit 'The Church of Rome appears to have delighted in ing it in the pope, others requiring the concurrence much that we proposed to say of this part of insulting as well as in abusing it, and to have pleas- of a General Council, Intallible, however, it was bis work. It is in a high degree interesting, ed itself with discovering how far it was possible determined that the Roman Catholic Church must and, as a history, is undoubtedly in general to subdue and degrade the human intellect, as an be, and thus the key-stone was put to this prodigious correct; but some of his views and stateeastern despot measures his own greatness by the structure of imposture and wickedness. servile prostration of his subjects. If farther proof

It may be that this language is well de- ments, which we cannot stop to particu

larize, appear to us erroneons. than has already appeared were needful, it would

We have be found in the prodigious doctrine of Transubstan. served; but, after all, this Roman Church | been perplexed by bis never citing his aufigurative words in a literal sense ; and the Roman for many centuries. We ask it not in dis; which he cannot consider well established.

the Church of their interpretation be just, Christ took his own where is the history to begin which is to writer, excepting some articles in the Quarisis do not shrink from the direct inference, that if respect, but where shall the line be drawn? Indeed he scarcely refers to any

work or botly in his own hands, and offered it to his disci

: shed upon the Church of England the

ances- terly Review, which are known to be his ples. But all minor difficulties may easily be overitself is regarded. For

, according to the Church declares it to be his purpose to illustrate neglect, than that the scale of the work looked, when the flagrant absurdity of the doctrine tral and heritable glory which Mr Southey

He gives no other reason for this of Rome, when words of consecration have been

If the first of these volumes speaks of the is not one which would require or justify a pronounced, the bread becomes that same actual Church of England, then let the reader rebody of flesh and blood in which our Lord and member the passages just quoted. But if

display of research,"-wbich is altogether Saviour suffered upon the Cross; remaining bread

insufficient. to the sight, louch, and taste, yet ceasing to be so. - the Church of England begins its existence and into how many parts soever the bread may be with the reformation of king Henry VIII., broken, the whole entire body is contained in every let us look at this beginning. Henry him- Antiquarian Researches : comprising a Hispart.

self, with Cranmer and his associates, are to Of all the corruptions of christianity, there was be supposed the founders of this church;

tory of the Indian Wars in the Country none which the popes so long hesitated to sanction

bordering Connecticut River and Parts as this. When the question was brought before but,-10 particularize nothing more, in

Adjacent, and other Interesting Events, Hildebrand, he not only inclined to the opinion of what light Mr Southey regards the doctrine

from the first Landing of the Pilgrims, Berenger, by whom it was opposed, but pretended of Substantiation, we have seen, and how

to the Conquest of Canada by the English, to consult the Virgin Mary, and then declared, that zealously the earliest English reformers in 1760 : with Notices of Indian Depreshe had pronounced against it. Nevertheless, it clung to this doctrine, let the horrors of prevailed, and was finally declared, by Innocent “ The Lollards pit," and the torment and

dations in the Neighbouring Country: III., at the fourth Lateran Council, to be a tenet

and of the first Planting and Progress

of necessary to salvation. Strange as it may appear, martyrdom of Anne Askew, testify. Most

Settlements in New England, New York, the doctrine bad become popular,—vith the people, true it is, that Cranmer and his brethren in

and Canada. By E. Hoyt, Esq. Greenfor its very extravagance,-with the clergy, because martyrdom abjured this error before their field, Mass. 1824. 8vo. pp. 312. they grounded upon it their loftiest pretensions, glorious deaths; but it is not less true, that Collections of the New Hampshire HistoriFor if there were in the sacrament this actual and these venerable men deserved the rebuke entire sole presence, which they denoted by the term

cil Society, for the Year 1824. Volume I. of transubstantiation, it followed that divine worship cast upon them by Joan Bocher.

Concord, N. H. 1824. 8vo. pp. 336. was something more than a service of prayer and It is a goodly matter to consider your ignorance !' thanksgiving; an actual sacrifice was performed in said the undaunted woman, to those who sate in the early bistory of our country has lately it, wherein they affirmed the Saviour was again judgment on her. Not long ago you burnt Anne

become an object of increasing curiosity offered up, in the same boily which had suffered on Ascue for a piece of bread, and yet came your und interest to the public. The years, the Cross, by their hands. The priest, when he selves soon after to believe and profess the same doc. which have elapsed since the Pilgrims first performed this stupendous function of his ministry, trine, for which you burnt her! And now, forsooth, planted the standard of civil and religious had before his cyes, and held in his hands, the you will needs burn me for a piece of flesh, -an. Maker of Heaven and Earth; and the inference and in the end you will come to believe this also, liberty on the iron-bound shores of New sich they deduced from so blasphemous an as- when ye have read the Scriptures, and understand England, have been slowly obliterating the otion was, that the clergy were not to be sub. I them!

scattered original records of their individ


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ual character and conduct. Two centuries suggested by the perusal of such works as 2001 estates, according to the proportion which such have gradually deepened the obscurity, those whose titles stand at the head of this men used to pay, to whom sucb apparel is suitable

and allowed which involves the minute history of the article. They differ in character, as well olden times, and enlarged the shadowy as in the degree of interest which they are

The following, though a quotation from precincts, within which imagination may likely to excite, but the main object, that another writer, we notice here, as worthy range with that freedom, which is obstruci. of preserving and rendering accessible of the consideration of those, who imagine ed by the dull realities of the present. The what is known of the early history of New that the standard of education is lower, in forins of our fathers loom through the haze England, is the same.

some of our colleges, at this day, than it of antiquity, which rests on the intellectual We have read Mr Hoyt's book with a

was in that of Cotton Matber, because the horizon, concealing the thousand details, great deal of interest, and cheerfully re- professors do not talk Lati fluently and which fetter the energies and chill the ar commend it to the public. To the general quote the ancients on all occasions, whether dour of fancy, and presenting only the reader we think it will be more amusing in season or out of it. grander features of the prospect.

than any history of the period with which Sir Henry Saville, in the preamble of the deed The situation and circumstances of the we are acquainted. The style is easy and by which he annexed a salary to the mathematical planters of New England, during the first agreeable; the accounts of various writers and astronomical professors in Oxford, says geomsixty or seventy years of the colonies, are digested in a judicious and pleasing England. The best learning of the age was the

etry was almost totally abandoned and unknown in were of a peculiar character, and such as manner, while some particulars are sup- study of the ancients. take a strong hold upon the imagination. plied, which we believe can be found in no

We cannot agree with the author in his They were stirring times in which our other publication. The writer passes light defence of the morality and expediency of a ancestors lived, and this peaceable, calculat-iy over many portions of our annals, which bounty on Indian scalps. The effect of such ing, and realizing land was once the very are of a more dry and uninteresting char- a practice on the minds of the scalp-bunt. country of roinance.

acter, and dwells at greater length on those Wbåt adventure indeed could be more particulars which are likely to gratify those in cold blood, the captives who were una

-the temptation thus held forth to slay, wild, than that of the passengers in the who read only for amusement. We think, ble to keep up with the victorious party ; M.y-Flower, and what language would therefore, that it will be a popular work, and the example given to the natives, seem have been thought too extravagant to de- and hope the author will enjoy, as we think to us powerful considerations against it. As scribe it, had it been unsuccessful. Such a he deserves, the opportunity of a second project, undertaken at such hazards and edition, to present it to the public freed been feeble. Though the bounty offered

a measure of expediency it seems to have with such means, would be looked upon, at from the various typographical errors to for single scalps was occasionally enormous, this day, as utter madness. Indeed the which he alludes, and in a more elegant

-on one occasion, we believe, a hundred Pilgrims themselves considered their suc- form than it is at present.

pounds,—but a small amount on the whole cess as the result of a direct and special After these general remarks, we shall nointerposition of Providence. The first set- tice a few things which may amuse or in barbarous trophies; and we hope, for the

seems ever to have been paid for those tlers did not, it is true, traverse the coun- terest our readers, as they occurred to us honour of human nature, that it was betry with good steed, lance, and brand, in in the course of our perusal.

cause there were few to ask for it. Melansearch of captive knights or distressed dam- Among the collection of laws framed by choly must be the state of that country, sels, but their conduct and their language Ward and Cotton, and accepted by the which has no better defenders than those who was often little less extravagant. Their magistrates in 1641, which were copied al. are ready to hunt and mangle human beings enemies appeared in a different, but scarce- most literally from those of Moses, is the for a price. Much cruelty is doubtless inly a more questionable shape. They were following.

separable from a warfare conducted with not giants, or og res, ensconced in castles of

Men betrothed and not married, or newly mar: savages. The passions are necessarily exsteel and defended by attendant sprites; ried, or such as have newly built or planted, and cited to a degree unknown in the technical but savage warriors, swift of foot and subtle not received the fruits of their labour, and such as and mechanical combats of civilized arof mind, lurking in trackless forests and are faint-hearted men, are not to be pressed or

mies—and many horrible examples of this swamps, and assisted, as our ancestors most forced against their wills, to go forth to wars.

are in every history of this kind. But the religiously believed, by the devil. Spectres If these were ever really carried into and witchcraft were received articles of execution, it seems remarkable, in the first feelings with which a scalp is stripped from belief, and, with the sword in one hand and place, that any person should have been are of another character, and such as we

a dying enemy, to be preserved for barter, the Bible in the other, our progenitors pressed or forced against his will to go trust were rare in the darkest days of New waged war alike against the visible and in- forth to wars;" and secondly, that if such a

England. We have alluded to the bittervisible world.

principle was acknowledged, exceptions of The character of the aborigines is now such a nature should have been adınitted: prevailed among the partisans of the time.

ness of the passions, which occasionally likewise regarded with the interest which it The framers of the code were probably The following is an instance. In Captain deserves. They were once considered as better acquainted with the book of Deuter- Lovewell's battle at Pigwacket, his lieutenlittle better thân the brutal tenants of the onomy than the real state and exigencies ant, Robbins, who, by the way, had been a soil; as a race cowardly, treacherous, mind of the colony. And again.

scalp-hunter, was wounded-and we are ful of injuries, but insensible to benefits,

And in war, men of a corrupt and false religion told that whose ferocity could never be tamed and are not to be accepted, much less sought for.

conscious of his fate, he requested his companions their affections never secured. But this Was a false representation. More atten.

Truly we wonder our ancestors did not to load his gun, that he might despatch another of tive consideration has shown that their ag carry the parable so far as to fight against the enemy, should he return to the spot.

Sassacus' fort with ram's horns; it would We select the following as a specimen of gressions were rarely unprovoked, and that, in the fury of contest, there were consider that those under «a covenant of the story had been more to the credit of

have been little less extravagant, when we our author's manner of writing.' We wish some who remeinbered and repaid future works" were looked upon as men of a the colonial government. benefits. If some of the alleviations of civilized warfare were unknown among “corrupt and false religion.”

But prior to the termination of the war Miantonithem, some of its worst features

There was more worldly wisdom in the moh invaded the Mohegans with nine hundred of his equally absent, and among the anecdotes, sumptuary law, which directed the select- warriors; l'ncas met him at the head of five hunow

of his men, on a large plain; both prepared wing which have come down to us, of the chiet- men of each town

tion, and advanced within bow shot. Be

of the tajos who figured in those eventiul times, to take notice of the apparel of any of the in- conflict commenced, Uncas advanced si many may compare with those of Spartan judge to exceed their rank and abilities, in the cost-ber of men with you, and so have I wio encour

habitants, and to assess such persons as they shall thus addressed his antagonist. You h-to illusor Roman greatness.

liness or fashion of their apparel, in any respect, a great pity that such brave warriors, important Considerations like these are naturally I especially in wearing ribbons and great boots, at led in a private quarrel between usad critically



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