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upon books in elementary instruction, will be little a degree of disgust which proves a great im- the developement of the mental pov ers. He rebetter than a nostruin of paper and of ink.

In the other system, on the contrary, where books pediment to the acquisition of knowledge in fected, that in those ancient days, the art of printare introduced only to embody the elements of sci- any way. The best part of all that children ing was yet unknown, and hence, that the diffusion ence, and where able teachers are employed to learn, is caught in casual moments, when of Aristotle and Plato, of Socrates and Pythagoras,

of knowledge by books was impossible. He read illustrate, to amplify, to infer; to elicit thought and facts happen to be illustrated in a familiar among the Greeks; some of whom removed to Italy, excite reflection; to encourage inquiry and engage and interesting manner, and especially when in order to disseminate among the Roman youth, curiosity; to teach practice, and explode theory, they chance to see a simple truth explained the knowledge they had gained in Egypt and the either things themselves are presented directly to by being applied to its proper use. It may

East. the mind, by the aid of analogous images already be said, that this is all

the knowledge that pher, after comparing all the data derived from there, and the mere words which signify the one scholars can obtain, which is legitimate. history, resulted in the conclusion, that the great and the other, follow of necessity. In this case we Whatever is not so acquired, is unaccom- diversity of elementary books employed in the secure the reality, instead of the transient shadow panied by love of knowledge for its own schools of modern times, is destructive of the best which fits across the mind only to leave it in sake, or the proper use which it is designed interests of early education; especially when those greater darkness and more deplorable sterility. In short: the one system imparts ideas, and the other to effect. It is altogether factitious; and books are voluminous and prolir-calculated to when the spurious motive which excited the enlighten, and expand the mind.

burden, perplex, and stupify, rather than exhilarate, mind to the exertion by which it was ob The character of those elementary treatises which In the statement of the difference between tained, ceases to operate, then all interest were employed by ancient instructers, he was enathe two methods of teaching, the author is in the knowledge ceases, and it is generally bled to infer from a single splendid example which perfectly correct; but we regret that he did forgotten.

had survived the conflagration of the library of not exclude less important matter, and give

The acquisition of knowledge is not in Alexandria, and all the ravages of the Gothic bara more full exposition of the Pestalozzian itself unpleasant to any mind. A love of Geometry of Euclid, the preceptor of the Ptole

barians in the Western Empire. This was the system. We know of no other subject so knowing, a pleasure in receiving informa- mies :-a book which has been found so complete important to all who have any concern tion, is proper to the nature of all children; in itself; so free from redundancy and defect; so with the business of instruction--from the and there is always something which is pre- perfectly inclusive and exclusive, ibat no geometrimother who sows the seed, to the instructer cisely adapted to the capacity of every child, can in any age, has been able to add or diminish, of ripening youth, who aids in the expansion and in which he will feel a strong interest only are the books which Pestalozzi and his follow

without creating an evident imperfection. Such of the branches, the leaves, and the flowers, when it is presented to his mind. To obtain ers believe to be suited to the minds of youth. and prepares the tree to bring forth fruit. what is now suited to the state and powers But this philosopher ventured even farther, and We do not ascribe to Pestalozzi the sole of the intellect, will infallibly prepare the suffered himself to conjecture what was the characinstruction. It is a striking characteristic mind may advance by this regular gradation their children. He was able to demonstrate, bemerit of reviving the system of analytical way for the truth next in order; and the ter of those instructors to whom the Egyptians,

Greeks, and Romans, intrusted the education of of the present age, that men are unwilling towards the illimitable measures of eternity. yond contradiction, that many of the first names to believe any thing on authority; it must We know that this theory, when pre- which history has transmitted were teachers of the be explained and illustrated so that it can sented definitely, still appears to most per- youth of their country and he found no triding be understood. The mind revolts from a dogmatical mode of teaching. We love to can form no idea of this orderly, analytical countries to be taught by these great masters. sons wild and extravagant. The truth is, we number of examples of a fact still more to his pur

pose ;--that young men were sent from remote feel that we are free and rational agents, arrangement of the facts or truths in sci- Hence he very logically inferred, that the most as well while acquiring, as while using, ence, because we were not thus instructed. approved instructors were MEN of learning, expeknowledge.

All our knowledge consists of truths ob- rience, and character. All the causes which have combined to tained with little regard to method, and By this process of investigation, corroborated by produce this character in the present age, stored in the mind with almost no reference tradition among the descendants of these two nahave tended equally to introduce that method to orderly arrangement.

tions, resident in the mountains of his country, of instruction which Pestalozzi has done so The greatest difficulty which this system iquity could supply, and reduced to practice in his

Pestalozzi gathered all the assistance which anmuch to illustrate and recommend. The presents, is that of determining the proper native Switzerland, the result of his inquiries. His Reformation, the works of Bacon, of New arrangement of the several sciences. Prob- plan has been successfully pursued in Europe and ton, of Franklin, and many others, and all ably it should be different with different America; and the institution of Fellemburgh in that has been done to encourage and culti- scholars. In any single science, there is Switzerland, and the Polytechnic school of France, vate experimental science, bave contributed no great difficulty in arranging the truths have given celebrity to his principles.

These principles are at once natural and simple, to the same end. The tendency of the analytically. We mention, as examples, and in perfect harmony with the philosophy of whole, is to abolish the system of dogmati- Euclid's Elements in Geometry and Col- Franklin, – to practise much, and trust little to cal teaching, and to substitute for it a sys. burn's First Lessons in Arithmetic. Upon theory.' The simple elements of science are pretem of learning,-a system by which the some other occasion, we may endeavour to sented to the learner

, and he is led to all the minute scholar shall, at all times, have that pre- show, that the same system of arrangement ner the pupil is induced to confide little in a mere

particulars, as if by actual discovery. In this mansented to his mind which he is capable of can easily be applied to the other sciences; tenacity of memory, but to repose with all its powers comprehending, and of applying to some and shall conclude this notice with an ex. on the decisions of an active understanding: use. This is the way in which all real tract from the Address of Mr Brown, which Lancaster, on the other hand, was desirous of knowledge is obtained, and it is because contains some just observations respecting hazarding a mere esperiment, without the least auour elementary books and our cominon the systems he is comparing.

thority from the practice of any age or nation. modes of instruction are so imperfect, that

A philanthropist, no doubt, he desired a more so very little is done at school to improve the best inethod of inculcation, inose of Pestalozzi of the poorer classes of the community, in every

Among the variety of suggestions in relation to general diffusion of knowledge than the condition any other faculty of the mind than the and Lancaster, have secured the greatest share of country, had hitherto admitted. By a sole reliance memory. The memory is continually stuffed public consideration. But while each bas found its on books, with the bare rehearsal of lessons to those with natural images, while the affections are advocates, no two systems are more diametrically who were ignorant of their meaning, he hoped that uninterested in them, and the understanding opposed.

such children as were deprived of higher advan. takes no cognizance of their application or the brightest pages of Grecian and Roman history, tion,

Pestalozzi seems to have reverted his eye upon tages, might receive, at least, tolerable instrucuse. Foreign motives—as fear of punish- and, after adiniring the perfection of the respective In England, where this system received at first ment and hope of reward-must be contin- languages of these two august nations, to have in considerable patronage, it has sunk into general wally urged in order to encourage the mind quired into the causes of their literary and intel. neglect; and in these States, where Lancaster to this almost useless mode of acquiring lectual greatness. By a natural mode of argument

, travelled long, and laboured with indefatigable in. knowledge. We call this species of knowl from effect to cause, he was led to suspect, that the dustry to impress the public mind with the sense of edge almost useless, because it proves of eminent historians and poets, orators and statesmen, the importance of his new discovery, the schools

military chieftains and scientific artists of those established on this plan bave gradually dwindled, comparatively little practical advantage, states, must have acquired the first rudiments of the and must eventually share the fate of their predeand the acquirement of it is accompanied by sciences under circumstances peculiarly adapted to cessors across the Atlantic. I have witnessed the

AUTHORS AND WRITERS.

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living pranks of very few of these monsters; but of its nearest approximations. Theirs has they have detected motive, where other have attended during the funeral obsequies of sev. been a study of human experience in its men have only been taken with the coneral, in different states, and have seen their remains, varieties and causes. The distinctions they duct. They thus take us in their works to unattended by a solitary mourner, committed to have made, have proceeded out of the ac- the deep springs of human action, and show everlasting forgetfulness.

tual differences of things. What such men to us all its sources, whether pure or im

were or thought years ago, or yesterday, in pure, however wickedly selfish, or honourMISCELLANY.

regard to the great questions of human con- ably disinterested. These men are authors, cern, they would be, or think to-day. They for they are eminently producers; for when have taught us what, and how they are; they have written, the world has got some

and if they have seemed different beings to thing which it bad not before. These are AUTHORS never die. The good and the us at any time, the change has most proba- rare men. Ages have passed away without evil they do, alike live after them. The bly belonged to our own minds, not to them. When they have appeared, it has body may be dead, but the mind lives; on theirs.

been sometimes accidentally, and the world earth too ; and will live. Men's minds, as Such men are inestimably valuable at all has not known its own; and they have had others know them, are known by what they times, and in all ages. They are especially so no other reward but the incommunicable say, do, and write. We have had men to our own. We are in a stirring world, and one, which a fine mind always has, and al. amongst us who never wrote any thing, but are for turning it upside down. The change, ways must have, in the noble company of wbo, nevertheless, acted widely upon others even for the worse, is not altogether the its own thoughts. The works of such men by conversation alone. They thought as matter of doubtful choice it was once thought have been a legacy to all posterity. And deeply, and as accurately, and talked with to be ; or we are willing to change what is how sacred has been the entail; bow carethe same precision and order, as if they were well, for the chances of the better. Some ful have we been of the patrimony, and how thinking for writing, or were actually writ- of our most gifted talkers have taken the jealous lest its fame should become the ing. Their opinions were sought for, where word of the time, or put it into the time's property of another. they might be useful, and were as accessible mouth, and little now is, but what is not. The authors of whom we write never as if they were on the bookseller's counter,or In the men of whom we write, there was a repeat themselves. Let characters or inin the library. These were strictly authors. saving leaven of human prudence. They cidents be as numerous as they may, a real They are, however, necessarily short-lived. had learned caution in the experience of individuality is preserved every where. You Their records are not permanent. They every hour. They had learned it as well in constantly perceive that the various beings are not the property of the whole, and the slow and wise progress of nature, as in created are conscious of their own identity, which the whole will find a common pride their profound observance of human con- and act in consequence of it; and that the and interest to preserve, and to preserve duct. 'They talked deliberately, as if in distinctions between them belong as natuunadulterated. They are the property of a barmony with this progress. I have known rally to this consciousness as they do to the few, which the few will appropriate, and instances of peculiar melody of voice among same thing in actual life. Shakspeare was may alter and deform without mercy, and these men, as if moral beauty, and a fine in- pre-eminent in this character of original without fear. It is melancholy to see the tellect, gave character to their expression. authorship. His dead, and equally his living, mind thus dying to its own age, and to the If these were in any degree taught caution never appear again when he has done with future. If we have felt safer while such a and wisdom from nature, by the operation them, either to push us from our stools, or mind was with us and near us, when dunger of its ordinary progress upon their minds, jostle us in our way The ghost of Banquo was abroad, or anticipated, we have lost they were especially taught the self-same appears indeed to the disturbed imagination much when we have lost it. We have ac- by its occasional deviations. They had seen of his own Macbeth ; but it had no form or quired a habit of dependence, and have felt ruin in the track of the storm, and in the being to Shakspeare's mind any more than it to be the direct and useful product of the flood of intolerable light from the clouds of it had to the vision of the royal guests. greater and better power of another. It heaven. They had seen the fair face of When Hostess Quickly tell us that Sir John has been a useful dependence, for its quality earth smiling in the calm sunshine, and its is dead, and how he died, the association of has been to make our own minds stronger best fruits in the safe shower.

the winding-sheet, the coffin, the pall, and and better. There has been an advantage But these men have not written. They the grave, is inevitable, and we no more to us, perhaps, that these men have not gave their minds to perishing records, the look for his return on earth again, than we written. Their honest and sound views inemories of inen. A few years, and it will should for an acquaintance, or accustomed have not been submitted either to vulgar be difficult to remember their faces. If we neighbour, after he is buried. impertinence, or party malevolence. The remember their thoughts, it may not be to Some writers who have been once origisharp, and sometimes effective, criticism of better our own, or to act by them.

nal, seem to have fallen in love with their lesser minds, or the encounter of as strong, Men, in the third place, are known by first fine conception, and ever after hanker differently, and, it may be, less prudently what they write. This remark wants large for it as for a first love. Let now the variety directed, has not hurt our faith, or dimin- qualification. Writers are authors by em- be intended to be never so great, and names, ished our confidence. We have reposed phasis, in common speaking. But all who ages, and temperaments differ as they may, delightedly and usefully beneath the pro-write are not so. Few meo give us what we always detect some limb, some feature, or tection of a fine mind, and, it may be, for others have not given us before. Other some peculiarity of the first, given or transthe time, have not been disquieted, that we men's thoughts have passed through their fused into all its successors. Their minds have had so few with us. The influence that minds, it is trus, but they have coine out as are like the philosopher's stone, wbatever has been so limited and personal, however, as they went in. It is rare that they get is touched becomes gold. might bave been felt every where. In its even a new costume, and if they do, how Great authors have, finally, a property iu degree perhaps less vividly, but in its amount frequently are they only deformed by it. their own minds, which other men have not. far greater. Above all, if these men had These are writers. An author is one whose Other men, and their thoughts and doings, written, they would have survived the mind has not been the highway of other and all external nature, it is true, have their grave.

men's thonghts, but a soil into which they effects upon them. But they have minds Men are known, it was said, by what they have been cast, like seed into the good too, and in virtue of the very superiority of do. The men about whoin we have written, ground, and where they have died in the these over others, bring more to pass of a were known in this way, and a wide and upspringings and full 'harvest of higher strictly original character, than ihe comuseful influence was exerted by their ac- and brighter thoughts. The observation of bined suggestions, and other operations, of tions. It is a property of such minds to be men and of nature has done the same thing. all the matters of mere observation. consistent with themselves. They have an affinity, if the term be allowed, has, in Writers have been divided into various been cautious in their decisions, and what these men, subsisted between their own classes. We have spoken of two ;—those is truth with them, is not unfrequently one minds and the minds of other men. And who are authors and those who are not

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There is another class we mean to glance / one original character, developed and varied in this, and while the future continues in at. This embraces writers who are honest, by the operation of a very few agencies. It futurity, we would class ourselves among and writers who are not. We have no con- is a mind, however, of vast capacity, and th faithful. cern with the purposes or motives of men the causes which are brought to operate Sometimes, however, this vast and remote when they write or print, for a bad book upon it are of great power. We are not future seems to approach nearer than it may not have proceeded from a bad motive, surprised to find this character at times a should upon the borders of the present, and or a useful one from the best. Honest au- wandering misanthrope, feeling deeply the sometimes our writers and talkers seem to thors are not so to themselves only, but to power of nature, and of man as he now is, think, and to feel, that it has actually their age, and to their country. There is a and man as he has been, in the remote and reached us, and that we are now what a real weakness in a written hypocrisy. A strange times of antiquity. It is not strange few centuries may make us. In this there man may walk before us, and talk before us to us that he should now appear deep in the may be great evil. It our legislators get it, too, and be nothing he seems. But the mind toils of love; now recklessly cruel, and now they may legislate for what is not; changand the heart of the whole community stir ardently attached. We do not wonder to ing and overturning what belongs to us, to at the false histories of the writing author. find him grossly licentious and ingenious make way for what belongs to nobody. Our And this they do, whether the falsehood be in his ribaldry; now discoursing about financiers may get it, and we may be taxed found in the glozing of sin, in excessive moral distinctions, and now losing or de- in advance, and be called wealthy, because panegyric, or in caricature vice.

spising the whole of them. At one moment every body may be hereafter. It would The purely imaginative, and the satirists he spurns our sympathy, and in the next we sometimes seem that the inspiration of our too, have not unfrequently been the faith- should be ashamed of his company. This writers was getting transfused into the mass, fulest authors, and the truest historians. character has been pronounced to be his and that we are living in the future, whether Who reads Hume, Gibbon, or Robertson own, at least i an early period of its his. we will or no. We are getting at last at for a true history ? Nobody. But who does tory. This, however, he has denied. But abuses, which have been the protection and not read Shakspeare with a saving and a if it be in any measure so, his works to that happiness of our fathers and ourselves, but safe faith. He wrote truly of all ages, for extent at least are autobiographical

, and will which will never be tolerated in the times he wrote truly of his own, and knew what go down to succeeding ages for their veri- to come. A strange sort of benefaction is was in man. To be honest, was not the less similitude alone. They are not histories of thus to be substituted for present good, the unwise in his time, in the construction of a bis time, for they do not give us what an incalculable good of a vast future. villain, than it is now.

age, especially his own, makes of the mass If this be in any measure true, if we are Pope was no traducer of his species as he of men, with whom he was born. They are to realize prophecies, or are realizing them found it. His age made him, as the age strictly individual, for they all tell us about already, we should look to it, and very semakes every body. His harmonious, and, the same being. Give these works any riously. Human life is getting longer, it is not unfrequently, grossly indelicate satire, other character, admit for a moment that said, than it used to be, but it will hardly has its quality from his time. It was the they were intended by the author as a true carry us as far as our writers are disposed current selfishness which made its passage history, or a dramatic sketch of his times, to do. We may be losers in the bargain, and through his heart, and a fine intellect fol- and he becomes at once the veriest and what is thus lost to us, will be lost to our lowed in its tide. Pope, however, is tem vulgarist libeller. As it is, he is the most successors, however remote, or however nuporary and local, for he is confined, and remarkable egotist, if one at all, that has merous. They were safe prophets in the hemmed in by an artificial society both of ever lived. He industriously brings to the British parliament, who foretold the liberty fashion and letters. We have dispensed surface, and keeps there, what other men and prosperity of America, for we had one with the hoop-petticoat, and pretty much more industriously have hidden in the deep- of these already, and could not long want with the heroic couplet. But he is true to est recesses of their own hearts. This sin- the other. Prophets are not safe now howwhat he saw and felt, or to his age, and is gle fact explains a thousand anomalies in ever, our prophetic writers; for we have so far no libeller.

his works; and among these, the strange both liberty and prosperity, and it is for Byron is still more local than Pope. He selfishness which could love deeply the in- these, and for these alone, we should give is almost individual. His variety is more dividual and hate the species; or regard the our minds in the fulness of their best powin name than in thing. His writings seem whole with one sweeping abhorrence, dis- ers; and if we are true to our best interests, to be the efforts of a very few agencies upon gust, and contempt.

those which have been long proved, and his own vast mind. A review of some of We have spoken of authors who have found so, our posterity will be blessed with. his poems, which by his own title of them, been true to their own character, to their out prophesy. really belong to his infancy, was one, and age, and to the world. There are other probably the earliest of these. This review classes; we have room to speak of but one annoyed him dreadfully. He did not con- This class is peculiar to our own sider that he had strayed from his nobility country. It has in a measure been made

No. I. into the republic of letters, and was igno- by the country, its institutions, and prosrant that the constitution of this wide repects, and deserves to be named. It be

The Author. public, guarantees to all its citizens the longs to us; and however little we have

Me dulcis saturet quies. privilege of abusing, as well as praising been allowed to appropriate of letters,

Obscuro positus loco, each other. His nobility went in company we may safely claim this. If we should

Leni perfruar otio.

Chorus ex Thyeste. with his genius, a legitimate association name it, we should call it the prophetic class enough in his case, and they were equally of authors. This will serve to distinguish I am a wayfaring man in the literary annoyed by the reception they met. Disgust them at once from all writers within a world, and in humour and out of humour to the whole British empire soon followed, reasonable antiquity, and will surely distin- with its inhabitants, have come and gone and the Curse of Minerva appeared a few guish them from all the moderns. Our wri- from place to place, and as yet have left no years after English Bards and Scottish Re- ters, whether imaginative or historical, are memory behind me. I have always shunviewers. A still more personal annoyance prophetic. They go habitually before the red ostentation, even in the vehicle that at length drove his lordship from England time. They live in the future of their own has carried me, and turning aside from the forever, and then we had Don Juan, or, with minds. They are with a population which busier marts of literature, have loitered in other things, English manners, and English cannot be numbered. The blessings of our its green alleys and silent avenues. To society, under the similitude of Eastern institutions are upon all. A mass of intel. men in the higher walks of letters nature sensuality.

lectual power and physical strength occu- has made known the warm intellectual As an author, and it is in this character pies the distance, to a degree at times al springs, whence issue those vast concepLord Byron now lives, his lordship is almost most oppressive to us, who are comparatively tions, that are too wide for the embrace of entirely exclusive. He has given us but I few and powerless. Now there is no harm inferior minds ;-and we of humbler birth

more.

THE LAY MONASTERY,

are content to sit by their distant waters, he will find them there. If the world cen- ter he kept himself close to his barbour. and beneath the shadows of their branches. sure bim, its chidings will be lost amid their He is now a septuagenary,-a sprightly, Many are journeying 'on in the literary consoling voices,-if the world's friendship hale old man; and though he feels the tide highways, and hurry from stage to stage has been sterile, he will see no barrenness of life beating within him less vigorously without once pausing to look upon the in theirs, -and if the world has been un- day after day, yet baviog enjoyed the green beautiful scenery that invites them to lin- kind and malevolent, he will find nothing and flourishing spring of life, and the lustiger on their way; but we, who choose the there of its stern austerity.

hood of its summer, he sits quietly down in rambling vehicle of the essay, turn off in- When I was a boy, my earliest attention the cheeriulness of its autumn, like one to the by-ways, and enjoy the irregular in- was excited by the brass clasps of an anti- that rejoices in the full fruits of early terchange of woods, and waters, and green quated, worm-eaten tome, that an old uncle coil. valleys.

of mine, sadly given to antiquarian re- When my uncle beheld my childish adFrom my youth up, my life has been a search, had left upon my mother's table. miration for his venerable black-letter kind of vagrant existence, and I have al- No sooner was the event of my birth, which tome, he fondly thought that he beheld the ways been fond of ra.nbling about in the forms an epoch in our family history, an-germ of an antique genius already shooting woods and quiet fields of the country. 1 nounced, than the kind-hearted old man out within my mind, and from that day I bave been a truant from society, and have came posting down from his country resi- / became with him as a favoured vine. Time turned from the troubled world of realities dence. He was a virtuoso in thought, has been long on the wing, and his affecto an ideal world of mine own; and yet in word, and deed. He was a rusty old fel- tion for me grew in strengih as I in years; retirement, and amid the pleasant woods low, and, like one of his own coin, had the uptil at length he has bequeathed to ne that had become home to me, I never look-features of antiquity indelibly stamped up the peculiar care of his library, which coned for solitude, and never found it. There on bim ; and the gradual wastes of time, sists of a multitude of huge old volumes, was a spirit there that communed with my by rendering the relievo less distinct, placed and some ancient and modern manuscripts. own. The earth was peopled with imagi- the antiquity beyond a doubt. His counte-The apartment which contains this treas. nary forms, and in the sound of the river. nance very much resembled that of Cosmo, ure is the cloister of my frequent and studiand of winds that fanned its bosom and on the medallions of the Medici; and ous musings. It is a curious little chamber, made the tall reeds bend, I heard the voice though the severity of his eye indicated in a remote corner of the house, finished of humanity distinct, and to my intellectual deep thought, yet there was something all round with painted pannelings, and ear articulate. Thus I became the child about the mouth that declared his subtle boasting but one tall, narrow Venetian winof wayward fancy, and nature touched vein of shrewdness and grotesque humour. dow, that lets in upon my studies a “dim, within me that chord of simple poetic feel. He was deeply versed in alchemy and old- religious ligbt,” which is quite appropriate ing, which has not yet ceased to vibrate. school chemistry, and very vain of his to them. I am melancholy, but studious thought has knowledge ;-if I borrow a simile from his Every thing about the apartment is old made me so, and not those cares which pursuits, he thought that the halo of his and decaying. The table, of oak inlaid tire men of the world. It is a melancholy own glory was increasing like the circular with maple, is worm-eaten and somewhat of that kind which has nothing of malevo- corona of vapour that arose iron a certain loose in the joints; the chairs are massive lence or austerity about it;-it is but that chemical combination of bis, which, as it es- and curiously carved, but the sharper edges pensive sbade, which, to him who loves to caped from his alembic, widened and widen- of the figures are breaking away; and the muse, gently mellows down the hard feated whilst ascending; but, unfortunately for solemn line of portraits, that cover the ures of society, and gives a still-life se- him, his fame, like that vapour, grew thin walls, hang faded from black, melancholy renity to a bustling world. As I sit in ner and thinner, and at length lost itself in frames, and declare their intention of soon my silent cloister, surrounded by a multi air. He was an inveterate old bachelor; leaving them forever. In a deep niche tude of books-mute but eloquent compan- but kind-hearted and extremely benevo stands a heavy iron clock, that rings the ions, --and look out upon mankind as they lent; and charity, which was written upon hours with a hoarse and sullen voice; and toil on in the thoroughfares of life, the calm his countenance, was written more deeply opposite, in a similar. niche, is deposited a and quiet feeling of my retirement becomes upon his heart. I have heard it whispered gloomy figure in antique bronze. A recess, spiritualized froin sell-enjoyment to a glow- in the family,--but very cautiously, for the curtained with a tapestry of faded green, has ing philanthropy. The world is full of suf- old man's feelings are sensitive upon the become the cemetery of departed gepius, fering, and I feel a charity for those who subject,--that, like sundry other good old and, gathered in the embrace of this little have known that misery which I have not bachelors, he had been in his younger days sepulchre, the works of good and great men known; and I endeavour to remember how a cheralier d' amour; but shivering long in of ancient days are gradually mouldering ineffectual that charity is, which begins and the frowns of unrelenting beauty, he grew away to dust again. ends in feeling!

desperately cold towards the whole female My retirement to this solitary place arose As the hand of time is continually chang. sex, -as slighted woers sometimes will,- from a love of seclusion, and was not, as ing the scenes of the world's vast theatre, and even in the heyday of life forgot retirement often is, a desperate after-game I cannot help observing how grotesquely“ love's charming cares.” A few days ago, in the affairs of life. A strong attachment mingled in the romance of life are its trag- as I was turning over some neglected pa- to a still and quiet existence has brought ic and comic acts. But to a solitary being pers in his library, I found several desper- me here ;~and if I seem to have slighted like myself, departing years bring but little ate looking love verses, and a French Val- the world too soon, I can urge in my own change. Time's gradual current steals peace-entine on gilt-edged paper, with altars and defence, that I am one of those, who may fully away,--the seasons of life slowly suc lorches in the corners, which go far to cor. depart from society whenever they will, and ceed each other,-and day after day thought roborate the oral tradition oi' bis early love. none ask-Where are they? I would not ripens and ripens to its maturity ;—but This is indeed exactly what I should have forget the world, and would not be forgotstill my pursuits and occupations are the expected from his sanguine temperament; ten by it; but I would live in the hearts of same, and the same communion and fellow and time never efficed every vestige of this men as well as in their memories, and leave ship and good feeling exist between myself gallant feeling; on great occasions he was that quiet recollection behind me, which and iny books. It is very silly perhaps to apt to wear a highly ornamented broach of mankind will cherish for its very gentle prate now-a-days about the tranquil delight amber, containing in its centre a little ani- nuss. And yet, whilst, like a timid bark, I which books assume to him who is happy mal that strikingly resembles a lady-bug; woo the breath of others to give me motion enough to love them, -but I speak from the and sometimes figured in a brocade vest of on fame's still waters, my chief joy is in beart. If any man is sick and tired of the faded damask, with large sprigs and roses. seclusion and solitary musing; though I world, and would find those friends who are One serious love adventure of this kind would live in part for others, yet I would silent or garrulous, as he is melancholy or was enough for him; he was iost on a sea not in so doing become a stranger to my cheerful, let him retire to bis library, and of troubles in his first voyage, and ever af. I own thoughts.

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349

Mi mors gravis incubat,
Qui, notus nimis omnibus,
Ignotus moritur sibi.

Seneca.
Having been thus minute in delineating
my own character, let ine put on my mask-
ing-habit, and, as the Lay Monk, speak a
few words to the reader in reference to my
proposed writings. The severer studies
which are proper to manhood, leave me
sufficient leisure for that frequent reverie
and rambling thought which are well suited
to miscellaneous essays; and in all my
papers I shall claim the customary privile-
ges of essayists, and note down my loose
thoughts without regularity or any certain
order. In the choice of subjects for my
speculations, I shall be guided by my own
fancy; and that no one may accuse me of
failing in what I have never attempted, I
would be explicit in stating, that my aim is
rather to amuse the courteous reader and
help him pass away a tedious hour, than
eloquently to instruct him by deep thought
or high philosophy.

THE LAY MONK.

POETRY.

SONG OF THE STARS.
When the radiant morn of creation broke,
And the world in the smile of God awoke,
And the empty realms of darkness and death
Were moved through their depths by his mighty

breath,
And orbs of beauty, and spheres of flame,
From the void abyss, by myriads canie,
In the joy of youth, as they darted away,
Through the widening wastes of space to play,
Their silver voices in chorus rung,
And this was the song the bright ones sung.
Away, away, through the wide, wide sky,
The fair blue fields that before us lie:
Each san with the worlds that round us roll,
Each planet poised on her tarning pole,
With her isles of green, and her clouds of white,
And her waters that lie like fluid light.
For the source of glory uncovers his face,
And the brightness o'erflows unbounded space;
And we drink, as we go, the luminous tides
In our ruddy air and our blooining sides;
Lo, yonder the living splendors play!
Away, on our joyous path away!
Look, look, through our glittering ranks afar,
In the infinitc azure, star after star,
How they brigbitep and bloom as they swiftly pass!
How the verdure runs o'er each rolling mass !
And the path of the gentle winds is seen,
Where the small waves dance, and the young

woods lean.
And see, where the brighter day-beams pour,
How the rainbows hang in the sunny shower;
And the morn and the eve, with their pomp of bues,
Sbilt o'er the bright planets and shed their dews;
And 'twixt them both, o'er the teeming ground,
With her shadowy cone, the night goes round.
Away, away!—in our blossoming bowers,
In the soft air wrapping these spheres of ours,
In the seas and fountains that shine with morn,
See, love is brooding, and life is born,
And breathing myriads are breaking from night,
To rejoice, like us, in motion and light.
Glide on in your beauty, ye youthful spheres !
To weave the dance that measures the years,

Glide on in the glory and gladness sent

So life is passing, thongh pleasure's dream To the farthest wall of the firmament,

Enliven its course, as the flowers the stream.
The boundless visible smile of hiin

This violet low that shines in dew
To the veil of whose brow our lamps are dim. Like eyes I love, and almost as blue,

B. Tomorrow will wither, and fade, and die,

And waken no sigh of sympathy.

That aged beech-wbere I carved a name
FAREWELL TO CASTLES IN THE AIR. Dearer to me than riches or fame-

With its trunk, shall camber the spot it shaces,
Farewell, my Castles raised so high,
Farewell, ye bowers of beauty, -

For strength must perish, as beauty fades.

And 1, wben a few short summers are o'er, From your enchantinent I must fly,

Shall muse in these lonely scenes no more;-
To sober paths of duty.

Yet when I pass to eternity
O many an hour could I employ,

May virtue my strength and beauty be--
These lovely bowers adorning,

My spirit rise to the blessed Giver,
Till every airy hall of joy
Should seem a star of morning.

And my body rest by the Silent River.

S. H.
But go, vain dreams, depart,
Though fondly loved; I feel it,
That, while you sooth the heart,
From better things you steal it.

INTELLIGENCE.
When rose the storms of grief and care,
On life's uncertain billow,

SOUTHEY AND BYRON.
I sought my Castles in the Air,

The following is the conclusion of Mr
And found a ready pillow;
Here joys to come were always shown,

Southey's late letter on Lord Byron.
The present grief dispelling,

“ It was because Lord Byron had brought For future woe is all unknown

a stigma upon English literature, that I acIn my aërial dwelling.

cused him; because he had perverted great The lesson thus was lost, For which the storm was given,

talents to the worst purposes; because he To show the tempest-tost

had set up for pander-general to the youth A refuge sure in Heaven.

of Great Britain, as long as his writings

should endure; because he had committed Here Hope, though cheated o'er and o'er,

a high crime and misdemeanor against soI thought would Jwell securest, And deemed, of all her various store,

ciety, by sending forth a work, in which Such gift the best and surest.

mockery was mingled with horrors, filth While Fancy strove, with magic glass, with impiety, profligacy with sedition and To raise the scene ideal,

slander. For these offences, I came forward
Still whispered Hope, though this may pass, to arraign him. The accusation was not
The next will sure de real.
Thus many a daring theme

made darkly; it was not insinuated; it was Was formiog aud undoing,

not advanced under the cover of a review. And still some brighter dream

I attacked him openly in my own name, and Arose upon their ruin.

only not by his, because he had not then

publicly avowed the flagitious production, Thus, in the fields of wild romance,

by which he will be remembered for lasting I tarried for a season, But still, at every change and chance,

infamy. He replied in a inanner altogether I heard the voice of Reason:

worthy of himself and his cause. Conten"Oh, at some holier, happier shrine, tion with a generous and honourable oppoDevote thy thoughts so ranging;

nent leads naturally to esteem, and probably Whose base is truth and love divine,

to friendship; but next to such an antagoThe fabric never changing. Thy hopes from youth to age,

nist, an enemy like Lord Byron is to be If thou wilt hither guide them,

desired; one who by his conduct in the conThough tempests rise and rage,

test, divests himself of every claim to reSecurely may abide them.”

spect; one whose baseness is such as to

sanctify the vindictive feeling it provokes ; I raised my eyes from all beneath,

and upon whom the act of taking vengeance And Hope stood in the portal, She beld an amaranthine wreath,

is that of administering justice. I answered And promised life immortal.

bim as he deserved to be answered, and the I felt the scene before my view

effect which that answer produced upon bis Was more then idle seeming,

lordship, has been described by his faithful And wish and strive to bid adieu To all my days of dreaming.

chronicler, Captain Medwin. This is the Then go, vain dreams, depart,

real history of what the purveyors of scanThough fondly loved; I feel it,

dal for the public, are pleased sometimes "That, while you soothe the heart,

to announce in their advertisements, as From better things you steal it.

Byron's Controversy with Southey.' What A. C. H.

there was dark or devilish in it belongs to

his lordship; and had I been compelled to SUMMER MUSINGS.

resume it during his life, he, who played When a languor soft the sense invades,

the monster in literature, and aimed his I stroll alone to the woodland glades,

blows at women, should have been treated And linger in coverts cool and green,

accordingly. “The republican trio,' says Beneath the poplars' beautiful screen.

Lord Byron, 'when they began to publish Then I watch the wavelet that hastens by

in common, were to have had a community To the sea, as time to eternity;

of all things, like the ancient Britons-to And I muse like Jaques, and moralise On themes that the silent scene supplies.

have lived in a state of nature, like savaI tbink, as the river glides away

ges-and peopled some island of the blest, Though banks of wild dowers woo its stay, with children in common, like A

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