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The Outlook








The Outlook


Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York


The long-expected entrance of Rumania into the world war became an actuality on August 27, on which date formal declaration of war against Austria-Hungary was made at the Rumanian capital, Bucharest. It was followed immediately by counter-declarations of war both from Germany and AustriaHungary. The reasons officially assigned are as follows :

First-The Rumanian population in Austrian territories, Transylvania and the Bukowina, is exposed to the hazards of war and of invasion.

Second-Rumania believes that by intervening she can shorten the world war.

Third-Rumania places herself on the side of those Powers which she believes can assist her most efficaciously in realizing her national ideals.

Fighting of an unimportant character instantly followed—if it did not, as some say, precede—the actual issue of the declaration of war.

It was well known in advance that Rumania had her forces fully mobilized both along that portion of her border which lies south of Transylvania in Hungary and that portion which lies directly north from Bulgaria. The clash of arms took place near the Transylvanian frontier.

The importance of Rumania's final decision is great both from the military and the political point of view. It is a diplomatic victory for the Allies which atones for former blunders in their Balkan diplomacy. A glance at the map on the next page will show how the new situation involves a combined attack by Russia and Rumania in the Bukowina region. Russia already holds Czernowitz, which is all but on the border of Rumania.

There are indications that Russia is gathering large forces in this vicinity; and without difficulty she can here act in unison with Rumania, while the latter nation can push forward an army from the south over the mountains into Transylvania, thus leaving that province, which it is Rumania's. ambition to possess after the war, in an angle between two dangerous enemies.

Is to Bulgaria's position,

again a glance at the map shows how dargerous to Bulgaria's safety is the threatened attack by Rumania from the north, at the very time when the five nations represented in the armies north of Salonika threaten Bulgaria on the south.

Austria-Hungary, and particularly Hungary, are now in what seems to be almost a precarious state. Austria has to fight enemies on several fronts ; Italy's recent capture of Gorizia and repulse of the Austrian offensive from Trent shows that heavy forces must be used to hold that part of the Austrian line; the Austro-German armies which swept through Servia are facing the impending advance from the Allies now in Greece; on the Rumanian border the third battle-line is of no little importance ; farther north the Russian attack in Galicia and the other Russian attack in the vicinity of Lemberg are still to be stopped or held in check. It is no wonder that great agitation and discontent exist in Hungary, nor that there are again rumors that Bulgaria may withdraw from her alliance with the Central Powers, while the situation of Turkey is hardly less desperate. One recent serious blow to Turkey has been the reoccupation of Bitlis, in Asia Minor, by the Russian troops operating in that vicinity under the general command of the Grand Duke Nicholas, as also the recapture of Mush ; both of these places have changed hands twice. A general advance of Russia along its Asian front is supposed to be in progress.

The political and moral significance of Rumania's participation in the war, combined with the declaration of war made by Italy on Germany on August 27, are evident. The mere fact that a new body of troops of perhaps half a million men enters the field on the side of the Allies must have an effect on the situation. That Greece, after its long period of hesitation and uncertainty, may declare war is probable, and the more so because of Bulgaria’s recent invasion of Greek territory. Venizelos, speaking in Athens to an enormous demonstration in favor of the Allies at which fifty thousand persons

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