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THE UNITED STATES LITERARY GAZETTE.

Published on the first and fifteenth day of every month, by Cummings, Hilliard, & Co. No. 1 Cornhill, Boston.-Terms, $5 per annum, payable in July.
Vol. 1.
BOSTON, DECEMBER 16, 1824.

No. 17.

REVIEWS.

perhaps, of all things, that which is most to gardens and vineyards, wood and verdure, cattle and

be dreaded and hated ; but these are not groups of villagers, all blended in bright and gay conRecollections of the Peninsula. By the Au- whom its actual horrors do not reach; and parties of monks, in the dark and picturesque dress the feelings which it usually excites in them fusion, arrest the eye, and address the heart. Here

you saw, in their cool and shaded cloisters, small thor of Sketches of India.First Amer- one reason why there is so little truth in of their orders, observing us as we passed along; ican from the second London Edition, the common opinions and sentiments upon there some happy family, parents, children, and Philadelphia. 1824. 12mo. pp. 260.

this subject, is, that we consider it in the servants, would hurry to their garden terrace on the This book details the personal experiences mass, and not in detail. The true nature water's edge, and salute us with smiles and vivas; of a British officer actively engaged in the of war is concealed from the multitude by discern some solitary nun, who, from the high and

while a little farther, in the back ground, you might Peninsular war. We can safely recom- its pomp and glories ; but follow the indi- grated casement of her convent, looked out upon mend it as an interesting work; and we viduals who compose this mass, and observe the strange and brilliant show, and hastily withbelieve we may go further, and call it a the feelings which govern them, the deeds drew. About two leagues above Villa Franca, the useful work. The author does not attempt upon which they are bent, the ends they breeze died away, and not a breath of air stirred on to give a plan of the campaign, or to de- seek and the means they use, the doom with all their exertion, made little more than a scribe the movements of the military masses which few escape—of toil and peril, of league, when the shades of evening closed in, and which were then combatting in Spain. As savage bate, of more than brutal enmity- we brought to near the bank. Here we found a he does not write for the instruction of sol- of suffering which it is terrible to read of, Portuguese tent, which had been pitched for some diers, he adapts himself to the comprehen- and, perhaps, the violent death towards day-gaard, but was abandoned for the night; of this sion of others besides his martial brethrcn; which many are pressing,—and these idle my cheerful little mess took possession, and here and he narrates in a lively, unaffected, and glories will fade away. Military arrays are the gaiety of a party of pleasure.

we ate our cold meat and drank our wine, with all very pleasant way, those circumstances splendid objects; the dancing plumes and After an hour's Tabour in the morning, finding which befell him personally. We abide glittering arms are beautiful; the trumpet, we made little or no way by water, we landed and with him in his quiet quarters, during his and the echoing volley, will stir up the marched to Santarem. The situation of this city rare periods of rest, and follow him in the spirit; but these things are only the be- is very striking; it is built on bold, clevated ground, march, and stand by his side in the battle, ginning, and the end is on the battle field, of which it completely commands. The regiment

banging directly over the Tagus, the southern bank and thus learn what things they are, which where the fierce cries of rage and agony was quartered for the night in a convent, and I rea soldier must do and suffer. That such a and the groans of dying men are heard, ceived a billet on a private house. At the door of book must needs be interesting, our read and the gay plume is bloody, and the wound it, I was met by the owner, a gentlemanlike lookers will grant; and we think it also useful, ed bosom is breaking beneath a crushing ing, well-dressed man, of about sixty, and of a very because it helps to do away certain errors , hoof; and, if the beginning and the end are apartment, and a pretty bedchamber. I was cov

mild, pleasing address: he led the way to a neat and throw some light upon the folly and kept nearer to each other in our thoughts, ered with dust and dirt, and declined them as too wickedness of a love of war, and an admi- they will not wander so far from the truth. good; but how was my confusion increased, when ration of military achievement. Wars will But, we do not mean to make this pleas- my host himself brought me water in a silver basin probably be necessary evils for some time ant book serve only to introduce a discus- to wash, while his good Jady presented me with to come ; but though necessary, they should sion of the true character of war; and we that they had mistaken my rank from my two ep

chocolate, bearing it herself on a salver. I feared be regarded as evils. Universal and un hasten to state its contents somewhat more aulettes. and I explained to them that I was a sim. broken peace cannot be established until distinctly. The author embarked at Ports- ple Lieutenant. No; they well knew my rank, men love each other much better than they mouth, to follow his regiment to Portugal, but did not pay me the less attention ; they pernow do; and, in the mean time, nations in the last week of June 1809. In Lisbon fumed my chamber with rose-water, took off my nor refuse to acknowledge the necessity scription of this city and its beautiful vi- recover from the pleasing astonishment, into which should not neglect the means of defence, he remained about a fortnight, and the de- knapsack with their own hands, and then left me

to refresh myself by washing and dressing, and to of defence, when this necessity actually cinity occupies the tirst thirty pages of the their cordial and polite reception had thrown me. comes. The prevalence and common love volume. About the last of July his regi- In the evening any party dined here, and the wor. of war, is a strong proof that men are not, ment received orders to march for Spain; thy host presented us with some magnums of fine in their nature, so far from brutes, as they and for many days the march was a mere old wine, and the choicest fruit. We made scruwould fain think; for, though man may journey of pleasure, and every thing was hospitality, and we, in return, pressed on his ac

ples; he overruled them with true and anaffected submit to the necessity of conflict, it is es- delightful. The following extract will give ceptance six bottles of excellent Sauterne, the resentially brutishi and irrational to provoke our readers some idea of the treatment mains of our small stock of French wine. the combat and meet it with delight. That which the British at first received from the Such was my treatment in the first billet I ever war may prevent worse evils is certain; inhabitants of the country, and also of the entered in Portugal, and such, with very few excep

tions, was the character of the reception giver but let it rank with the earthquake, the change, and of the causes of the change, by Portuguese of all classes, according to their whirlwind, and the plague; let it stand which soon took place.

means, at the commencement of the Peninsula foremost among the avenging ministers of From the quay of the Commercial Square our struggle, to the British army: rich and poor, the God, whose visitations cover the face of men sprung into the boats, and our little fleet was clergy and laity, the fidalgo and the peasant, all society with a darkness like the shadow of soon sailing up the river, under a favourable breeze. expressed an eagerness to serve, and a readiness

It must have been a beautiful sight, for those on the to honour us. In these early marches, the villa, death, and can only be borne as they come quays and along the banks,

to mark our fair array: the monastery, and

the cottage, were thrown open to purge away, with fear and sorrow, evils The polished arms, the glittering cap-plates

, and at the approach of our troops the best apartments, which would have led to direr wo and the crimson dress of the British soldiers, crowded the nearest cells, the humble but only beds, were more dreadful desolation. War is essen- in open barks, must have produced a very fine all resigned to the march-worn officers and men, tially the science and art of mutual injury; effect. And we, too, gazed on a scene far different with undisguised cheerfulness. It is with pain i

indeed, but most peaceful, most lovely. The north-am compelled to confess, that the manners of my aod all possible modes of human suffering,

ern bank of the river from Lisbon tó Villa Franca strange, but well-meaning countrymen soon wrought all the forms which pain and misery can (about six leagues) presents a continued succession a change in the kind dispositions of this people. take, are its true accompaniments. It is, lof rural beauties: convents, chapels, and quintas, / When they saw many assume as a right all which

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they had accorded from politeness, and receive We bivouacked daily. It is a pleasing sight toered so far as to be pronounced out of dantheir respectful attentions and cordial services, as see a column arrive at its halting ground. The ger; but was still so feeble that he was expressions of homage, due to the courage, wealth, camp is generally marked out, if circumstances ordered to return to Lisbon. This journey and power of the British nation ;--when the sim- allow of it, on the edge of some wood, and near a plicity of their manners, their frugality, the spare river or streain. The troops are halted in open was uncomfortable enough, and after his arness of their diet, the peculiarities of their dress, columns, arins piled, picquets and guards paraded rival at Lisbon he suffered a relapse, which and their religious prejudices were made the sub- and posted, and, in two minutes, all appear at confined him for six weeks to his bed. He jects of derision and ridicule ;--- when they witness- home. Some fetch large stones to form fire-places; again recovered, rejoined his regiment, ed scenes of brutal ictoxication, and were occa: others hurry off with canteens and kettles for water, which formed a part of Gen. Hill's corps, sionally exposed to vulgar insult, from uneducated while the wood resounds with the blows of the bill and soon after found himself with his regiand overbearing Englishmen :--when, I say, all hook. Dispersed, under the more distant trees, this occurred, they began to examine our individu- you see the officers, some dressing, some arranging went, on the right of Wellington's army, al titles to their esteem; they were, often, very a few boughs to shelter them by night; others on the Sierra de Buzaco. soon disenchanted; and the spirit which we had kindling their own fires; while the most active are

My regiment had no sooner piled arms, than I awakened in them, manifested itself in various acts seen returning from the village, laden with bread; walked to the verge of the mountain on which we of neglect, rudeness, and even resentment. or, from some flocks of goats, feeding near us, with lay, in the hope that I might discover something of

One element of the pleasure which the a supply of new milk, How often, under some the enemy. Little, however, was I prepared for author and his messmates enjoyed wbile and fuel, have I taken up iny lodging for the night; ished sight. Far as the eye could stretch, the glit

spreading cork-tree, which offered shade, shelter, the magnificent scene which burst upon my astonthey were on their way to join the army, and here, or by some gurgling stream, my bosom tering of steel, and clouds of dust raised by cavalry was the entire novelty of all the scenes fanned by whatever air was stirring, made my care and artillery, proclaimed the march of a countless and circumstances about them; we doubt less toilet

, and sat down with men I both liked and army; while, immediately below me, at the feet of not, many of the soldiers were murmuring esteemed, toma coarse, but wholesome mual

, sea those precipitous heights, on which I stood, their at those very things which their officers simplicity of this life I found most pleasing. An were already halted in their bivouacks, and col

soned by hunger and by cheerfulness. The rude picquets were already posted : thousands of them enjoyed with the highest relish. As they enthusiastic admirer of nature, I was glad to move advanced on their march, the heat became and dwell amid her grandest scenes, remote from reposed upon the ground allotted to them, and

umn too after column, arriving in quick succession, so intense, that it was necessary to repose cities, and unconnected with what is called

society. swelled the black and enormous masses. The during the day, and proceed

only when the Her mountains, her forests, and, sometimes, her numbers of the enemy were, at the lowest calculasun had withdrawn his intolerable beams. home: her rivers, streams, and springs, cooled my three distinct and heavy columns; while to the

bare and bladeless plains, yielded me a passing tion, seventy-five thousand, and this host formed in But this change of day into night, and all brow, and allayed my thirst. The inconvenience the various wants and difficulties incident of one camp taught me to enjoy the next; and I rear of their left

, at a more considerable distance,

you might see a large encampment of their cavalry, to their situation, were made sources of learned (a strange lesson for the thoughtless) that and the whole country behind them seemed coverpleasure.

wood and water, shade and grass, were luxuries. I ed with their train, their ambulance, and their com

saw the sun set every evening: I saw him rise missariat. ***I returned slowly to the line; and, With a small advanced guard I entered Golegão again each morning in all his majesty, and I felt after an evening passed in very interesting and aniat the head of the regiment just as early matin-bell that my very existence was a blessing. Strange, mated conversation, though we had neither baggage was summoning the inhabitants to prayers. The indeed, to observe how soon men, delicately brought nor fires, we lay down, rolled in our cloaks, and attendance on public worship throughout Spain and up, can inure themselves to any thing Wrapt in with the stone surface of the mountain for our bed, Portugal is extremely regular, and no occupation, a blanket, or a cloak, the head reclining on a stone or manner of life, is suffered to interfere with this or a knapsack, covered by the dews of night, or

and the sky for our canopy, slept, or thought away sacred duty. To mass go the muleteers before drenched perhaps by the thunder shower, sleeps line was under arms; but the two hours glided by

the night. Two hours before break of day, the they load their train; and from the door

of the many a youth, to whom the carpetted chamber, the rapidly and silently. At last, just as the day dawn chapel the peasants sally forth to their daily labours. curtained couch, and the bed of down, have been ed, a lew distant shots were heard on our left, and The very changing of night into day, a measure from infancy familiar.

were soon followed by the discharge of cannon, rendered necessary by the extreme heat, carried with it the charın of novelty. I was well lodged,

But the scene soon changed; the regi- and the quick, heavy, and continued roll of musand hospitably treated, in an humble but clean cot- ment arrived within reach of the army, and ketry. We received or jers to move, and support tage, and with the night again set forward. began to learn something of the realities of the troops attacked : the whole of Hill's corps, This march, and the following, our route, which war.

amounting to fourteen thousand men, was thrown

into open column, and moved to its left in steady passed by Punhete to Abrantes, led us often for miles along the banks of the Tagus, and through officers, men, and horses, of the heary brigade of As we passed out of the town, we saw several double quick, and in the highest order. * **

We were halted exactly in rear of that spot, villages built on the very edge of the river... British cavalry, stationed there. The cate were from which the seventy-fourth regiment, having clear bright silver moon lighted our silent path; in wretched condition, and the men looked sickly. just repulsed a column, was retiring in line, with the not a lamp burning in any of the cottages; not a human voice to be heard, not a sound, save the

Both officers and privates were very ill dressed, and most beautiful regularity, its colours all torn with dull tread of our weary men, and the gentle tone in their brown and shapeless hats had a most unmili- shot. Here a few shells few harmlessly over our which the waters told their ceaseless flow. The tary appearance. Whoever had seen these regi. line, but we had not the honour of being engaged. moon-beams which played upon the bright arms of ments in England; in pale, sallow-looking men, The first wounded man I ever beheld in the field, our gallant soldiers, shone also on the glistening the third Dragoon Guards and fourth Dragoons, young Englishman, in the Portuguese service, and

and skeleton horses, would hardly have recognized was carried past me at this moment: he was a fine nets of the peaceful fisherman, which hung spread two corps enjoying

, and deservedly, a well-earned lay helplessly in a blanket, with both his legs shat upon the rocks, near his deserted bark. these humble dwellings was repose, and their happy ishes all that brilliancy which has won the heart drops of perspiration stood on his manly

forehead; Thus, oftentimes, on actual service, van- tered by canon-shot. He looked pale, and big inmates slumbered sweetly, unconscious that the tide of war (harmless and friendly indeed to them, and fixed the choice of so many a youth, and which but he spoke not-his agony appeared unutterable. yet bearing on its wave not only youth, ambition, appeared so gay and attractive on crowded es- 1 secretly wished him death; a mercy, I believe,

that was not very long withheld. and courage, but, perhaps, even ferocity and crime) planades at home. *** rolled, in the dead of night, past the vine-clad walls

The autumnal season, in Estremadura, is prover

More and harder fighting was expected; of their defenceless cots. The town of Abrantes bially unhealthy, and numbers of the inhabitants is well situated; it stands lofty, and commands the die annually of the alarming fever which prevails the troops were kept ready for action, lying passage of the Tagus, over which, at this point, a

in the dreaded month of September. The unwhole with their accoutrements on where they last bridge of boats communicates with the southern some vapours, which arise from the beds of the stood in order of battle; front and rear provinces. We crossed the river, and occupied many stagnant pools scattered over the surface of ranks head to head, and every man's firefor one night a camp of standing huts, formed

these plains, and always dried up by the summer lock by his side. But the French manocu. weeks before by some division of our army, which heats, are said to produce this evil

, Be this as it vred to attack the British in Alank, and had halted in that neighbourhood. At sun-rise the may, towards the end of September, this insidious Wellington retreated to his lines near Lisfollowing morning we were again in motion, and and resistless enemy found his way into our tranmarched onwards to the village of Gaviao. Our quil quarters, crowded our hospitals with sick, and bon. The French advanced and tbreatroad led, in part, through plains covered with Gum- filled the chapel vaults with victims, orer whom we ened them, but retired in their turn. cistus in Aower, the frail leaves of which are regloomily and sullenly mourned. * * *

Our author was attached to Marshal Be

I returned home after the review, passed a most resford's corps, and continued under his markable for their delicate whiteness; and in part, cheerful evening, could talk of nothing but war and over uplands all clothed with heath, but a heath so ich in the variety, the beauty, and the fragrance of Wellington-was that night stretched on the bed command until after the battle of Albuera. nts, that the traveller forgot, or forgave, the of sickness, and, in a few days, lay at the very One of the British brigades lost in this batof the corn-field, the vineyard, and the point of death.

tle one thousand and fifty men, killed and After some weeks of sickness he recor- wounded, out of one thousand four hundred.

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This last brigade went into action led by a major and fled, abandoning some guns and howitzers about meet with a reputation,” to use his own general

, and with its due proportion of field-officers sixty yards from us. The presence of their cavalry words, “which its character did not deand captains. I saw it at three in the aftemoon :- not permiuing us to pursue, we halted, and recom

mand." a captain commanded the brigade; the 57th and menced firing on them. The slaughter was now, 48th regiments were commanded by lieutenants; for a few minutes, dreadful; every shot told; their

The character of our author, so far as it and the junior captain of the 29th regiment was officers attempted in vain to rally them; they would may be estimated by this little publication, the senior effective officer of his corps. "Not one of make no effort. Sone of their artillery, indeed, is exceedingly pleasing. To the modesty these six regiments lost a man by the sabre or the look up a distant position, which much annoyed our and candour, wbich appear in his preface, lance; they were never driven, never thrown into line : but we did not move until we had expended he joins a singular respect for his instructconfusion; they fought in line, sustaining and re: every round of our ammunition, and then retired, plying to a heavy fire, and often charging; and in the most perfect order, to a spot sheltered from ers, and a warm friendship for his fellowwhen the enemy at length fled, the standards of their guns, and lay down in line, ready to repulse student, which he takes this occasion to these heroic battalions flew in proud, though any fresh attack with the bayonet To describe publish in three several dedications. mournful triumph, in the centre of their weakened my feelings throughout this wild scene with fidelity, These Dedications and Preface are solbut victorous lives

. ***I would now relate what fell would be impossible : at intervals, a shriek or a lowed by Introductory Remarks, intended under my own observation, and describe, if it be possible, my feelings on that day. We stood to our proan told that the men were falling around me; to contain a hasty sketch of what is al

but it was not always that the tumult of the conarms an hour before break of day: it was a bril- test suffered me to catch these sounds. A constant ready known on the subject of vision; and, liant sight, at sun-rise, to see the whole of the feeling to the centre of the line, and the gradual having thus prepared us by nearly thirty French cavalry moving on the plain; but in a short diminution of our front, most truly bespoke the pages of prefatory matter, he permits us at time they retired into the wood, leaving their pic- havock of death. As we moved, ihough. slowly, Iasi, about the middle of the volume, to enquets as before. The battalion being dismissed, I yet ever a little in advance, our own killed and ter upon the treatment of the real subject breakfasted, and immediately afterwards set out to wounded lay behind us; but we arrived among walk towards the Spanish troops, little dreaming, those of the enemy, and those of the Spaniards who of it, much of which we acknowledge to be that day, of a general action. But the sound of a had fallen in the first onset: we trod among the equally original and amusing, though from few shots caused me to return; and I found our line dead and dying, all reckless of them.

that deficiency in arrangement, which be getting hastily under arms, and saw the enemy in motion. The prelude of skirmishing lasted about

Our author was also engaged in the bat- partly acknowledges, it is not always so an hour and a half, and our division lost a few men tle of Vittoria, and, in a skirmish at the pass easy to be understood as we could have by random gun-shot; all this time we were stand- of Maya, was made prisoner; and here his wished. ing at ease, and part of it exposed to a heavy, chill narrative ends. We have not room for all The circumstance, which led to Dr ing, and comfortless rain. Sounds, however, which the passages which we marked for quotation, Cooper's investigations, we shall give in his breathed all the fierceness of battle, soon reached and are not sure that we have selected the own words. us; the continued rolling of musquetry, accompas most interesting. The volume is very far nied by loud and repeated discharges of cannon on

Upon my glass while looking into it, I saw a little our extreme right, told us, convincingly, that the from being filled with stories of warlike spec'; by concentrating the two eyes upon this, at real attack was in that quarter. The brigades of deeds or sufferings. The scenery and the the same time watching the reflection of the face our division were successively called to support it. We formed in open column of companies at half the reminiscent crossed, and recrossed, so of the eyes themselves ; each of which is seen manners of that interesting country which upon the mirror, it was seen double, as was better

seen of those parts nearest the centre of vision, as distance, and moved in rapid double quick to the scene of action. I remember well, as we moved frequently, are strikingly described; his double, making an appearance of four eyes instead down in column, shot and shell flew over and recollections are vivid, and they bring be- of two. The spec at this time, being the object through it in quick succession; we sustained little fore him things well worthy of remem- upon which the eyes are directed, is distinctly injury from either, but a captain of the twenty- brance. His style is sometimes too ambi- visible. ninth had been dreadfully lacerated by a ball, tious, and is often inaccurate ; and occa- eyes are removed from their common axis of vis.

The obvious reason of all this is, that the two in path. We him, and he knew us all; and the heart-rending sionally he dwells so long upon the beauti- ion, the impressions of each no longer correspondtone in which he called i us for water, or to kill ful bills, and vales, and streams, which im- ing, except those of the object we are immediately him. I shall never forget. He lay alone, and we pressed themselves upon his memory, that observing. were in motion, and could give him no succour; we begin to be weary of his descriptions. for, on this trying day, such of the wounded as But, upon the whole, we are confident that at some loss to understand the meaning

For want of a definition, we were at first could not walk lay unattended where they fell : those of our readers who may purchase this of the phrase, “common axis of vision, in the field. When we arrived near the discomfit- book upon our recommendation, will ac- which we perceived could not be applied, ed and retiring Spaniards, and formed our line to knowledge that we have done them a favor. as it commonly is, to a line passing from a advance through ihem towards the enemy, a very

point midway between the centres of the noble looking young Spanish officer rode up to me, andibenced me with her nofi proud and brave Some Further Facts in Vision. By Ed. pupils of the eyes through the intersection anxiety, to explain to English, that his coun

of the

We were disposed to trymen were ordered to retire, but were not flying.

ward C. Cooper, M. D. New York, smile at our own previous obtuseness, when Just as our line had entirely cleared the Spaniards,

1824. 12ino. pp. 80.

it occurred to us that the common axis of a the smoky shroud of battle was, by the slackening This treatise, as our author informs us, was pair of eyes, looking into a glass, could be

one , to our view the French grenadier caps, their arms, suggested and completed in eight days, and nothing else than the reflection of the face and the whole aspect of their frowning masses. It he admits, that it is not unlikely it may appertaining to them. The circumstance was a momentary, but a grand sight. A heavy at be found to have many faults. His reas- has been observed before, but no writer, so mosphere of smoke again enveloped us, and few ons for publishing it in this condition indi- far as we know, bas given the same explaobjects could be discerned at all, --none distinctly. The coolest and bravest soldier, if he be in the cate a commendable regard for public opin. nation of it. Besides some ingenious vaheat of it, can make no calculation of time during ion, and show at once his zeal for enlight- riations of this experiment, two others are an engagement. Interested and animated, he marks ening it, and his caution in regard to the detailed, to which the author was led, in not the flight of the hours, but he feels that, preservation of its integrity. He gives the course of his researches. One of them • Come what come may,

his book to the world with all its blemishes, it is unnecessary to describe at length, Time and the hour run through the roughest day.' since time, which could not alter the na- since he informs us that the fact illustrated

ture of the principles advanced in it, would by it may be “familiarly known by looking We were

the whole time progressively advancing dinate to them. Experience, he is aware, fore us, and first closing one eye, and then This murderous contest of musketry lasted long only enable him to correct what is subor- at any extent of objects that present

. beupon and shaking the enemy. At the distance of about twenty yards from thein we received orders might polish his style, perfect his arrange the other, by which it will be seen, that to charge; we had ceased firing.cheered, and had ment, and perhaps add some trifling proofs; the nose obstructs the lateral view upon our bayonets in the charging position, when a body but it would, at the same time, give author- either side, from entering but the one eye of the enemy's horse was discovered under the ity to his name ; so that the doctrine, on the same side.” The other we shall give, shoulder of a rising ground, ready to take advantage of our inpetuosity. Already, however, bad which his readers may now examine and as above, in the words of the text. the French infantry, alarmed by our preparatory confirm, would be in danger of being re

A square bit of paper was taken exactly the cheers, wbich always indicate the charge, broken /ceived without discussion.

“ It might then I width of the distance between the pupils of the

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two eyes. This is to be placed at any point be be shorter than the former; and as beauty vour of the truth of it. We refer to the obvitween the eyes and the mirror, and within lines implies distinctness, the most beautiful ous reasonableness of such an arrangement. parallel from each eye to its owo reflexion.

forms have this figure. Hence the author We have always thought there was someIt will succeed best by holding the paper midway between the face and the mirror, which in conceives the diamond and ellipsis to be thing like a waste of power in the constant this case, may be at a greater distance of separa- more beautiful than the square or circle. use of two eyes in looking at the same tion. * * *

But it may be objected, that when these thing, when it is so evident that one would The effect of this is no less singular than it is figures are placed with their longest diam- answer the purpose extremely well; and curious ; for instead of there appearing upon each eters perpendicular, they should no long- even if the method suggested by our author eye, the half impression of itself with their natural

er be beautiful. separation, making the vacant distance produced

This objection his an- shall not be found to be the true one, it will by the intervention of the paper, which might have ticipates and replies to with great ingen still admit of some question whether it been supposed from the necessary want of the rays uity, that “having become pleased with the ought not to have been.

] falling from the parts within the two parallels ; this position of the form, habit created a pleas- The application of this discovery of Dr space is totally wanting. Curious as it may ap ure in viewing the form itself, and which Cooper to every thing in nature is obvious. pear, this vacuity was not noticed, and the two visions were united into one image ; that is, all might accompany it through any change After noticing some of the most evident that part of the face, to the outside of each eye, of posture," and secondly, that they are consequences of it, he concludes with the including the outer half of both were united in the really somewhat less beautiful in an upright following philosophic and beautiful recentre, giving the strange appearance of a face position. To which he might have added, marks. with one central eye, made up in this way of the as above, the occasional connexion of the external half of the two.

I have thus adventurously dared to look into this idea of beauty with utility, which is exem- curious subject. I have thus far in particular cast We were unable to obtain complete suc- plified in an elliptical object, not uncom- a distant, though I hope not less certain, look at cess in this experiment, for want of more mon in nature, the egg, with the upright the height and breadth of beauty, that like a broad precise directions, or some other cause, position of which we associate the idea of expanse of waters seeks its own level. I have which we do not think it necessary to in- the pleasure of eating it slightly boiled meen deluding the mind with new visions of no

thus far passed over a subject where the eye has vestigate, conceiving it to be analogous to which is neither so commonly, nor so agree- fancied beauty, but still in gayest fancy drest, dethat, by which two small holes, applied to ably effected in any other.

fying in plenteous and boundless changing variety, the eyes, when looking at a more remote

We regret that our limits will not here all definition; and yet how definite ! object, are made to appear as one ; in which allow us to extract more than the follow- ination of all which I have not presumed to at

The proper and accurate, or even regular examopinion we are confirmed by the suggestioning conclusion of his remarks upon the of the author, that a similar “fact takes power of habit.

tempt; sensible of its too great extent, for so su

perficial an observance as I was alone able to give place in the wearing of spectacles, making

To this is to be attributed the depraved taste of it. It was for me merely to point out the facts, as a visible union of the two glasses in one.” beauty, too common in the more beauteous sex; having noticed them, and to notice the circumstan

The inferences from these experiments their preference of colour over form; of forced ces in connexion with them and such as might are, that each eye can see for itself, and contortions of themselves over their more graceful make them tolerably clear for a more close inves(as by a law of our constitution, the nose is and natural luxuriance of charms; or, where it is tigation, a more capă üle investigator. interposed between them) somewhat fur- more general, in the vitiated ideas of rural scene

We feel, with him, a natural reluctance ther towards one side than its fellow; ry in the citizen.

to enter alone upon such an extensive field, that thus they are enabled to compare the

Great indeed is the force of habit, but it and having followed his footsteps to the pictures of objects situated in a horizontal has never get ventured, as our author justly boundary to which they have conducted direction, to be pleased with their agree the original fitness of things, when consid- " prae, sequemur." Advance boldly, and

remarks, to make much innovation upon us, we have nothing left but to exclaim, ment, or offended by their discrepancy. But, as no such comparison can be made

ered horizontally. Amidst all the “ irides- when you have seized the chaplet of Fame, between objects situated in a perpendicular has not dared to clothe one nether extremi

cent chaos” ot female habiliment, fashion we will sound her trumpet. direction with regard to each other, they may vary without offence to our congenital ty in leather and the other in prunella; an sense of beauty.

observation which brings to our recollection Saratoga ; A Tale of the Revolution. BosDr Cooper draws many beautiful illustra- the following simple lines, in which the

top. 1824. 2 vols. 12mo. tions of this doctrine from the works both author, with an exquisite attention to truth

“ Judex damnatur, dum nocens absolvitur," of nature and art. Thus, he observes, that and nature, has seized upon an analogous is not our motto when we sit in judgment on we consider a want of similarity between circumstance to place in a forcible light

the lighter productions of American literathe eyes, the arms, or the feet, as a de- the sordid poverty of a tattered mendicant,

ture, which have hitherto seemed to need formity, but never expect the forehead "One stocking on one foot he had,

rather to be nursed and protected from the and chin to resemble each other; and

On t'other foot a shoe."

withering blasts of criticism than to be again, that the sides of a column, to be We cannot refrain from extracting the “trash'd for overtopping.".

When the beautiful, must be alike, but not the capital following paragraph from among the lucid shelves of our bookshops shall groan under and base. In the case of ninepins and and ingenious illustrations of this theory.

the weight of uncut American duodecimos, sand-glasses, which seem to be exceptions to this rule, it is to be considered, that we undress of beauty, will exhibit the effect of the ble-covered and half-bound ephemera, it will

Another fact, that is common to the dress and and our circulating libraries teem with mar. insensibly connect our idea of beauty with unity required in the parallels across the vision, be time enough to lay a heavier hand upon that of, perfect adaptation to the particular strongly. If either lie in a horizontal direction, the imaginations of our fellow-citizens

. At object of this formation, to wit , the capaci- find this union of the opposite sides much impair- present we read in the spirit of charity,

, ty of standing on either end. Another inference may be thus express- also partly hence, we have the beggaring descrip- and glad to find something to praise. The

ed, and habit alone saves it in part. I suspect it is slow to mark the failures of inexperience, ed. As the right eye, for instance, sees an tion of the drunkard.

story of the volumes, which have suggested object, with a power equal to two, while Our author is disposed to find in his doc- these remarks, is rather too complicated, the left may be able to see only with a trine of horizontal comparison, an explana- and the characters too numerous ; but it is power equal to one, their united powers tion of the manner, in which we get an idea creditable to the author's powers, that the will be equal to three ; but as this can only of motion. He suspects that one eye keeps interest, notwithstanding these dificulties, happen with respect to objects situated the moving object in view, whilst the other is so well sustained. We shall first present horizontally in regard to each other, the is continually employed in marking the dis- our readers, in as few words as possible

, horizontal lines of a body, to a similar ex- tance between it and some fixed position. with an analysis of the plot. Major Courttent, will be seen with greater distinctness And although some objections to this idea land, a veteran officer in the British ser than the perpendicular ones. Hence, to present themselves to us, we cannot but vice, is induced by family circumstances to make these last equally distinct, they must think there is some intrinsic evidence in fa-I take up his abode in the United States, then

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the colonies of Great Britain. After some the intense and servent feeling, with which the 1 of it; and if the next musket ball knocks bim from years' residence, trouble comes to him in spectacle inspired her.

his horse, the victory may be ours; but if not, the shape of the revolutionary war, which Huzza for king George !' and. The royalists have

O'Carroll's frequent exclamations of Bravo!' Major,'

Have done with your ifs, O'Carroll,' interrupthe naturally considers in the light of re- won the day!' were seemingly unheard by her; ed the Major hastily. By Heaven, this champion bellion; and, after some hesitation about and it was not till the ranks of the Americans, has put the very devil into his soldiers, and in turning his arms against a country which which had hitherto remained firm and unbroken, spite of Talbot and all his men, they will beat us had sheltered and befriended him, accepts suddenly gave way, and they began to retreat in hollow.'

Our fellows are giving way,' exclaimed O'Cara commission in Burgoyne's army, which confusion, that she moved. or uttered a word. But was then advancing into the colonies from then, her colour heightened to crimson, and, clasp- roll. By St Patrick, they might have held out

ing her hands, she exclaimed with emotion, longer. Were it not for the cursed treaty, that so the north. In the course of that disastrous Shame! Shame! They fly, and from a force no fetters our valor, Major, we might leap to the rescue, campaign he is twice wounded, and his life larger than their own!'

with as valiant an air

as this same doughty hero, who as often saved by an American officer,

And they seem to understand it too,' said O'Car- has so steeled the courage of his own villains, and Colonel Grahame, the hero of the piece. this is not the first time the foe has seen their self! As haughtily as if he had conquered a host,

roll. “I rather suspect, from their gestores, that melted that of ours. How the fellow bears him. The heroine, the daughter of Major Court- backs. The officer who is endeavouring to rally and were about to dictate another treaty of surrenland, is brought into a state of contiguity them, however, is a brave fellow. But I fear he der!' with the hero, by her attendance on her has fought his last field; for the devil himself could • The treaty of surrender again!' exclaimed the wounded father, after the surrender at Sar- not get clear of Talboi's manæuvring, in such a Major, impatiently: You round off every sentence,

O'Carroll, with this detestable treaty; and begin atoga. On the return of the Courtlands predicament.'

Does Captain Talbot command the royalists' with what you will, the Great Mogul, the Pope of to their former residence, which was not asked Catherine, aroused by O'Carroll's observa- Rome, the usurpation of the round-headed Cromfar distant from Valley Forge, the acquaint- tion.

well, or any thing else equally foreign to the subance continues—as the Major was, by the Yes, I met him as I was riding this morning,' jeet, you are sure to rack your ingenuity, in order conditions of the treaty, a noncombatant, returned the Captain. It seems they were inform. to name this treaty of Saratoga, the remembrance and Grahame in winter quarters, wbich we ed by a deserter, who had grown weary of the hard of which seems to afford you the most exquisite have the evidence of history for believing foraging party was to leave the camp this morning; fare and cold quarters of Valley Forge, that this pleasure.'

• Have patience, Major,' said O'Carroll, his whole not to be so agreeable as to induce a young and Talbot and his men were lying in wait

for attention directed to the movements of the combatofficer to have much predilection for them. them, behind the group of maples yonder, when I ants; and look, look quick, by St George, Talbot The scene is not changed from this place. encountered him. The Americans were coming is down, and his soldiers are flying !' but the dénouement is delayed, by conver- up, when I left him, and I had just time to ride Major Courtland's attention was instantly direct. sation and episodes, through the whole of home, and leave my horse, before the first musketed to the scene of action, and he saw at once, that

sbot gave the signal that the engagement had com- the issue of the contest was decided. The second the second volume, when the parties are menced. But, upon my faith, the rebels have near- assault of the Americans had been far more furious happily married, with several other couples, | ly gained the forest; all except that foolish officer, and determined than the first. Animated by the wbose adventures are concluded at the who will lose his life by seeking to rally the cow presence of a leader, whom they idolized, and solicsame time. ards.'

itous to retrieve their tarnished honor, they fought We have despatched the story thus short

While O'Carroll spoke, scarcely heeded either with intrepid boldness, till the enemy, discouraged sly, by stripping it of the episodes and ed to retreat in great disorder, unmindful of the gave way. It is possible they might have recover

by Catherine or her father, the Americans continu- by this fierce attack, began to falter, and at length other extraneous matter with which it threatenings or persuasions of their commanding ed themselves, had not the fall of Captain Talbot is complicated, some of which add much to officer, who used every exertion in his power to in- served to coniplete their confusion ; when they inits length, and, by distracting our attention, duce them to renew the contest. But it was all in stantly took to flight, leaving a number dead on diminish the interest in the main action. vain; they seemed completely, panic-struck, and the field, and several, beside their Captain, despeWe could have very well spared Colonel eager only to escape the pursuit of their conquer- rately wounded.

ors, when suddenly their flight was arrested. Dunbar and General Arnold, Talbot and A single horseman, wearing the uniforın of the

The character of the Irish captain, O'CarAmelia, especially the latter, who are very continental arıy, sprang from behind a small copse roll, is pretty well executed, though rather ordinary people, in whose affairs we could of trees, and leaping the slight barrier of rails inclined to caricature; in that of the hero, take but little interest in any circumstan- which enclosed the field of action, waved his we recognised, oftener than was agreeable, ees, much less when, like many indifferent

sword with an air of defiance, and called aloud up some striking features of the Mortimers,

on the flying troops to rally, and act like men. The persons in real life, they intrude themselves tones of his commanding voice were heart distinct- Belvilles, &c. of other days; those of the Inand their stories upon our attention, and ly on the hill, where the party of observation were dians, Ohmeina and Minoga are very good, occupy the time which we are impatient to stationed, and they seemed like magic to arrest the wbile those of Forrester and Richard bestow upon more useful or agreeable sub-course of the defeated soldiers; for they instantly Hope are as well as could be expected in jects.

stood still, and the officer placing himself at their their subordinate station.

head, they collected, and with inconceivable rapiciThe following description of a skir- ty formed a conspact body, presenting a firm and

This work, in common with many other mish is spirited, and will serve as a speci- dauntless front.

second rate novels, is spun out to an unnecmen of the style of the work, and we hope This sudden movement produced a visible sensa- essary length by long and often insipid conour readers will pardon the length of the tion in the enemy. They slackened their fire. and versations, which waste the time, ink, and extract, as it is the only one we shall make. retreating a few stepsc drew up again, in order of paper of the writer

, increase the expense of . recommenced with new The scene of action lay in a stubble field, some the British fighting as if resolved to win a second printing, and of course diminish the sale of distance beyond the hill; so that the smoke from victory, and the Åmericans as if determined to the work, whilst they are generally skipthe fire-arıns, concealed the horrors of the fight. atone for he shame of their premature flight. ped by the reader. It should be rememberBut the quick and animated movements of the Confound those rebels! exclaimed O'Carroll, ed that in this particular, nature cannot be parties, and the rapid glancing of their arms, were who, with his companions, had anxiously watched copied to advantage; for though nothing is visible; and though the frequent vollies of mus the progress of this unexpected revolution ; they more certain, than that almost every body ketry involved thein in obscurity, yet the clouds of bave always some corps de reserve, some slashing smoke rose so swiftly in the pure atmosphere of the hero, or cunning stratagem, to turn the fortune of talks more and longer than is necesssary, morning, that the bustling and active scene was at fight. We had fairly won the field, when that tall the writer should consider that we listen one instant disclosed, and the next shrouded again fellow came, Heaven only knows from whence, to partly from regard to the rules of politeness, in darkness. The parties engaged were small, and pluck back our laurels, and bind them on bis own and partly from the expectation of taking apparently equal, in point of numbers. But the rebel brows.' British had evidently gained the advantage, which Do not begin your lamentation 100 soon, O'Car- our own turn, while in reading a novel we they were

vigorously pursuing; for the Americans, roll" said the Major. Our laurels, perhaps, may are no longer bound by the former nor can though obstinately defending themselves, were bloom the brighter for this fresh attack'; il we beat have any reasonable lope of the latter. gradually retreating towards the forest, in their rear. them from the field again, it is a double victory,

In a narrative of this sort it must necesMajor Courtland watched his daughter's counte- you know.' nance, with interest, as, after the first undecided

sarily happen, that wounds should frequentmoment, she continued earnestly to gaze upon this deal depending on the little word if, Major, the almost invariable application to them

If-repeated O'Carroll. “There is a great ly occur, and we noticed that, in these cases, scene. Her kindling eye, her fushed cheek, her this knight errant bad not leaped into the field, liis profound silence, and motionless attitude, evinced rebel followers would before now have leaped out

was balsam of some sort or other. Now we

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