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The result of the elections as evident sixty hours after the polls had closed (when this number of The Outlook went to press) was:
1. As to the Presidency—on the face of the returns, the re-election of Woodrow Wilson. 2. As to the Senate—a somewhat reduced Democratic majority.
3. As to the House of Representatives—an almost even division between the Democrats and their opponents (including Republicans and six or seven members of minor parties).
4. As to State officers—no apparent increase by either party in the total number of State administrations.
5. As to liquor legislation—the adoption of prohibition in four States, its rejection in two or three States.
6. As to votes for women—the possible adoption of woman suffrage by South Dakota, and its rejection in West Virginia.
THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
that the final decision might be reached only Nobody knew definitely two days after after an official recount. When on Thursday the election whether President Wilson or Mr. at midnight California was reported as giving Hughes had been elected for the next four President Wilson a majority of over three years, or even when it would be decided that thousand, his re-election seemed assured. one or the other had been elected. The election of the President is not determined by DAYS OF UNCERTAINTY the majority of votes cast, but by the majority When the sun set on election day in the of electors chosen.
East, it was still shining in the western part Each State has a certain number of electoral of the country, and in some Western States votes, according to the number of represent- the polls closed at a later hour than in some atives it has in the Senate and the House. of the Eastern States. Consequently, when The lowest possible number of electors for the returns began to come in from New Engany State is three, since every State has two land and New York and New Jersey and Senators and at least one Representative. Pennsylvania and the other States along the New York has the largest body of electors, Atlantic, voters in California were still casting namely, forty-five; while New Mexico, Dela- their ballots. Indeed, between the closing ware, Arizona, Wyoming, and Nevada have of the polls in New York at five and the closthree each.
ing of the polls in California at seven o'clock Twenty-four hours after the polls had there was an actual difference of five hours. closed it seemed that of the 531 electoral The East was known to be Hughes territory, votes President Wilson was fairly certain and when the early returns began to come in of 251—fifteen short of a majority. The showing big pluralities for Hughes there States whose votes seemed then most un- was no particular cause for surprise. But certain were California, Minnesota, New what did surprise and mislead, not only the Mexico, North Dakota, and (much to the ordinary citizen, but the trained observer general surprise) New Hampshire. It then of political matters, were the large Hughes seemed certain that President Wilson would majorities in the precinct returns from such win by gaining either California or Minnesota a State as Illinois. When it began to be and any one of the other three States; while known on Tuesday night by nine or halfMr. Hughes would need either both Cali- past nine o'clock that Hughes had not only fornia and Minnesota or else one of these carried most, if not all, of the North Atlantic two and all the other three. At one time it seaboard States, but had won in the great seemed possible that the result might turn Middle Western States of Illinois, Michigan, upon the three votes of New Mexico. Very Visconsin, and even Indiana, seemed to narrow pluralities in several States suggested many impossible that there was any chance
social justice. To them the dangers of the reaction that might come through a change in parties seemed to be more imminent than any danger of neglect of duty on the part of the Nation toward the rest of the world or toward its own citizens in foreign parts.
We discuss the significance of this election at greater length on another page.
for the President's re-election. Indeed, the New York Times," an ardent and consistent supporter of President Wilson throughout the campaign, flashed from the top of its tower the red light which it had adopted as the signal for the election of Mr. Hughes, and kept that red light steadily burning until midnight.
That Ohio had gone for Mr. Wilson was no surprise. To the supporters of Mr. Hughes, however, the silence of Minnesota, which was not heard from, seemed ominous. And those who had been prepared for signs of the President's strength in the West were waiting for later information concerning the Rocky Mountain States and the States of the Pacific coast.
Early returns from California seemed to indicate safe pluralities for Mr. Hughes, but these reports proved misleading. By the next morning the returns coming in from the States that had not been heard from seemed to be almost overwhelmingly favorable to President Wilson. The Western and Rocky Mountain States of Idaho, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Montana, Nevada, Wyoming, Utah, Washington, all fell into the Wilson column. These, with Maryland and Kentucky, the Southwestern States of Arizona, Oklahoma, and Missouri, the Middle Western State of Ohio, and the "solid South," comprised the unquestioned Wilson territory.
The spirit of Nationalism, as indicated by the Republican pluralities, reached higher levels in parts of the Middle West than some expected. Illinois, with its great body of newly enfranchised women voters, did not yield to the counsels of caution and “safety first.” Apparently the women of Hlinois were as ready as the men to regard National duty as paramount, whatever hardship might come with it. On the oher hand, the other so-called suffrage States seem to be predominantly for President Wilson and the Democratic ticket. But it is plain that if that vote indicates a yielding of duty to a desire for comfort and tranquillity, the men well as the women share the responsibility. Is a
matter of fact, the Democratic vote of the Far West is an indication that the people of that region are less responsive to the spirit of
the spirit of Nationalism than they are responsive to the spirit of democracy. They may be forgetful of the duty that this Nation owes to other nations or tits own citizens on the high seas and in
ign lands, but they have a lively sense of
THE CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS
Though the Democrats apparently remain in control of Congress, the elections have somewhat changed its complexion.
The upper branch of Congress, the Senate, has a membership of 96 ; the necessary majority is 49. The lower branch of Congress, the House of Representatives, has a membership of 435; the necessary majority is 218.
The present Senate stands 56 Democrats to 40 Republicans--a Democratic majority of 16. According to latest returns, the future Senate may have 54 Democrats and 42 Republicans-a Democratic majority of 12.
The present House has 229 Democrats, 198 Republicans, 6 Progressives, one Socialist, and one Independent—a Democratic majority of 23 over the Republicans and the members of the minor political parties. According to partial returns, the future House may consist in a practical tie as between Republicans and Democrats when final returns have been reported, but with indications favoring a very slight Republican majority
NEW SENATORS AND OLD
In last week's election 33 United States Senators were chosen, but, in all, 35 new Senators will take their seats next March. The 35 include the two Senators elected by the Republicans in the September Maine election. The 35 also include the one-third increase of the whole number of Senators necessary every two years, and the replacements of those who died in office.
In the Senate the Republican gains have been in the States of Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Indiana, and West Virginia ; the Democratic gains have been in the States of Delaware, Rhode Island, Utah, and later returns may disclose victories also in New Mexico and Wyoming.
Next to the choice of the President probably the most notable result of last Tuesday's elections is the new Republican blood in the
Senate, for the Republican Senatorial gains succession to the seats now occupied by are more significant not only in quantity but Senators Kern and Taggart, Democrats. In also in quality than are the Democratic. Maine, ex-Governor Fernald, Republican, Most noteworthy is Hiram Johnson, of Cali- will appear alongside Colonel Frederick fornia, Republican, succeeding to the seat of Hale, Republican, who won the seat now Senator Woks, Republican. Mr. Johnson occupied by Senator Charles F. Johnson, is known throughout the whole country as a Democrat. The most surprising Reman of compelling force, and especially an publican victories, however, have been in executive who has made of California the most the border States of Maryland and West progressive State in the Union. He has always Virginia. The first remains Democratic, and maintained the qualities which distinguished yet Dr. Joseph Erwin France, Republican, him when he was one of the prosecuting will replace Senator Blair Lee, Democrat, in attorneys in the San Francisco cases involving the Senate; from the second State, which leading city officials and almost all the public now becomes Republican, Representative utility corporations. He was one of the Sutherland will replace Senator William E. founders of the Progressive party, and was Chilton, Democrat. These victories iis candidate for Vice-President. A portrait plainly due to independent thinking. . of Senator-elect Johnson appears on another Among Republican Senators replaced by page.
Democrats we have to chronicle three unexFrank B. Kellogg, of Minnesota, succeeds pected disappearances of well-known figures, to the seat of Senator Clapp, a progressive two of them from States hitherto considered Republican. Mr. Kellogg is another famous by Republicans as “rock-ribbed," namely, prosecutor. He represented the United Utah and Rhode Island. From the first the States Government against the Standard Oil Senate will lose George Sutherland, who has Company ; he was also special counsel for been in that body for sixteen years, his sucthe Inter-State Commerce Commission in the cessor being William H. King. Mr. Sutheraction to dissolve the Union Pacific-Southern land has been justly regarded as one of Pacific merger.
the foremost lawyers of the upper house. A well-known figure reappears in the From Rhode Island, Henry F. Lippitt, person of Philander C. Knox, Republican, an expert in tariff schedules, is to be from Pennsylvania, succeeding Senator Oliver, replaced by Peter Goelet Gerry. From a Republican. Mr. Knox was Attorney- Delaware, Colonel Henry A. du Pont, an General of the Cabinets of Presidents authority on military matters, is to be reMcKinley and Roosevelt, and discharged the placed by Josiah O. Wolcott. The Republiduties of that office with signal ability. He can defeats in two of these three States became United States Senator in 1904, and may be attributed to factional disputes. In resigned in 1909 to accept the office of Wyoming the election of the Democratic Secretary of State in President's Taft's Governor Kendrick to succeed United States Cabinet.
Senator Clark seems to be confirmed at this Another improvement in the personnel of writing. the Senate results from the election of Joseph Of the Senators re-elected, Mr. Lodge, of S. Frelinghuysen, of New Jersey, who suc- Massachusetts, Republican, looms largest. ceeds to the seat of Senator Martine, Demo- For many years he has been rightly regarded crat. In no State occurred a more striking as the Senate's intellectual leader. Other setback to a political machine than that re- notable Republicans re-elected are Senators sulting in the unexpected choice by the New Poindexter, of Washington (though the State Jersey primaries of Mr. Frelinghuysen over " went” for a Democratic President and a the Hon. Franklin Murphy, the machine can- Democratic Governor), La Follette, of Wiscondidate. Mr. Frelinghuysen is a
sin, McLean, of Connecticut, and Page, of strong fiber.
Vermont. Mr. Poindexter has been a ProWilliam M. Calder, of New York, is also gressive and is now a Republican, whereas a new man in the Senate. He has had a Mr. La Follette, who has been a Republican, decade's experience in the House. Mr. has now become really an Independent. Calder succeeds to the seat now held by although still rated a Republican. At al the Hon. James A. O'Gorman, Democrat. events, he has espoused some of the Wilson There come also Harry S. New and James policies, and in the campaign had nothing to E. Watson, Republicans, from Indiana, in say in support of Mr. Hughes; despite
this, he was re-elected, owing to his large personal following.
The following well-known Democratic legislators have been re-elected : Senators Williams, of Mississippi ; Reed, of Missouri ; Myers, of Montana ; Pittman, of Nevada ; Culberson, of Texas ; and Swanson, of Virginia
districts and may in some others as well. In Pennsylvania, William H. Coleman, Repub lican, seems to be elected by a majority of only twenty votes in his district, and A. J. Barchfield, Republican, appears to be de. feated by only nineteen votes in his district. Hence, as members of the National Guard from these districts are at the border and voted Tuesday, the fate of Coleman and Barchfield will not be known until the soldier votes have been officially canvassed.
In the House, according to present returns, the Republicans have gained Representatives from Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin. The Democrats have gained Representatives from Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, and have won back the one North Carolina seat held by a Republican.
Among new men in the House is Medill McCormick, of Illinois, who went into the Progressive party but returned to the Republican party before the Progressive Convention in Chicago last June. Thus far no one of the familiar “ war horses ” of either party has been defeated. The House, therefore, will still have the presence of such Republicans as Hill of Connecticut, Gillett and Gardner of Massachusetts, Cannon, Mann, and McKinley from Illinois ; and of such Democrats as Speaker Clark from Missouri, and Representatives Sherley of Kentucky, Kitchin of North Carolina, Moon of Tennessee, and Glass of Virginia.
Certain defeats should also be chronicled. One is that of Representative Bennet, of New York, Republican, whose unwarranted attack on Frederic C. Howe, Immigration Commissioner at the port of New York, reacted to the Congressman's political injury. Representatives Frank Buchanan and Clyde H. Tavenner, of Illinois, Democrats, were also defeated, we are glad to say. Mr. Buchanan had attempted to unite in a common cause his labor constituency and professional pro-Germans. Mr. Tavenner has been known as the extremest sort of a " little navy” man. Another notable pacifist, Warren Worth Bailey, Democrat, of Pennsylvania, has also lost his seat. Mr. Bailey, an ardent supporter of William J. Bryan, has been regarded as Mr. Bryan's spokesman in Congress.
The vote of the National Guardsmen now on the Mexican border will determine the Congressional contests in two Pennsylvania
THE ELECTION AND THE STATES
It is difficult, after any general election, for a reader of the American press to form definite conclusions as to the issues and results of the State elections. In the first place, the first returns from the States are almost invariably inaccurate. In the second place, the final returns are too often unpublished because they have, in the eyes of the daily press, lost their news value.
But even while the National elections were still hanging in the balance, there were, however, certain definite tendencies clearly shown by the result of the polls of the votes of the States on their internal affairs.
The most interesting facts demonstrated are the growth of prohibition and the disintegration of Nationalism within the Republican party. The questions of Socialism, woman suffrage and the use which the women have made of their growing power to influence Presidential elections, the attitude of the labor vote and the socalled hyphen vote, are also features of importance. With regard to these last two factors, if the State elections show anything, they show that there has been no marked labor or hyphen solidarity, certainly not to the degree which had been forecast before November 7.
HOW THE STATES VOTED
Coming from generalities to particulars, it is necessary to consider the States both in groups and as individual units. The States which lend themselves most easily to classification in a group are those which demonstrated their inability to think Nationally, which were ready to sacrifice National candidates and policies to local quarrels.
At the head of this group stands comfortable Kansas, electing a Republican Governor by a large majority and voting for a Democratic President, apparently chiefly from a failure to understand the chief issues of the elec