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which we noticed of a similar character. / street, were soon filled. I happened to be at a fashion I made way for a beautiful young woman, These are minor faults, it is true, in a work house in the neighbourhood, and reached the au- who, by great efforts had got through the crowd. like this ; still they are faults, and should dience-room before the crowd became impassable. She threw herself into the General's arms, and lay

I was desirous of seeing how the General would there full half a minute, without being able to utter have been ayoided.

behave through a scene of no ordinary difficulty ; more than Oh mi General! mi General! She We do not feel ourselves qualified to add and he certainly acquitted himself very well. There then tried to disengage herself, but San Martin

, much to what we have already said on the was, as may be supposed, a large allowance of en who had been struck with her enthusiasm and political relations of the southern peninsula. thusiasm, and high-wrought expression, upon the beauty, drew her gently and respectfully back, and The web of South American politics is too occasion; and to a man innately modest, and nat. holding bis head a little on one side, said, with a

urally averse to show, or ostentation of any kind, smile, that he must be permitted to show his grate. intricate for us to attempt to unravel. Even it was not an easy matter to receive such praises ful sense of such good will by one affectionate the history of their revolution has been but without betraying impatience.

salute. This completely bewildered the blushing imperfectly known in this country; while At the time I entered the room, a middle-aged beauty, who, turning round, sought support in the many of the impelling causes, the motives, fine-looking woman was presenting herself to the arms of an officer standing near the General, who the secret springs which have set all this General; as he leaned forward to embrace her, she asked her if she were now content: Contenta!

fell at his feet, clasped his knees, and looking up, she cried, “Oh Senor!' vast machinery in operation, are still

more exclaimed, that she had three sons at his service, It is perhaps worthy of remark, that, during all entirely concealed from our view. There who, she hoped, would now become useful mem- this time there were no tears

shed, and that, even is much valuable information relative to bers of society, instead of being slaves as hereto- in the most theatrical parts, there was nothing carthese subjects in the work before us. Capt. fore. San Martin, with much discretion, did not ried so far as to look ridiculous. It is clear that Hall was in Lima during the most import- attempt to raise the lady from the ground, but al. the General would gladly have missed such a scene

lowed her to make her appeal in the situation she altogether, and had his own plan succeeded he ant events of the Peruvian revolution, and had chosen, and which, of course, she considered would have avoided it; for he intended to have enbecame personally acquainted with Gene- the best suited to give force to her eloquence; but tered the city at four or five in the morning. His ral San Martin, the commander of the Lib- he stooped low to hear all she said, and when her dislike of pomp and show was evinced in a similar erating Army of Peru. We will give his first burst was over, gently raised her; upon which inanner when he returned to Buenos Ayres, after description of this distinguished personage, her speech while hanging on his breast. His reply 1817. He there managed matters with more suco

she threw her arms around his neck, and concluded having conquered Chili from the Spaniards, in as he appeared at the first interview; and was made with suitable earnestness, and the poor cess than at Lima; for, although the inhabitants afterwards after he had accepted the invi- woman's heart seemed ready to burst with grati. were prepared to give him a public reception, he tation of the citizens of Lima, and entered tude for his attention and affability,

contrived to enter that capital without being dis. their city.

He was next assailed by five ladies, all of whom covered.

wished to clasp his knees at once; but as this I had an interview this day with General San could not be managed, two of thenı fastened them

Various and contradictory opinions apMartin on board a little schooner, a yacht of his selves round his neck, and all five clamoured so pear to be entertained of this distinguished own, anchored in Callao Roads for the convenience loudly to gain his attention, and weighed so heav- man, even in the countries where be is most of communicating with the deputies, who, during ily upon him, that he had some difficulty in sup- known. He certainly has done more than the armistice, had held their sittings on board å porting himself. He soon satisfied each of them almost any other individual for the cause of ship in the anchorage.

with a kind word or two, and then seeing a little South American Independence. He was a There was little, at first sight, in his appearance girl of ten or twelve years of age belonging to this to engage the attention, but when he rose up and party, but who had been afraid to come forward be conspicuous actor in the revolution of Buebegan to speak, his superiority was apparent. He fore, he lifted up the astonished child, and kissing nos Ayres; he afterwards crossed the received us in very homely style, on the deck of her cheek, set her down again in such ecstacy, that mountains and commanded the Chilian forhis vessel, dressed in a loose surtout coat, and a the poor thing scarcely knew where she was. ces in two great battles, in which they delarge fur cap, and seated at a table made of a few His manner was quite different to the next person feated the Royalists, and for which they loose planks laid along the top of some empty who came forward ; a tall, raw-boned, pale-faced awarded him the title of Twice Liberator; casks. He is a tall, erect, well-proportioned, hand- friar, a young man, with deep-set, dark-blue eyes, some man, with a large aquiline nose, thick black and a cloud of care and disappointment wandering and lastly, he commanded the Chilian expehair, and immense bushy dark whiskers, extending across his features. San Martin assumed a look of dition wbich took possession of Linna, and tirst from ear to ear under the chin; his complexion is serious earnestness while he listened to the speech raised the standard of indedendence in the deep olive, and his eye, which is large, prominent, of the monk, who applauded him for the peaceful silver city of the kings.” He refused the ofand piercing, is jet black; his whole appearance and Christian-like manner of his entrance into this fice of President of Chili, which was offered being highly military. He is thoroughly well-bred, great city, conduct which, he trusted, was only a and unaffectedly simple in his manners, exceed- | Forerunner of the gentle character of his future him after his first victory at the battle of ingly cordial and engaging, and possessed evidently government. The General's answer was in a sim- Chacabuco. He assumed the title of Protecof great kindliness of disposition; in short, I have ilar strain, only pitched a few notes higher, and it tor of Peru, after having expelled the Vicenever seen any person, the enchantment of whose was curious to observe how the formal cold man roy, and overturned the government, but readdress was more irresistible. In conversation he ner of the priest became animated under the intluwent at once to the strong points of the topic, dis- ence of San Martin's eloquence ; for at last, losing signed it as soon as a Peruvian Congress could daining, as it were, to trifle with its minor parts; all recollection of his sedate character, the young

be assembled- too soon, as the event proved, he listened earnestly, and replied with distinctness man clapped his hands and shouted, • Viva! viva! for the proper security of the great object and fairness, showing wonderful resources in argu- nuestra General !'— Nay, nay,' said the other, ' do which he came to accomplish. He refused ment, and a most happy fertility of illustration, the not say so, but join with me in calling, Viva la longer to retain the command of the army, effect of which was, to make his audience feel they Independencia del Peru!' were understood in the sense they wished. Yet The Cabildo, or town-council, hastily drawn to

to which he was re-appointed by the new there was nothing showy or ingenious in his dis- gether

, next entered, and as many of them were na-congress; and leaving Peru, where he concourse, and he certainly seemed, at all times, per- tives of the place, and liberal men, they had enough sidered his presence would be improper, fectly in earnest, and deeply possessed with his to do to conceal their emotion, and to maintain the after the power which he had so recently subject. At times his animation rose to a high pmper degree of stateliness, belonging to so grave exercised, he retired to private life. For pitch, when the flash of bis eye, and the whole a body, when they came, for the first time, into the this last step, taken at such a crisis, he has

, of liberator ergetic as to rivet the attention of his audience be- Old men, and old women, and young women,

been much censured; but in his parting adyond the possibility of evading his arguments. This crowded fast upon him; to every one he had some dress, he declared his willingness to return, was most remarkable when the topic was politics

, thing kind and appropriate to say, always going if the circumstances of the country should on which subject I consider myself fortunate in beyond the expectation of each person he address- ever require it, and in the capacity of a having heard him express himself frequently. But ea. During this scene I was near enough to watch private citizen, render them all the assist, his quiet manner was not less striking, and indica- him closely, but I could not detect, either in his tive of a mind of no ordinary stamp; and he could manner or in his expressions, the least affectation

apce in his power.

And if, as he bad even be playful and familiar, were such the tone there was nothing assumed, or got up; nothing throughout his public career professed, bis of the moment; and whatever effect the subse- which seemed to refer to self; 1 could not even happiness was placed in the retirement of quent possession of great political power may have discover the least trace of a self-approving smile. private life, and had been sacrificed for the had on his mind, I feel confident that his natural But his manner, at the same time, was the reverse general good when he came forth to take a disposition is kind and benevolent. * * *

of cold, he , Instead of going straight to the palace, San Mar- his satisfaction scemed to be caused solely by une conspicuous part in the scenes of the reva called at the Marquis of Montemire's on his pleasure reflected from others. While I was thus lution, we cannot blame him in our hearts, ind the circumstance of his arrival becoming watching him, he happened to recognise me, and for withdrawing from them as soon as he in a moment, the house, the court, and the drawing me to him, embraced me in the Spanish I conceived the public exigencies would per

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mit. We are aware, there may be many them. But it should be remembered that nothing for this book to do, but to remind important traits in this inan's character the persons upon whom their vengeance has him of some of the most obvious and valuawith which we are yet unacquainted; but, fallen were not the authors of these wrongs; ble principles,—such as he must have rejudging from the information we now pos- and that, to put the most favourable con- membered, if he remembered any part of sess, we think the censures which have struction npon their measures, they are, in these sciences. been cast upon him at home and abroad, the words of our author, “suddenly visit- Mr Russell seems to claim something of have not been deserved, and that posterity, ing the accumulated errors of three cen- originality in his design of making compothat impartial tribunal to whose decision turies upon the heads of the last, and per- sition a distinct branch of education. We the characters of all must eventually be re- haps the least offending generation." agree with him in the opinion, that too litferred, will do him better justice.

We cannot close this article better than tle attention is devoted to it in our higher With feelings of uomingled pleasure we by summing up our views on the subject in schools; but where it is studied at all,-and read, that one of the first proclamations is another short extract from the pages be- most of these schools make it a study,-it is sued by General San Martin after entering fore us.

made distinct from every thing but its own Lima, declared the freedom of every per- There has seldom perhaps, existed in the world essentials. Its rules are those of grammar and son born after the 15th of July, 1821, from a more interesting scene than is now passing in rhetoric, and, of course, it cannot be sepwhich period the independence of that South America, or one in which human character, arated from these branches. All the meancountry is dated. If the Peruvians have in all its

modifications abais receivedesobe

merakiable ing that is worth deriving from his view of

is so virtue enough to adhere to the principle unbounded, and the actors in it so numerous; where this subject, is that in our schools the study thus laid down at the very beginning of every variety of moral and physical circunstance of these sciences is not made sufficiently their national existence, however much we, is so fully subjected to actual trial; or where so practical. More attention should be paid as a nation, may be in advance of them in great a number of states living under different cli: to the application of the principles to their other points, they will be relieved from the mates, and possessed of different soils, are brought

This is plain enough, and miseries of a slave population, long before anderaner elective sa me mirate morate placed see all acknowledge it. The point is, to give

rally collectively in similar situations, are we can hope for this blessing.

forced to act and think for themselves, for the first us a book, in which the principles are arAll political revolutions have their dark time; where old feelings, habits, laws, and prejudi- ranged analytically, and which will thus as well as their bright side.

There are

ces, are jumbled along with new institutions, new render their application easy. This is prethose that weep as well as those that re- knowledge, and new customs, and new principles, cisely what Mr Russell has not done. joice. In the enthusiasm which the occa- sand unthought of causes, may direct; amidst conall left free to produce what chance, and a thou

The first part of his work contains “ A sion commonly produces, the former class flicting interests and passions of all kinds, let loose Review of the Principles of Orthography, may be for a time overlooked ; and those to drist along the face of society.

Punctuation, and Rhetoric, -as applied to who remain at a distance may, if they will,

If the remarks of an intelligent and in the Practice of Composition.” In the shut their eyes, and not see the suite rers; genuous writer, on a people and a country, “Remarks on the Principles of Orthograbut the calm and unprejudiced observer who perhaps, at this moment, the most interest: pby, observed in the most accurate recent is on the spot, must look upon the grieving ing in the world, can have any attraction publications,” we find rules for many deviaas well as the rejoicing; and, if faithful in for our readers, this book certainly pre- tions from what we regard as the custom of discharging the trust which he has assumed, sents strong claims to their notice.

the best writers. Who are the authors he must report it as he finds it. The most

that adopt his mode of spelling “ traveler," conspicuous sufferers in these revolutions

worshiper,civilise," " enroll,counhave been the resident Spaniards ; the mer- A Grammar of Composition, including a seler," and " skillful.

" There are many cantile transactions of those countries were

Practical Review of the Principles of other examples of almost equally rare orformerly conducted almost exclusively by

Rhetoric, a Series of Exercises in Rheto- thography, sanctioned on the authority of this class ; they had the countenance and

rical Analysis, and sic Introductory what he is pleased to call “the most accuprotection of the Spanish government; the

Courses of Composition. New Haven. rate recent publications." We must consystem of monopoly which excluded the na

1823. 12010. pp. 150.

fess that we are not acquainted with these tive South Americans from participating in The author of this book is Mr Russell,-“ publications." the profits of trade, had made these people the same wbo lately pleased us with a Latin The rules for punctuation are not accomrich; and with—perhaps from—these ad- Grammar. It will not appear surprising if panied by any examples for illustration, vantages, they were also more intelligent he should be found incapable of writing two and, hence, many of them are totally uvinand better informed. The severity with good school books : few men can write one. telligible to all who need such instruction. which these residents have been treated in We must, however, acknowledge, that with The 14th Rule is as follows: all the South American States may be po- the favourable opinion which we had formed

When a preposition precedes the relative, a comlitically justifiable. They had been taught of his talents and fidelity, it was difficult to ma is inserted, if the preposition and the words by education and custom to look upon those satisfy us that this is a work of little merit; which follow it are used to explain the antecedent ; born in the country as a race beneath them; but this conclusion has been forced upon us, its dependent words form but one idea with the rel

but no comma takes place, when the preposition and and such is the pride of the Spanish char- and we shall justify it by plain criticism.

ative. acter, that there could be little probability The Preface informs us, that

Where does the author intend that the that they would for a long time to come. The course of instructions contained in this willingly submit to be citizens of the new work, is designed to be of service to four classes of comma shonld be inserted? The 21st Rule governments, and place themselves on a youth: those who are engaged in the higher branch- stands thus : level with those whom they had been longes of education, at academies; those who are A remarkable expression or short observation, in accustomed to despise. But, with this ex- preparing for college, by private study; and those the form of a quotation, if short, and closely conception, Capt. Hall bears testimony to the who have entered on their college studies, without nected, is separated from the context by a comma. general goodness of their character, and time as they afterwards find it requires. The plan

Are not all “ short" observations “short?" many of them are represented by bim as may also be found useful in completing the English The second Rule for the colon is not men of real worth. The estates of most of department of the education of young ladies. very definite; but, if we understand its these have been confiscated, and they re- It is not obvious, that either of these meaning, it would authorize the insertion main there sunk in poverty, or have been classes will find the work very useful. In of that point twice in the sentence that we compelled in this destitute condition to quit order to understand it at all, it is necessary are writing, and in all of similar construction. the country. The promoters of these meas to have previously acquired a pretty tho- This point is used after a member of a sentence, ures doubtiess reconcile them to their con- rough knowledge of grammar and rhetoric, whether simple or complex, which forms complete sciences in the consideration, that most of as tanght in the common elementary works. sense, but does not excite expectation of what follows. this wealth had been accumulated under a Few scholars obtain this, till late in col. The third Rule is still worse ; and the system of wrong and oppression towards 'lege life ; and when acquired, it leaves ) fourth, though frequently observed by oth



er writers, is totally disregarded by Mring with themes selected by the pupil Swift and his works are forgotten, the betRussell himself. They read as follows : himself, and treated according to his own ter for mankind. In justice to our author, When a conjunction is understood.

judgment. The method here prescribed of or rather compiler, we should add, that the Before an example, a quotation, or a speech, is advancing from more to less dependence letter selected for this work, standing by introduced.

upon guides, may be useful; but it might itself, contains little which can lessen the We must say of his Rules generally, that have been stated in one page,-in which usefulness of the good advice it offers. they are remarkably obscure. So far as case, we might, perhaps, have been enabled There is one paragraph which may amuse we can understand them, they are quite in- to say, that there was one truly valuable our readers; it will give them some idea of feriour to those of Walker and Murray; page in the book.

the vast improvement which has taken and after a scholar has become familiar

place in the education of the fairer sex, with these elementary works, it is not ne

within a few years. Let it be remembercessary to buy new books to repeat the The Ladies' Companion ; containing, First, ed that Swift, who was intimate in the best same lessons. If Mr Russell had made his

Politeness of Manners and Behaviour, society, wrote this letter to a young lady of work complete in itself, we should have ex.

from the French of the Abbe de Belle- distinguished family and fortune. pected a repetition of many of the common

garde ; Second, Fenelon on Education ;

It is a little hard, that not one gentleman's rules found in others; but, as the case

Third, Miss More's Essays ; Fourth, daughter in a thousand, should be brought to read stands, he has repeated them, or made

Dean Swift's Letter to a Young Lady or understand her own natural tongue, or to be a worse substitutes, with no advantage what

newly married; Fifth, Moore's Fables judge of the easiest works that are written in it; ever, but to make the scholar buy his book, for the Female Sex. Carefully selected as any one may find, who can have the patience to instead of referring to one already purchas.

and revised by a Lady in the County play or novel, where the least word out of the con

hear them, when they are disposed to mangle a ed, long used, and made familiar. We are

of Worcester, Mass. Worcester. 1824. mon road is sure to disconcert them. It is no won confident that it will require more time of

12mo. pp. 156.

der, when they are not so much as taught to sped every instructer who introduces this book, The title-page, copied at the head of this in their childhood, nor can ever attain to it in their to explain its rules and principles, than it notice, is a sufficient table of contents of whole lives. I advise you, therefore to read aloud

more or less, every day, to your husband, if he will would to refer the pupil to those already the book. The first selection, from the permit you, or to any other friend (but not a female studied, and make them intelligible. French of the Abbe de Bellegarde, is none one) who is able to set you right; and as for spell

The Review of Rhetoric contains some too well translated, and though it may ing, you may compass it in time, by making colletof the principles of this science, expressed help a young lady to behave well, it can

tions from the books you read. in a concise manner, and sufficiently intel- hardly be of use in teaching her good Eng

The character and size of this book conligible to those who have seen them well lish. 'We may remark, in passing, that fine its pretensions within very narrow linillustrated in larger works. The common although these extracts are taken from a its. The compiler probably did not aim at rhetorical figures are explained, and rules work, of which the general subject is, we be very extensive usefulness; but the work are given for using them. But we are obliged lieve, Politeness of Manners, the parts select- she has given to the public, can hardly do here to repeat our objection, that the work ed relate exclusively to moderation in our barm to any, and to some may be interestis incomplete, and presents nothing in a desires and disinterestedness in our conduct, ing and useful. more advantageous or practical light, than and of course refer to politeness, only so far that with which the scholar is already fa- as that is the natural expression of all exmiliar, or may be made familiar by refer- cellence of character. Fenelon's treatise A Poem on the Restoration of Learning in ring to his old, elementary book.

on the Education of a Daughter, and Miss the East; which obtained Mr Buchanan's Part II. treats of Analysis and Criticism, More's Essays, are standard works, and it

Prize. By Charles Grant, Esq. M. A. and applies the common principles of gram- would be idle to undertake to discuss their Fellow of Magdalen College. George. mar and rhetoric to ten short lines from merits very particularly. The selections.

town, D. C. 1824. 18mo. Pp. 60. Addison. By this specimen of the right from them, particularly from Fenelon, are The name of the Reverend Claudius Bomode of analyzing and criticising, the au- judiciously made. We rather regret to see chanan is doubtless known to many of our thor expects to instruct those who have Swift brought into so close a connexion readers, by his labours in India, and bis studied Murray, Blair, Walker, and Camp- with the Archbishop of Cambria. A lady success in illustrating the foul mysteries bell, and put them in a fair way to become should hardly qualify herself to select the and merciless rites of the superstitions of good critics. To speak honestly and plain. best passages from the writings of the for- that country. To this work, the best esly of this,-it is totally useless, and discov- mer; but it may be, and we hope is the case, forts of his life were devoted; and, probaers a degree of short-sighted self-compla- that the fair compiler of this little volume bly with the hope of urging others to lacency, which renders it intolerable. Those found the passages she thought it wise to bour in a cause which he deemed so imporwho have faithfully studied authors like make use of, not in their original location, tant and so boly, he gave to the University those above mentioned, are not so ignorant amid all sorts of filth, but culled and made of Cambridge, in 1804–-haring formerly as to need these instructions; and such ready for her hand. We have no disposi- been a member of Queen's College-the only can understand them. Those who tion to deny the strong sense, and acute, sum of two hundred and ten pounds; which have studied these works to no purpose, far-reaching sagacity of Swift, or to under- he ordered to be divided into prizes for the will do well to study them again, and not value the simplicity and directness of his following productions, viz. one hundred content themselves with this trifling exam- transparent style; but if modesty and de- pounds for an English Prose Dissertation ple of Analysis and Criticism.

cency be any thing more than empty « On the best means of civilizing the subPart III. commences at the 66th page, names,-if obscenity be thought disgusting, jects of the British empire in India, and of and occupies almost half of the book. It and foul thoughts and language are consid- diffusing the light of the Christian religion consists of a variety of quotations, embrac- ered, to say no more, provocatives to sin,- throughout the Eastern World;"—sixty ing narrative, descriptive, and didactic if it be thought desirable to protect purity pounds for an English Poem “On the Respieces. It is designed that the scholar should and innocence from stain and from tempta- toration of Learning in the East;"—twenread one of these pieces, and then close his tion, from ideas and feelings which bring ty-five pounds for a Latin Poem “On the book and write one like it. The reading with them degradation if not danger ;-and, College at Bengal;"—and the same sum books in our common schools, furnish ex- perhaps, more than all, if it is thought in- for a Greek Ode, of which the subject amples of these several species of writing, jurious to the tenderness or correctness of should be, “Let there be light.” Mr equally adapted to this purpose.

the moral sense, to feel habitually any Grant,--whose many titles may be read The “ Six Introductory Courses of Com- measure of respect for one, the tenor of above,—wrote for the second of these position,” consist of directions for exer- whose life bears unvarying testimony to prizes, and won it by the poem now puba cises, commencing with a single paragraph the fact of his being a heartless, selfish vil- lished. We have read many things in its slightly varied from the author's, and end- | lain, then may we well say, the sooner praise, in some English journals ; and it is

now given to the American public, in or- | Thy daughters shone amiid the virgin choir : accordingly, wherever it has prevailed, der that it may “ touch the hearts of our Not fair Circassia touch'd her blooming race

yielded very slowly before the evidence of countrymen, and inspire them with a dis- With tints so tender of iinpassion'd grace;

enlightened observation. There are few, With all their glances wove such artless wiles, position to contribute more liberally to the Or breath'd such brightness round their angel

however, now, who have much fear of the cause of Christianity in the East.”


contagion of dysentery or consumption. The Without entering into any discussion re- Ah! at the tyrant's frown those beauties die ; believers in that of yellow fever are more nuspecting the merits or character of the Fled is the smile, and sunk the speaking eye :

merous, though they are gradually diminishpurpose, thus stated by the American edi. Nor harp nor carol warbles through the glade, tor, we would express our decided opinion, But the steel'd savage revels in thy woes, Nor pensive love-notes sooth the plane-tree shade; ing: Typhus fever maintains its character

rather better, and plague perb

best of all; that it will be very little aided by the pub- And round his temples twines thy brightest rose.

of all, we mean, which are questionable. lication of this poem. It contains not

There is something very like affectation This subject has been better understood and much of either poetry or eloquence ; any in the frequent introduction of Hindoo more rationally treated since the distincone, already convinced and very ready to words, when English words would have tion, which has been recognised between be pleased, might find it very agreeable ; done as well. Thus we have “chawla,” contagion and infection, which is an exceedbut he, whose opinions and feelings were which means rice, and nothing else ; and on ingly important one, and may be understood opposed to the cause for which Mr Grant the 29th page, in the line

by the definition of these two terms as given is an advocate, would hardly experience

by Dr Smith.

And thy own pedma, roseate flower of light, much change in his views or his dispositions from the perusal of the poem. the established English name for this plant, mal secretion, possessing the power of inducing

Contagion is a poison, generated by morbid ani. The leading spirits of the age are seldom lotos, would bave made just as good rhythm, a like morbid action in healthy bodies

, whereby it roused to labour by these public prizes; and have prevented the appearance of some is reproduced and indefinitely

multiplied. there are exceptions to this rule, but they do pedantry. We learn the meaning of these Infection is a febritic agent, produced by the de

On the composition of animal and vegetable substances. not occur very frequently. We have read words from the author's notes. many prize poems, and they are generally, 24th page, in the line

The force and practical value of this -as this is,-just such poetry as might be Then thought Gautami, India's peerless boast, distinction may be thus illustrated. If expected from any resolute rhymester of re- the Hindoo name, which Sir W. Jones, who yellow fever be a contagious disease, the spectable talents, whose mind had received is a pretty good authority in such matters

, attendants must leave the patient, or risk a systematic cultivation, whose memory was speils Gotama, with the accent on the first participation in the calamity; if it be an enriched, and whose taste was ripened by syllable, is subjected to considerable change, infectious one, they need only leave the unan acquaintance with the best poetry of " to render the word more agreeable to healthy district and carry the sufferer with past ages, and whose industry insured that English ears.” If it was necessary to in- them, an operation not very difficult; since degree of success which the nature and troduce this sage at all, it was at least the pestilential locality is usually very cirstrength of his powers would permit. The equally necessary to introduce him by his cumscribed. poem now under notice has no very great true name.

Our author divides his first order into faults, excepting the greatest: it is the

two genera, “ contagion communicable onwork of a scholar, but not of a poet. Per- Elements of the Etiology and Philosophy of the itch, hydrophobia, and a few others;

ly by contact,” including as species that of haps the best passages in it are the follow

Epidemics. In two Parts. By Joseph and “contagion communicable both by ing. The first is about Aurungzebe; the

Niather Smith, M. D. Fellow of the Col- contact and by the atmosphere," of which second describes the vale of Cashmere.

lege of Physicians and Surgeons of the the species are small-pox, measles, chickenSkill'd to deceive, and patient to beguile

University of the State of New York ; With sleepless efforts of unwearied toil,

pox, scarlet fever, and hooping-cough.

&c. &c. New York. 1824. 8vo. pp. 223. Some objections might be made to this clasHis youth he shrouds in consecrated bowers, Where prayer and penance lead the hermit hours; Dr Smith proposes in this work to do sification, but these would be more approYet not to him those bowers their su eets impart, something towards supplying the deficien- priate in a journal purely medical. The The mind compos'd, smooth brow, and spotless cy in the accounts of epidemics, by arrang- genera of Infection are koino-miasma, from

heart: No sun-bright visions with new hues adorn

ing their causes in systematic order, and to koinos, common or public. This is “ the Eve's purple cloud, or dewy beams of morn;

deduce from an examination of the nature efluvia exhaled from the public filth of But Fancy wakes for him more grim delights,

and modus operandi of these causes, the cities, and from the soil of marshes and War's imag'd pomp, and Murder's savage rites, laws which govern their rise, prevalence, champaign countries. It also properly inArd, like the Genius of some nightly spell, and decline, and the manner in which they cludes the noxious emanations from animal Peoples with shapes accurs’d the wizard cell : Keen Hate, Revenge, Suspiciou's arrowy glare,

modify and supersede each other. The and vegetable substances which are accuAnd all the blood-stain' joys of Guilt are there;

Introduction enumerates three orders of mulated and allowed to putrefy in cellars, Thus, by fell visions rous'd, th' usurper springs

causes which he supposes to be concerned storehouses, and the holds of ships.” IdioFierce from his lair, to lap the blood of kings. in the production of epidemics; they are, miasma, from idios, personal, which is

Go, count thy spoils, thy trophies grim rehearse, contagion, infection, and atmospheric con- "produced from the matter of perspiration
Three brothers murder'd, and a father's curse : stitution, or as he denominates it, Meteora- and the other excretions of the human
Go, rear the musnud o'er the gasping mound
of trampled hosts, while India weeps around:

tion. It is principally devoted to the con- body, accumulated in small and unventiOn Hindoo shrines thy bigot fury pour,

sideration of the notion of the contagious- lated places, and acted upon by heat;" and And quench the darts of sharp Remorse in gore.

ness of certain diseases, which is one, that lastly, idio-koino miasma, a combination of 'Tis done. Lo, Persecution lights from lar is very easily disseminated among man- both. These genera are again divided inHer streaming fires, and terrors worse than war! kind, while it is eradicated with the utmost to sundry species, with Greek names, of Where mystic hymnings aw'd the midnight air, Strange sounds, that breathe or that inflict despair, difficulty. Contagion is an intangible foe, which our readers will readily excuse the

The distinction of species is Are heard. The despot, thron'd in blood, presides and, like demons or spectres, has its effect omission, O'er havoc's work, and all the ruin guides.

upon the imagination of many, whose rea- founded on the comparative intensity of

son would deny its existence. The circum- the poisonous effluvia at different times and Ah, beauteous Cashmere, love's enchanting vale! stances, moreover, of many wide-spreading in different situations. The koino-miasma, What new Abdallah shall thy woes bewail ? and fatal diseases are such as favour the according to its virulence, produces interIn vain thy snowy mountains, swelling round, doctrine of contagion in the minds of those mittent, bilious, or yellow fever, and as Dr For Peace alone would guard the holy ground :

who are not well disciplined in medical log. Smith supposes, the plague. The idio-miOb, once for thee the rosy-finger'd Hours Wove wreaths of joy in Pleasure's echoing bowers; ic; and during the prevalence of such dis- asma is the remote cause of typhus, and the Once round thy limpid stream and scented grove,

eases the side of the contagionist is gen- third genus that of those anomalous and The haunts of Fancy, Freedoni lov'd to rove; erally, as far as his personal interest is compound diseases, about which the faculty And, moulded by the hand of young Desire, concerned, the safest. This belief has I have been occasionally so much divided ; as for instance the fever which prevail. | attempt it, yet the disease in such cases pon the first, considering its connexion ed in New York in 1820. Such diseases spreads no further, and ceases with the with the origin and progress of epidemics, will incline either to yellow or typhus, in cessation of the communication. Instances as a very obscure subject, which has baffled proportion as the common or personal mi- of this sort have been frequent. The case the endeavours of the most industrious obasma prevails. Thus in tolerably well ven- of the Ten Brothers, in the fall of 1819, servers. The second genus is discussed at tilated situations the symptoms will be will be remembered by our Boston readers greater length, and here we think Dr Smith those of the former; while in the dirty and as one of these. When cases of this sort has fallen into the common error of ingencrowded dwellings of the poor, the form of happen in a port just before, or coincident ious men-tbat of allowing imagination to disease will be a horrible anomaly, in which with, the commencement of an indigenous supply the deficiences of observation. Rethe typhoid appearances will soon predomi- epidemic, they seem to afford strong sup- specting these supposed insensible qualities nate. We cannot, in a work of this kind, port to the defenders of the doctrine of con- of the atmosphere, we have to inquire first, follow Dr Smith through the various details tagion; but taken in connexion with what is there any proof of their existence and and ingenious illustrations of this part of we have already observed, it will be per- second; can any thing be added to the sum his subject; we confine our remarks to two ceived that they admit of an explanation, of our knowledge by admitting it? With or three points; the first is the manner in without supposing the existence of specific respect to the first question, it is adwhich the koino-miasma diffuses itself-this contagion. We have intimated that the mitted that we have no evidence, either is so interesting that it deserves to be giv- believers in the contagiousness of typhus from our senses, or any instrument or open in our author's own words.

were still numerous; nor is this remarka- eration hitherto adopted, that there are The grounds from which the miasm is exhaled, ble, when we consider how nearly the opin- any such qualities; their existence is inare usually of small extent, compared with the area ions of both parties in relation to this ques. ferred from the circumstances of certain over which it eventually spreads. At first, the tion approach each other. Dr Smith, in epidemics—that is, these circumstances, poison is probably generated in a very minute behalf of the anti-contagionists, maintains or effects, must have some cause, and as quantity, perhaps not enough to occasion disease that the perspiration and other excretions no known circumstance, or antecedent

, even in those who are the most susceptible to its of persons labouring under severe febrile can be produced, Dr S., as others have done noxious influence. But the quantity progressively increases, and shortly becomes sufficiently accumu- diseases, are extremely liable to become before him, assumes that this antecedent is lated at and about its source to produce the few putrid, and, of course, to produce what he an insensible quality of the atmosphere; an cases of fever which form the commencement of terms idio-miasma, which produces typbus assumption which we consider entirely graan epidemic. As the exhalation multiplies, it fever. Thus,an attendant on a patient ill with tuitous. And what are we to gain by inspreads to the adjoining streets, producing additional cases.

At this period, however, the continu- yellow-fever in circumstances where he is terposing this new link in the chain of ance of the disease as an epidemic, frequently ap- not at the same time exposed to the koino- causation ? Nothing. When we say that the pears doubtful, owing to the wind dispersing the miasma, may be seized with fever, but this cause, or one of the causes, of influenza is miasm, the quantity of which is yet inconsiderable. will be typhus; and all this is according to an insensible quality of the atmosphere, But the poison, multiplying from day to day, slowly the laws of infection. By attending a case we say only that the cause of influenza extends over a larger space, entering the houses, of typhus, he may in the same manner be- is something of which we know nothing. courts, and other retreats sheltered from the winds. As the season advances, the pestilential soil become affected by idio-miasma, which, as It is an acknowledgment of ignorance, with comes more and more prolific of the poison, and before, produces typhus; and this agrees a circumstance, or a concealing of it under when at length its exhalation is no longer increas with the same laws of infection. But it is a periphrasis. When our author states that ed, the epidemic soon rises to its height.

also a case in which one fever produces by the prevalence of a severe epidemic is preIn accounting for the extension of yellow fever, it its effluvia another similar fever, which is ceded by unusual severity of the common is important to observe, that the quantity of Per almost the definition of contagion, and in- disorders of the season, he gives us data on koino miasma daily augments, and that the principal canse of its not spreading rapidly with effect, is its deed, is all that many contagionists contend which to found precautionary calculations. dispersion in the atmosphere. The poison in a for. The difference, according to Dr Smith, When he infers that these facts intimate the dilute state is, no doubt, always considerably in is, that contagion is a secretion, which loses presence of epidemic meteoration, does he advance of the place in which it is sufficiently con- its specific power by decomposition, as is do any more? Can we remove or correct centrated to produce disease; and although that well known to be the case with the vario- this ? Certainly not. We cannot tell whence portion of the miasm which is diffused through the streets of an infected district

, may frequenůy be lous and vaccine matter, while infection, it comes, or whither it goeth; we have scattered by the wind so as to render them com- or more strictly speaking, idio-miasma, is only an unnecessary and unmanageable adparatively safe to passengers, yet as the poison has the product of an excretion wbich acquires dition to our notions respecting epidemics

, possession of enclosures and ranges of buildings, its activity from the very process by which which are already quite troublesome enough. and is constantly emanating from its source, they that of the former is lost. Whatever the When Dr S. suggests that this meteoration soon become again pestilential in a calm state of truth may be in this matter, one thing in may be electricity, we begin to find some the atmosphere. Moreover, it is probable that the miasm is condensed with the dews, and partially relation to it is important, and is admitted on savour in the doctrine. This is something absorbed by the soil, from which it is exhaled all hands, namely, that the sphere of activ- tangible. Let him procure an electrometer, during the heat of the day. This idea is the more ity of this effluvia of typhus is very circum- or if no known instrument of that kind will plausible, seeing there is reason to believe that the scribed, and in well ventilated apartments, answer, let him invent a new one, and watch specific gravity of Perkoino miasma is greater than the danger of receiving a severe disorder it ten or twenty years, as Van Swicten did that of asmospheric air, and that its elevation above the surface of the earth is never considerable. lifrom this cause alone, is very inconsid- his thermometer and barometer; let him is an old observation that the occupants of the up- erable.

put his notion to the test of experiment, per stories of houses are less exposed to the rava- Thus far we have been gratified with this and he will be usefully employed. But, ges of pestilence than those who reside on the work, and pleased with the clearness and against insensible qualities we enter our ground floors.

ingenuity of its author; and, though we protest. For our own part, we cannot belp Another circumstance is important in the are not yet prepared to subscribe to all his thinking that the sensible qualities of the history of this pernicious effluvia, which is, notions, we acknowledge that they are gen- atmosphere have a greater share in the that it adheres to clothes, vessels, &c., and erally plausible, and often satisfactory. It circumstances of epidemics than has been is thus imported from situations where it is with regret, therefore, that we express allowed them. The connexion is obscure, prevails, to others which were before the opinion, that in nearly all which relates and, perhaps, never may be satisfactorily healthy. But the effects of this importa- to his third order, or meteoration, Dr Smith explained, -probably from the complication tion, which were for some time matter of has lost his labour. He divides this order of the subject. A native of a northern triumph to the contagionists, and of trouble into two genera, the first comprising the climate becomes, by the operation of that to their opponents, are, in reality, such as sensible qualities of the atmosphere, or sen- climate, prepared to suffer severely by the nirm the argument of the latter; for, sible meteoration, and the second the insen. epidemics of the south ; why may not a se

h communication with such vessels, sible ones ; and this is insensible or epidemic ries of years predispose a whole city or disr contents, is often fatal to those who I meteoration. Ile makes very few remarks trict to the effectual operation of agents,

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