Imágenes de páginas



countenance and advice of Sir Humphrey There is considerable risk from explo- 10. An account of all events of national imDavy. The method employed by Mr Far- sions in conducting these experiments, par- portance, especially of the doings of congress.

Under this head, the most important speeches aday was to generate the gases under pow- ticularly on those gases which require a

will be given as reported in the National Intelerful pressure, and at the same time favour great number of atmospheres to reduce

ligencer. their condensation by the application of them to the liquid state, such as carbonic 20. An account of all events of importance, in cold. The materials for producing the gas acid and nitrous oxide.

the several states, not already related under the

former head. were placed in one of the legs of a bent

II. History of the several independent states of glass tube, which was then sealed at both

America south of the United States, for the ends. Heat, if necessary, was applied to


year, viz. Mexico, Colombia, Buenos Ayres, the end containing the materials, while the

Chili, and Peru: Brazil. The temperature at this depth in lat. 2011. History of the several states of Europe for the other was placed in a freezing mixture. As N. long. 834 W. was ascertained by Capt

. the gas forms, it is gradually deposited in a

year. an iron

PART II. Chronicle. liquid state in the cold end of the tube. Sabine in the following manner; cylinder of 75 lbs. weight was let down at

Notices of important and curious events, not In this way the properties of chlorine, mu

the end of the line used in the experiment, riatic acid, sulphureous acid, sulphuretted

forming a part of the general historical nar

rative. hydrogen, carbonic acid, euchlorine, nitrous containing a self-registering thermometer,

and so arranged as to exclude the entrance APPENDIX TO THE CHRONICLE. oxide, cyanogen, and ammonia, in a liquid

of the water. Another iron cylinder of Important state papers. state, have been ascertained with a greater less weight and strength was attached two

Remarkable trials and law cases. or less degree of precision. The following

Statistical tables.

Notices of inventions and discoveries. is a view of the results at which Mr Fara fathoms above it on the line, also contain

Obituary notices of distinguished characters. day has arrived with regard to the colour, ing a thermometer, and permitting the

After being down

General miscellany. consistency, and specific gravity of these ingress of the water. several gases, and of the degree of pres- and the apparatus came up in good order. work and its certain utility, if well execut

fifty three minutes the line was hauled in, The excellence of the design of this sure and temperature which is necessary The thermometer to which the water had ed, must be obvious. It will be edited by to reduce them to a liquid state.

free access stood at 45°.5; the other, from Prof. Everett, and the mention of this gen

which it had been intended to exclude it, tleman's name renders all comment upon
although the attempt did not fully suc- its probable character and merits super-
ceed, at 490,5. The water at the surface fluous.
was from 820.5 to 83o.2, at the time of the

Cummings, Hilliard, & Co. Boston, have in

press, and will shortly publish, Florula BostoCOPPERING OF SHIPS' BOTTOMS.

niensis, a Collection of Plants of Boston and
Sir H. Davy has lately read a paper to its vicinty, with their places of growth, time
the Royal Society, on the cause of the of flowering, and occasional remarks. By
corrosion and decay of copper used for cov-Jacob Bigelow, M. D. Rumford Professor,
ering the bottoms of ships. This he has and Professor of Materia Medica in Har-
ascertained to be a weak chemical action vard University.—Second edition, greatly
constantly exerted between the saline con- enlarged.
tents of sea water and the copper, and This edition will contain the plants which
which, whatever may be the nature of the the author has collected in different parts
copper, sooner or later destroys it. The of the New England States since the pub-
remedy he has found in the application of lication of the first edition in 1814. These,
those electrical powers and relations of together with enlarged descriptions of the
bodies which have been found to exert so plants of the first edition, will constitute
extensive an influence upon chemical phe- about double the quantity of matter origin-

He finds that a very small sur-ally contained in the work.
face of tin or other oxidable metal in con-
tact any where with a large surface of cop-
per renders it so negatively electrical that

[Some delay in the appearance of this the sea water has no action upon it; and number of the Gazette has been caused by cir. even a little mass of tin brought into com- cumstances beyond our control; we have not, munication with a large plate of copper by however, availed ourselves of the opportuni

a wire, entirely preserves the copper. Sir
H. Davy is now putting this discovery into ty to obtain a large subscription list, because

we believe it more just and more safe to soli-
actual practice on some of the British ships
of war.

cit public patronage, by actual performance,

than by promises. We state this by way of Cummings, Hilliard & Co. and Oliver apology to those gentlemen who may receive Everett, propose to publish by subscription our first number, without having authorized a new work, to be called “ The American

us to send it to them.
Annual Register of History and Politics."
It will be printed annually (or, should the

Every one who receives this number, is nature of the work be found to require it, requested to return it to us, by mail, with semi-annually), and will contain 900 large no greater delay than his convenience may

The price will be $5,00 a require, unless he wishes to become a subscribyear. The general plan will accord with

er; in which case, if he will have the goodthe following arrangement; which, however, will receive such modifications as may be ness to make his intention known to us, he found expedient

will receive the numbers as they are publishNone of the liquids thus obtained be

PART I. General History.

ed. came solid at any temperature to which I. History of the United States of America for the No. 1 Cornhill, Feb. 1824.] they were subjected.

year, containing


Sp. Grav. Pres. in Atmos. Temp. Materials employed for procuring the gases.

Muriate of Ammonia and Sulphuric Acid.
Sulphuric Acid and Mercury.
Hydrate of Chlorine.
Muriatic Acid and Sulphuret of Iron.
Carb. of Ammonia and Sulphuric Acid.
IChloride of Silver saturated with Ammon. Gas.
Chlorate of Potash and Sulphuric Acid.
Nitrate of Ammonia.

Cyanuret of Mercury:

4 atmospheres


Bright yellow -1.33



Deep yellow


Muriatic Aci
Sulphuretted Hydrogen
Sulphurous Acid
Carbonic Acid
Nitrous Oxide


pages, 8vo.





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No. 2.


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of the Romans in the West. Under a total new care and pains. For these subjects

change of national character, manners, and have a close connexion with practice. It Reflections on the Politics of Ancient Greece, religion, Aristotle, Galen, and Euclid were | is common with one class of Christians to

translated from the German of Arnold H. still more respected at Bagdad, than they say that doctrinal subjects are unimportant. L Heeren : By George Bancroft. Bos- had been at Athens or Rome. Our modern We speak merely now in a practical sense, ton. 1824. 8vo.

learning is not less Grecian in its main when we ask, what is more important? It has been well remarked by Lessing, complexion and tendency. When ostensi- The opinions, which a man entertains on in confirmation of the claims of the Scrip- bly occupied with the remains of Roman the interpretation of certain passages in tures on our attention, that, in addition to literature, the superior importance of the the Scriptures and the Church Fathers, every higher consideration, they deserve Grecian is still apparent. This attractive powerfully affect his standing in society, in our notice, as the subject which has most power of Grecian letters, which has made most of the countries of Europe and in our exercised the thoughts of the human mind. them so nearly the centre of intellectual own. The Duke of Norfolk is the oldest, one More has been thought, spoken, and written accomplishments, has not been confined to of the richest, and, in parliamentary influupon them, and subjects connected with letters. The historical traditions and po- ence, the most powerful nobleman in Engthem, than upon any thing else. A greater litical institutions of Greece have maintain- land. He nominates to the House of Comcomparison and accumulation of human ed nearly an equal ascendency. The events mons the six members for Steyning, Arunopinion, reasoning, and feeling, have taken of the Grecian history are more frequently del, and Horsham, and he influences the place in respect to them, than with regard quoted than all others, contained in profane election of the five for Hereford, Carlisle, to any other subject :-nor is there any one annals; and almost all political disquisition and Shoreham. And yet, since he interpoint on which man can be compared with not avowedly abstract, resolves itself into prets Matthew xxvi. 26, and a few other man, in different periods and regions, which speculation on the Grecian forms of gov- texts, differently from the convocation would furnish so good a relative estimate of ernment, or the principles developed in who established the articles of the English his character and progress. What has been their various constitutions.

church, he is excluded from the House of thus justly remarked by the German critic While these circumstances prove the Lords. The political study of antiquity on the subject of the Scriptures, is true, great importance of ancient Greece, in its presents no examples, perhaps, so direct of perhaps, in the next degree of ancient connexion with human improvement, they the connexion of a man's speculative opinGreece, in the full comprehenson of that create proportionate difficulty in forming ions with his condition in actual life. But term. Ancient Greece, its history, institu- impartial opinions, on most of the leading indirectly the connexion exists and opetions, literature, and arts, may be regarded points, brought into question in the study rates. The opinions, which monarchs, in the literary world, in much the same of its history, institutions, and literature. ministers, and statesmen form on many toplight of pre-eminence, in which the religion It is the inevitable effect of the long con- ics, seemingly speculative, are often proof the Scriptures stands in the moral world. tinued attention bestowed from age to age ductive of mighty effects in real life. The On Greece, and the subjects attached by by great multitudes of minds on leading statesman, it is true, is not examined as to association to it, the time, attention, and subjects of inquiry and speculation, to sub- his opinions of the character of Demosthethoughts of the cultivated classes of man, stitute for the real nature of things, new, nes and the designs of Philip; but his confrom the Romans downward, have been artificial, ingenious views of them which victions on the alternative of liberty and more employed than on any other, with the owe their origin merely to the imagination. power, his interpretation of the greai docexception already made. The Romans of The modern philosophy tells us(how justly we trines of deputed authority and popular education formed an early acquaintance do not now inquire), that it is our own minds right, will decide, in almost every country, with Greek learning. Their rhetoricians which create all the qualities in external where he is to rank in society; or if he be, and philosophical instructers were Greeks; objects which we fancy that we discern in by privilege of birth, in a powerful station, all the terms of art employed, even in the them; nay, to go the whole length, that it this interpretation may affect the condition study of Latin eloquence, were Greek; is our own minds, which create the exter- of whole states. and Athens was the holy land of intellec- nal objects themselves. However wild this We make these remarks in some degree tual pilgrimage. The perusal of Cicero's species of metaphysics may be, it is very to illustrate the importance of the new epistles alone is sufficient to prove, that the true that, in all the different sects of re- work on the Politics of Ancient Greece. Greek language was to the well-educated ligion, schools of literature, and parties in “ The politics of ancient Greece,” cries the Romans more a second and dignified ver- politics—though the materials on which statesman of caucuses and central commitnacular tongue, than a foreign language. they act be the same-the results are so tees, “ fine politics indeed for men of this Many Romans wrote Greek works: Cicero different, as to show well, that what men age! Tell us of the politics of Massachuhimself did it, and his friend Atticus also; are thought to have learned, they have in- setts or Virginia ; let us know whether and had the Greek History of the Etrus- vented :—what they would discover in an- the tariff will succeed in the Senate; or cans, by the Emperor Claudius, survived to cient authors is the device of their own if General Jackson is likely to be Presithe present day, it would probably have minds; the religious rite, which they trace dent. That we call politics. The politics given that monarch a celebrity, which he to apostolic antiquity, is an institution of ancient Greece, forsooth! Tell us, if has not acquired from the Roman purple. which has been gradually formed in the you please, of the politics of Great Britain, In the middle ages, the Greek mathemati-church; and the political constitution, to of South America, of the Holy Alliance; cians, physicians, and philosophers were | which they give a Greek name, has noth- nay, if needs must, of modern Greece: almost the sole masters of the human intel- ing else Grecian.

but ancient Greece,-Priam and Achilles, lect. The Greek learning maintained its From these considerations, which would Leonidas and Xerxes,—who will deliver us ascendency over the human mind, through seem to show the vanity of study bestowed from them !" the medium of the Arabic language in the on such subjects, we deduce, on the other Such observations, which we can easily conEast; as it had done before, through that hand, the importance of studying them with ceive to be made, are the remarks of men

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destitute of any of that higher education, writers say, and to which the righteous country, within a few years, in the mode of which the mind, when college days are pass- reviewer alludes as “the most infamous of studying Geography, are attended with one ed, acquires for itself; education in the motives.” We only observe, that the man, obvious disadvantage. Our geographies great school of the world's recorded expe- who learns in Grecian history to call Har- contain little excepting abstract, statistical rience; education formed by observing ex- modius and Aristogiton assassins, and the views. These are the proper elements of tensive analogies, and by weighing princi- beautiful verses in their praise a vile revo- the science, but they furnish little that is ples in the balance of other men and other lutionary song, will certainly think that the interesting to children. We are under the times; education to those great and gener- North American revolution was a wicked necessity of inventing a variety of methods ous sentiments, which fill the bosom almost rebellion, that the desolate plain of Old to facilitate the study, not so much because to bursting, while we dwell on those few Sarum ought to send two members to Par- it is difficult, as because it is uninteresting. Avatars of the spirit of liberty, which the liament, and that the Grand Seignior is the The descriptions are too general and too annals of our race relate. Of this educa- legitimate sovereign of Greece. We feel short to gratify curiosity; and when this is tion, a considerable part of the active and no more doubt, than if we had it under his known, they cease to excite it. They do leading portion of the community here and own hand, that this reviewer esteems the not occupy the mind long enough, to bring elsewhere is destitute. They read nothing, Inquisition “a venerable institution of the any of its powers into very active service; they reflect on nothing. Absorbed in busi- Spanish monarchy."

and hence the impressions are indistinct ness, swallowed up with professional cares It is, more especially, with reference to and readily effaced. We do not, however, and duties, they have no time for any thing the state of liberty among the Greeks, that object to the present mode of studying geogbut what assumes, in some degree, the form the work of Mr Heeren makes a seasona- raphy; so far as it extends, it is certainly of a professional duty or care; and the ble appearance in qur language. Mr Mit- good. Indeed, the progress we have made great work of administering the civil af- ford, with mild feelings and a perfectly in this science within ten years, has been fairs of mighty states and growing millions gentlemanly spirit, has uniformly pleaded very great, and it is now a very popular is undertaken without a day's avowed pre- the cause of arbitrary power among the study. Of the works which preceded paration ; and with hearts, to which the Greeks, and given the most unfavourable Cummings' Geography, we shall say nothvery name of a generous affection is matter view of their democracy. There is really ing. When that appeared, it rendered of scorn.

so much good nature evinced in his able what relates to the absolute and relative It needs not be said that ancient Greece work, that notwithstanding the frightful in situation of places easily attainable. This is the school, where the politician may find ference to which it is designed to lead-that was what we most needed, and no progress some of those lessons which he requires, and men in society ought not to govern them- can be made without it. Other works have where the really great politicians have found selves—you see in it only a customary defer- succeeded, rendering this part of the scithem. It is a remark, which may be confirm- ence payed by an Englishman to aristocratic ence much more accurate, and containing ed by a very long induction, that the course principles, as to a part of the established several important additions of statistical and part which a man will take in the grea system of his country. But Heeren's work information, but retaining the same general controversies of modern politics, may be is written in a much better tone ; not that of character. It is best they should still retain judged of by the opinions he entertains of a champion and an apologist, but that of a it; but it should be remembered that they those of Greece. A striking instance has man who gathers traits of greatness with a furnish only a basis for something more lately suggested itself to us. In the last kindred feeling; who sees in the patriotic interesting. We want to know more of a number of the Quarterly Review-a num- exploits, the admirable literature, and beau- country than its latitude, longitude, and ber, not disgraced, but characterized by a tiful arts of Greece, testimonies more deci- dimensions, that it is level or mountainous, pitiful libel on America-we find this sen- sive of the excellence of their institutions cold or hot, that the inhabitants are black tence:-“To us, indeed, who have no great in the main, than the opposite language of or white, christians, mahometans, or pataste for assassination, even though execut- their popular excesses. However, we do gans, and that they sell corn and beef, and ed by a sword hid in the myrtle boughs not recommend the work, that converts buy tea and sugar. We want the true which graced one of the most beautiful of may be made by it; for it is really written characteristics, the real manners and custhe Grecian processions; to us, with whom in no spirit of proselytism. We recom- toms and principles of every nation, with the song of Harmodius and Aristogiton, mend it because it contains profound origi- such an account of their country as will though written in better metre* than the nal views ;—the fruits of much learning make us acquainted with them at their own • Marseillois hymn,' and in language less with the display of a very little; and a ju- homes. All who have devoted much attenvulgar than the “Tragala, perro,' of modern dicious selection of topics out of the great tion to the higher parts of this science, days, is not a whit the less a vile revolu- mass of Grecian history and tradition. Mit- regard it as highly interesting ; but it retionary song, giving the noblest of names to ford must still be read; and it is to those ceives very much less attention than it one of the most detestable of deeds, origin- who read him that Mr Heeren's work will merits. Why is it that history is so much ating in the most infamous of motives; to prove both most useful and most interest- more esteemed than geography ? Is it persons of this way of thinking, the first ing.

indeed far more important to know what wearer of the name (Aristogiton) had left The translation of this work by Mr has been than what is? It may well be an abomination upon it, which it required Bancroft is very good ;-Sar better than believed that a reading community will no successor to the appellation to augment.” the translations usually made from German one day cease to prefer tales ten thousand We shall not dispute with this temperate into English. It is the performance of a man times told—and often with questionable writer whether Harmodius and Aristogi- who understands not only the language but profit-to works which make us accurately ton conspired against the life of Hippias the subject. To prepare it was an honour and intimately acquainted with our cotemand Hipparchus, as tyrants and unlawful able employment of honourable leisure. poraries. Give us good works of this char rulers, as most accounts state, and as the And parents, who love their children, may acter, and they will not long remain idle. Athenian people implied, when they erect- well feel happy that they can send them The book before us is of this kind, and ed a monument to them in the Ceramicus, to a school, which bears fruit like this, in the success it has already met with, proves “ because they bad slain the tyrant and giv- the brief hours of relaxation which its con- the demand which existed for it. The dilen EQUAL Laws to Athens;" or whether it ductors spare themselves.

igence and fidelity of the author have been was a movement of private indignation on

well attested by his Gazetteers and Eleaccount of the seduction of the sister of

ments of Geography. His reputation for Harmodius by Hippias, as the best ancient Sketches of the Earth and its Inhabitants

, accuracy is certainly merited ; and we

with one hundred engravings. By J. E. know not whether it is necessary even to * The criticism of this learned Theban is as

Worcester, A. A. S. Boston, 1823. 2 vols. remind him, that his obligations to great cirvaluable as his politics. The song in question is

12mo. an inartificial compilation of four different verses

cumspection increase with his reputation. by different authors, and partly in different metres. The changes which have been made in our The Sketches consist of descriptions of

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