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No. 14.




former American possessions, the islands / availed himself of these opportunities to alone excepted. For the time is come, mingle with different classes of the people

when this western continent shall be no of various ranks and occupations, to learn Extracts from a Journal written on the Coasts of Chili, Peru, and Merico, in the longer the seat of one only, but of many their domestic manners and customs, and


to enable himself to form a judgment from Years 1820, 1821, 1822. By Captain This work has been published for many the condition and views of the mass of the Basil Hall, Royal Navy, Author of a months; but, perhaps, we should apologize people, of the political prospects and desVoyage to Loo Choo. Reprinted from not so much for the delay, as for reviewing tiny of these countries. the last London edition. Boston. 1824. at all, and yet more for reviewing at so The seventh chapter gives an account of 12mo.

much length, in a journal professedly na- a cruise to the southern coast of Chili, durWe, the people of the United States, in com- tional, a foreign work not immediately re-ing which our author visited Conception, mon with most of the nations of Europe, lating to this country. But we think our that city of Chili which has suffered more have hitherto been, in a great degree, stran- readers will be contented to become better than all the others from the storms and gers to the inhabitants of South America, acquainted with a book declared to be very tempests of the revolution. He there reand their concerns. This ignorance has interesting by testimony which cannot de- lates many interesting particulars of Bennot been altogether our fault. The jealous ceive; our principal newspapers have teem- evides, the pirate, in a short sketch of his and short-sighted policy of the nation which ed with extracts from it; and we have seen

But the events connected with his held dominion over these extensive regions, announced in a late number of an English proceedings are, perhaps, better known in carefully shut up every avenue by which magazine, the third English edition. this country, than almost any other occurwe might have access to them ; their inter- The name of Capt. Hall must be known rence of the South American revolution, as course with other nations was almost total to many of our readers from his interesting several of our whaling ships and merchantly prohibited; strangers were forbidden to account of the Loo-Choo Islands, published men were so unfortunate as to fall within enter their territories without special li- several years ago. And, we think they the reach of his depredations; and some of cense of the Spanish government; they who open the present volumes with their their officers and crews, after being detainwere debarred from light and knowledge expectations founded on the pleasure which ed a long time in confinement, have escaped, as much as possible, that, in their ignor- they derived from the perusal of our author's and returned home, to recount their stories. ance they might be more easily reconciled former work, will not be disappointed. If, The next chapter describes an excursion to their degraded situation ;-and thus were indeed, the British Navy can boast of many to the mining districts of Chili. On this ruled with a rod of iron, in comparison of such men as Capt. Hall and Capt. Parry, occasion Capt. Hall ascertained a fact which even Turkish despotism might be it way well be said, that “Grim-visaged which may surprise some of our readers, accounted a blessing. In such a state of War has smoothed his wrinkled front.” The viz., that the working of the copper mines, things, the name of American, has been influence of that empire, while she employs on an average, yielded a handsome profit to almost exclusively, appropriated to our re- such agents, will be spread more widely by the miner; that the profits arising from the public, though it occupies but a small por- her arts than by her arms. But we would silver mines were more precarious and untion of the map of this extensive conti. not raise the anticipations of our readers certain; while the working of the gold mines nent. This distinction the nations of Eu- too high ; and we know that they will ex- proved a ruinous business to the greater rope have voluntarily conceded to us; for, ercise the privilege of judging for them- part of those who engaged in it. To one until the last few years, whenever their selves, whether we grant it or not. gold mine, there are about fifteen of silver, views have been turned toward this conti- Capt. Hall, in the British Frigate Con- and not less than fifty of copper, in operation. nent, all that they have seen to animate, to way, under his command, arrived at Valpa- In the course of our walk, we discovered a grove encourage, or to alarm them, all that could raiso in December, 1820, and remained on of trees near the stream; in the centre of which promise to rival or to siirpass them in com- the western coast of America until June, stood a neatly built cottage, surrounded by a farmmerce, in arts, or in arms, all, in short, 1822, during which period he visited all the yard, offices and garden, with every thing in the which they had to hope or to fear from this ports of any importance in Chili and Peru, most rural style, except a gold will, which, though

characteristic enough of Copiapó, certainly looked quarter, seemed to be comprised within the and those of the republic of Colombia and of somewhat out of place. This establishment beboundaries of the Mississippi, the St Law- Mexico, situated on the Pacific Ocean. The longed to a man who was making a sure fortune rence, and the Atlantic.

ports of Valparaiso and Callao, with the by a copper mine, till, unfortunately, it gradually But these times are rapidly passing away. cities of Santiago and Lima, were visited degenerated into a mine of gold: from that moment The termination of Spanish misrule is near, several times. At that period a regular since on the ebb. This, which at first looks a little

the tide of his fortunes turned, and has been ever if it has not come.

Our Southern brethren commercial intercourse between England paradoxical, is precisely what might be expected, are beginning to be known among the na- and those countries, as well as between for it is the scarcity of gold, the uncertainty of its tions, and the enterprize and curiosity of the them and the United States, began to be extent in any given situation, and the consequent civilized world is aroused. Information about established; but there were as yet no Eng- great cost of production, which, while they give it their domestic and political relations is lish consuls, or accredited commercial so high an exchangeable value render mining specsought with avidity, and no where more agents residing there; and Capt. Hall was countries, therefore, it has become a common say

ulations in gold invariably hazardous. In these earnestly than with us; for no people are authorized, in all cases where the functions ing, that a diligent man who works a copper mine more nearly interested in their present sit- of such officers would be necessary, to act is sure to gain; that he who works one of siluation, or their future prospects, than the in their stead. In discharge of this duty, ver may either gain or lose ; but that if the mine people of these United States. It is highly he had occasion to be more frequently on be of gold, he is certainly ruined. improbable, nay, in the present aspect of shore, and in communication with the con- His description of the mines, and the va. their affairs, we may pronounce it morally stituted authorities of the different towns, rious processes by which the metals are impossible, that the authority of Spain should than his duties as commander of a ship of separated from the ores, and made ready ever again be exercised in any part of her war would otherwise have permitted. He for exportation, will be found interesting.


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He accompanies these accounts with a ta- | except this one, and one small chapel, were com- three days-somebody said there was one last ble of the comparative prices of different pletely destroyed. The walls had fallen in all di- night, but I knew nothing of it-I am tired of these articles before and after the revolution. rections, some inwards, some outwards, presenting earthquakes and would

never think of then again a scene singularly ruinous and melancholy ; for it if I were once at dear Coquimbo!' By this it appears that copper, at present was obvious at a glance, that what we saw was not On putting the same question to another person the staple commodity of the country, has the work of years, but of a cause at once general present, he said they had not experienced one since nearly doubled its value in consequence of and rapid in its effects. In a climate without rain, April, meaning, as I discovered, April, 1819, two this change in their political relations. Steel, the footsteps of tiine fall so very lightly, that it is years and a half before ; not conceiving we could on the other hand, an important item of probable these ruins were much in the same state possibly take any interest in such petty sbocks as

as on the day they were cast down, two years would not demolish a town. An old man in comtheir imports, is reduced from fifty dollars and a half before. "The walls, being from three to pany, seeing that we had been misunderstood, exto sixteen dollars per quintal of one hun- four feet thick, none of them above twelve feet plained, that it was a long time since they had felt dred Spanish pounds, and iron in the same high, and built of large flat sun-dried bricks, were a shock of any consequence; and upon our pressproportion.


cloths are reduced calculated, it might have been supposed, to with ing him closely to say what he considered long, renearly one half. Printed cotton goods, stand the shocks even of an earthquake, yet not. plied, at least a month ?

withstanding their strength, they seem to have been which were formerly from eighteen to tumbled down like so many castles of cards. The agreeable and intelligent men, whom our isosi had

On our return we were gratified by meeting two twenty-four reals per yard, may now be little chapel mentioned above, was built by the Jes- considerately invited to meet us; they were most bought at from two and a half to three reals uits, who had bolstered it up with a set of monstrous willing to exchange local information for news only! Velveteens are fallen from twenty- buttresses, occupying an area considerably greater about the rest of the world, with which they apsix reals to two reals! Crockery per crate, than the chapel itself, which, nevertheless, was so peared to have extremely little intercourse. We from three hundred and fifty reals to forty cracked in all directions. Some houses had been earthquake. It began, they said, between eight and

twisted about, that the roof fell in, and the walls soon engaged them in conversation about the great reals! Hardware and glass may be bought so shaken, that not a brick retained its original nine in the morning of the 3d of April

, and continat about one third the former price. The place, yet the walls were standing, though with a ued with gentle shocks during that day and the enormous difference in these prices may most ghost-like appearance, and at such an angle, next. At four in the afternoon of the 4th, there seem incredible to those who are unac- that, in passing, we felt not quite free from appre- came a violent shock, which produced a waving or quainted with the various methods by which bension of their falling upon us ; indeed, there rolling motion in the ground, like that of a ship at

was hardly a single wall which was not sloping sea, which lasted for two minutes. In every case Spanish ingenuity, through the famous over more or less. In some places the buttresses these shocks were preceded by a loud rolling noise, Council of the Indies, contrived to tax her were shaken down and gone, but the shattered wall compared by one person to the echo of thunder American dependencies; but let them once was left standing, and in many cases they had been amongst the hills; and by another to the roar of a be made to understand the operation of the forced apart from each other, and were inclined in subterranean torrent, carrying along an enormous monopolies, the transit duties, the sale of opposite directions. The great church, called La mass of rocks and stones. Every person spoke of

Merced, fell on the 4th of April 1819, one day af- this sound with an expression of the greatest hor. Bulls, and that monstrous engine of oppres- the earthquake began, and seven days before the ror. One of the gentlemen said, it was • espantosion, the Alcavala of the Spanish Colonial | great shock which destroyed the town. The side so!' (frightful) · Yes,' added the other, shuddering System, and their incredulity can exist no walls, and part of one end, were left standing, in a at the recoliection, 'horroroso!' longer. These statements carry with them dislocated and inclined state, and rent from top to Something peculiar in the shocks of the 4th of an evidence of the real and substantial botton; but what was curious, the buttresses

, April nad excited more than ordinary fear in the

which appear to have been broad and substantial minds of the inhabitants, and, at a particular mobenefits which that country has already de

ones, were nearly all thrown down. One of them meni, no one could tell distinctly why they all rived from its independence; benefits not which still remained was fairly wrenched apart rushed in a body to the great church caled La confined to the higher classes only, but felt from the building it had been intended to support, Merced. The gentleman who related this to us and realized in their full pr portion by the the wall touching it at the ground, but standing a happened to be standing near the church at the most obscure and unpretending citizen; yard and a hali from it at the top. It appears. time, and thinking it would probably soon fall, calland they need no further comment. In therefore, as ought to have been anticipated, that ed out loudly to the people not to enter, but rather

these supports contribute nothing to the stability of !o bring the images into the streets, where their connexion with this subject, we have an al- a wall exposed to the shaking of an earthquake; intercessions would prove equally efficacious. Forlusion to the policy of the new governments their real use being to resist a lateral thrust out- tunately, the prior of the church, who was just enin regulating the affairs of trade. It ap- wards, not to act against a vibratory motion of the tering the porch, saw the value of this advice, and

seconded by his authority, ordering the people to pears they bave adopted that true policy, ground on which they stand. ***

It was interesting to notice how constantly the remain without, and desiring those who had alwhich some older States have yet to learn, of leaving it to itself. They had suffered carcequioke occupied, all people's thoughts at this ready entered to bring the images instantly into the

place, however inuch they might seem to be en- str et. The last man had scarcely passed the severely, through many generations, from grossed by other objects. In the early part of the thresbold, when a shock came which in a moment the evils of too much legislation; a system evening, an English gentleman, resident at Copiapó, snook down the roof and one end of the church, of government in which Spain has long took me to visit a family of his acquaintance living leaving it in the state already described. Had not stood preeminent, and which she has ap- Though almost worn out with the day's work, I was open air

, almost the whole population of Copiapó in the undestroyed suburb, called the Chimba. the people been thus judiciously detained in the plied with redoubled severity in her colo- tempted to go, by the promise of being presented to

must have perished. nial regulations. They, we speak of the the handsomest young woman in Chili. We had After the fall of La Merced, the inhabitants fed Chilians more particularly, have opened come, it is true, to Copiapó, with our thoughts full to the neighbouring hills, leaving only one or two their ports to an unrestricted commerce,

of mines and earthquakes; or, if we had originally fool-hardy people who chose to remain. Anongst and it is already pouring out upon them its any thoughts of mixing with society, the desolate these was a German, who, as he told me himself,

appearance of the town had chased them away; divided his time in the Plaza between taking notes abundant blessings.

nevertheless, we could not refuse to visit a lady of the various passing phenomena, and drinking We extract from this chapter some ac- with such pretensions. We found her very pretty aguardiente, the spirits of the country. Slight count of those tremendous earthquakes and agreeable; but what entertained us particular shocks occasionally succeeded that on the 4th, but which often bring utter desolation upon the ly, was her vehement desire to have a wider tield it was not till the ilth of April, seven days after finest cities of South America. Long may Cluded beauty no more than justice, were of a very curred, which, in an instant, laid

the whole town in for the display of her charms, which, to do the se. the fall of the Merced, that the formidable one ocit continue to be difficult for a citizen of high order, even in this land of fascination. The ruins, It was accompanied by a subterranean this country to form an adequate concep- accounts she had heard from others of the fashion- sound, which, though at first of a low tone, gradotion of them.

able world of Santiago, and of Coquimbo, had so aliy swelled to a clear dreadful loudness, of which We rose early this morning, being impatient to completely turned the young lady's head, that earth no one, I observed, even at this distance of time, see the effects of the earthquake. Over night, in- quakes bad ceased to inake the usual impression. could speak without an involuntary shudder. deed, some of these effects had been visible by cản-'I see,' cried she, 'other people running out of their After the first great shock, which levelled the dle-light, for the house, the only one in this part of houses, full of terror, beating their breasts and im- town, the ground coutinued in motion for seven the town which had not been thrown down, was ploring mercy; and decency, of course, obliges me minutes, sometimes rising and falling, but more cracked and ewisted in the most extraordinary to do the same; but I feel no alarm-my thoughts frequently vibrating with great rapidity; it then

It was built of wood, plastered over, are all at coquimbo. How can my uncle be so unbecame still for some minutes, then vibrated again, and the main oprights having been thrust deep into kind as not to repeat his invitation! We consoled and so on, without an intermission longer than a the ground, the heaving of the earth had wrenched the damsel as well as we could, and as she had quarter of an hour for several days. The violence s parts of the house asunder, but without demol-spoken of earthquakes, asked her if there had been of the earthquake now abated a little; the intervals that it altogether, and given it the tom appear one lately? No,' she answered, ' not for some time became longer, and the shocks not quite so violent;

still retained. In the Plaza, every house, -I really do not think I have felt one myself for I but it was not till six months afterwards tijat il


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could be said to be entirely over; for the ground a short time little will be left of its once to the eaves of the cottages. On one side of the during that period was never long steady, and the formidable power, but the name and the bive, half-way between the ends, there is a small frightful noises in the earth constantly portended recollection. An anecdote related by our enter, and shaded by a projection to prevent the

hole made, just large enough for a loaded bee to fresh calamities. In the course of these interesting descriptions, author confirms these cheering hopes.

rain from trickling in. In this hole, generally repwe were struck with the occasional introduction of The following anecdote was, at this time, cur- resenting the mouth of a man, or some monster, minute characteristic circumstances, which, how- rent in the city; and from all we heard during our the head of which is moulded in the clay of the ever trivial in themselves, served to stamp the au- short stay at Santiago, we were satisfied that the hive, a bee is continually stationed, whose office is thenticity of the whole. One of the party, for in- influence of the priests had been gradually on the no sinecure, for the hole is so small, he has to draw stance, was describing the effect of a severe shock, decline, and that a more liberal spirit

, especially in back every time a bee wishes to enter or to leave which, he said, happened at four o'clock in the af. matters of education, had recently been introduc- the hive. A gentleman told me that the experiternoon. 'Oh no,' said another, it was later, led, and was fast spreading over the country.

ment had been made by marking the centinel, when assure you.' — Indeed it was not,' answered the A gentleman had thought fit to commence in- it was observed that the same bee continued at his first ; don't you remember we were playing at structing his daughter in French, a circumstance post a whole day. bowls at the time, and when the sound was heard which the girl, unconscious of any crime, mention- When it is ascertained by the weight that the I stopped playing, and you called out to me to looked in the course of her confession to the priest, who hive is full, the end pieces are removed, and the what o'clock it was; I took out my watch and told expressed the greatest horror at what he heard, de honey withdrawn. The hive we saw opened was you it was past four?" Upon another occasion our nounced the vengeance of Heaven upon her and her only partly filled, which enabled us to see the econ.

I host said, 'I was just going to look what the hour father, refused to give her absolution, and sent the omy of the interior to more advantage. The honey was, at which one of those sounds were irst heard, poor creature home in an agony of fear. The fa- is not contained in the elegant hexagonal cells of when my attention was diverted from the watch by ther soon discovered the cause, and after some cor- our bives, but in wax bags, not quite so large as an a hideous scream of terror from a person near me. respondence with the confessor, went to the head egg. These bags, or bladders, are hung round the He was such a little insignificant wretch, that I had of the government, who sent for the priest, ques. sides of the hive, and appear about half full, the not conceived so loud a yell could possibly have tioned him on the subject, and charged him with quantity being probably just as great as the strength come from his puny body; and so we all forgot the having directly interfered with the letter and spirit of the wax will bear without tearing. Those near shock in quizzing this little manikin,' (hombrecito). of the constitution, which gave encouragement to the bottom, being better supported, are more filled "Nevertheless,' added he, gravely, although I am every species of learning. The priest affected to than the upper ones

. In the centre of the lower not a man to cry out and play the fool on such oc- carry matters with a high band, and even ventured part of the hive, we observed an irregular shaped casions, yet I do fairly own that these earthquakes to censure the director for meddling with things mass of comb furnished with cells, like those of our are very awful; and, indeed, must be felt, to be un beyond his authority. This was soon settled : a bees, all containing young ones, in such an advancderstood in their true extent. Before we hear the council was immediately called, and the next day ed state, that when we broke the comb and let them sound, or, at least, are fully conscious of hearing it, it was known throughout the city, that the priest out, they flew merrily away. During this examinwe are made sensible, I do not well know how, had been seen crossing the frontiers, escorted by a ation of the hive, the comb and the honey were that something uncommon is going to happen; eve- military guard. An account of the whole transac- taken out, and the bees disturbed in every way, but ry thing seems to change colour ; our thoughts are tion, with the correspondence between the parent they never stung us, though our faces and hands chai :ed immoveably down; the whole world ap- and the confessor, were also published officially in were covered with them. It is said, however, that pears to be in disorder; all nature looks different the Gazette, and full authority given, in future, to there is a bee in the country which does sting; but from what it was wont to do; we feel quite sub- every person to teach any branch of knowledge not the kind we saw seem to have neither the power dued and overwhelmed by some invisible power, inconsistent with morals and religion.

nor the inclination, for they certainly did not hurt beyond human control or comprehension. Then After his final departure from Valparaiso, manso, very tame, and never stung any one. The

us, and our friends said they were always muy comes the horrible sound, distinctly heard, and, immediately, the solid earth is all in motion, waving Capt. Hall sailed along the coast, again vis- honey gave out a rich aromatic perfume and tasted to and fro, like the surface of the sea. Depend iting Lima, and stopping at Guayaquil, Pa- differently from ours; but possessed an agreeable upon it, sir, a severe earthquake is enough to shake nama, and several places of inferior note, flavour. the firmest mind. Custom enables us to restrain on the coasts of Colombia and Mexico, bor- When, in our author's former publication, the expression of alarm; but no custom can teach dering on the Pacific Ocean.

he described a race of men, harmless and any one to witness such earthquakes without the deepest emotion of terror.'

Our author gives many interesting par- unoffending, without implements of war, or

ticulars of the cities at which he stopped preparations for defence, yet living comThis work has given us more favourable during this voyage, and of their inhabitants, fortably and happily, some of the more de. impressions of the character of the people which we are compelled to pass over with termined advocates of the doctrine, that of Chili than we had before entertained. out special notice. The northernmost limit self-defence is the first law of nature, took Capt. Hall found them, and in this re- of his voyages was San Blas in Mexico, alarm at a statement which threatened so mark may be included all the inhabitants called San Blas de California, to distin- seriously to overturn their favorite theory. of the western shores of America whom he guish it from other Mexican towns of the This account of another animal, which has visited, exceedingly kind and hospitable. same name. At this port and at Tepee, a been thought to resemble the “lord of the He mingled in their amusements, and visit- large and beautiful town, a short distance creation” in several points, and in none ed with the most perfect freedom in their inland from San Blas, the very name of more than in its promptitude to repel an domestic and social circles. Stranger as which till now had scarce reached our ears, injury, and retaliate upon the aggressor, he was, and among them at a time pecu- he remained several weeks, and improved now found unprovided with weapons of ofliarly critical, and in the midst of a revo- the opportunity as he had done in the towns fence,-a bee without a sting, -may appear lution not yet completed, this intercourse farther south, in making himself acquainted a still severer tax upon their credulity. If was but rarely, and for short seasons inter-) with the habits and feelings of all classes of these accounts should lead one such person rupted. And though the culture of their the people.

to reconsider his belief of the essential neminds had been sadly neglected, he found

The economy of the Mexican bees, de- cessity of strife, they may produce one good them ready and ingenious, and desirous to scribed in the eleventh chapter, exhibits a effect which the writer probably has not acquire information, as the mcans should curious phenomenon in natural history.

anticipated. be placed in their power. But the policy

From the Plaza, we went to a house where a

Almost unqualified praise must be given of their religion bad united with the policy bee-hive of the country was opened in our pre- to our author's simple and natural style; of their government, or rather had formed sence. The bees, the honeycomb, and the hive, free from all affectation of ornament, which a part of it, in suppressing, heretofore, differ essentially from those in England. The hive would be no where more out of place, than every effort to that purpose. In this reli- is generally made out of a log of wood from two to in such a narration and description as congion they have been educated, and as no three feet long, and eight or len inches in diameter, stitute the body of this work. His error,

hollowed out, and closed at the ends by circular people change their religion, suddenly, in doors, cemented closely to the wood, but capable of such as it is, is on the other hand a degree the practice of its forms and ceremonies being removed at pleasure.

of negligence, which sometimes betrays they will doubtless continue for a long time Some people, instead of the clumsy apparatus of him into inelegance if not impropriety of to come. But the heavy hand of the hierar- wood, have a cylindrical hive made of earthen expression; as in his frequent use of the chy which has so long oppressed them, must ware, and relieved with raised figures and circular word past as a preposition, not now admithenceforth bear less heavily upon them. Itsines, so as to form rather handsome ornaments ted by good authorities; another instance

verandah a house, grasp will be relaxed with the spreading of pended by cords from the roof, in the same man is the termination of a sentence with light and liberty among the people, and in ner that the wooden ones in the villages are hung“ where he had got to," and a few others

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