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Statements by-Continued

Lioeanjie, Rene C., director, Central and South America, National

Maritime Union of America, AFL-CIO.
Lopez, Franklin Delano, chairperson, New Democratic Party of Puerto

Rico, Washington, D.C.; accompanied by Juan M. Passalaqua,

counsel. Lowenthal, Abraham F., secretary, Latin American Program,

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington,

D.C.....
Miller, Prof. Donald E.; accompanied by Merle Crouse, Church of

the Brethren, secretary for Latin America and the Caribbean.. Moorer, Adm. Thomas H., USN (ret.), former Chairman of the

Joint Chiefs of Staff, McLean, Va---
Portell-Vila, Herminio, editor, Radio Free Americas, American

Security Council, Washington, D.C.---
Roberts, Maj. Gen. J. Milnor, U.S. Army Reserve, executive director,

Reserve Officers Association, Washington, D.C.
Ruggiero, Frank D., National Commander, AMVETS, Washington,

D.C.
Rusk, Hon. Dean, former Secretary of State.
Schlafly, John Fred, chairman, Emergency Task Force on the Panama

Canal, American Council for World Freedom, Washington, D.C.--
Small, Dennis, National Committee member of the U.S. Labor Party,
Smith, Robert Charles, National Commander, the American Legion,

Washington, D.C..-
Tambs, Prof. Lewis A., professor of history, Arizona State University,

Tempe, Ariz..
Taylor, Gen. Maxwell D., (ret.) Former Chairman, Joint Chiefs of

Staff
Thompson, William P., president, National Council of Churches,

New York, N. Y., and Stated Clerk of the General Assembly, the

United Presbyterian Church in the USA.--
Williams, Capt. J. R., president, Panama Canal Pilots Association,

Panama Canal Zone
Zumwalt, Adm. Elmo R., Jr., USN (ret.) Former Chief of Naval

Operations.
Insertions for the record:

Communist support in Panama for Canal treaties (Supplied by State

Department)
Article from the Christian Science Monitor by James Nelson Goodsell,

dated September 21, 1977--
Biography of Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, USA (ret.)--
"Canal Treaties: The Maturing of America,” article by Arthur Collins,

The Washington Post, October 9, 1977.
Letter to Patricia T. Fulton, president, Pacific Civic Counsel, from

David J. Kiyonaga, dated October 6, 1977, with enclosures.
Prepared statement of Canal Zone citizen representatives.
Biography of Abraham F. Lowenthal..
Biography of Donald Marquand Dozer..
Proposed Joint Resolution of Congress to incorporate the Canal Zone

into the Union as a new State, supplied by Donald Dozer...
Prepared statement of Donald Marquand Dozer--
Biography of Lewis A. Tambs...
Prepared statement of Lewis A. Tambs.
Biography of Jorge I. Dominguez..
Prepared statement of Jorge 1. Dominguez...
Prepared statement of Robert M. Bartell..
Letter to Senator Howard Baker from Robert M. Bartell, dated

October 11, 1977.
Political Facts about Franklin Delano Lopez, chairperson, New Demo-

cratic Party of Puerto Rico.---
Biography of Phillip Harman..
Prepared statement of Phillip Harman with attachments.
Biography of Rose Marie Aragon...
Prepared statement of Mrs. Aragon with appendicos.
Biography of Richard Eisenmann..
Biography of Winston Robles..

446

45

17

44 56

64

80 88 117 123

128 130 151 159 175 178 204

217

218 226 230 254 260 280 280

450

474

Insertions for the record-Continued

Prepared statement of Richard Eisenmann with appendices---

Biography of William P. Thompson.-

"Human Rights Commission Director” Text of cable to be sent by

Panamanian Chief of Government Gen. Omar Torrijos to Andres

Agiular, Director of_Inter-American Human Rights Commission,

signed Gen. Omar Torrijos Herrara, Panamanian Chief of Gov-

ernment.

“I. Human Rights in Panama" statement adopted at Meetings of

Bishops---

Prepared statement of Morris Levinson.

Biography of Donald E. Miller.

Prepared statement of Donald E. Miller on behalf of Church of the

Brethren General Board...

Biography of Kenneth F. Boehm.--

La Rouche's proposed amendments to Panama Treaty supplied by

U.S. Labor Party-

Prepared statement of George Meany, President, AFL-CIO, Octo-

ber 11, 1977.--

Mr. Kirkland's answers to additional questions for the record..

Biography of Martin Gerber---

Prepared Statement of Martin Gerber.

Committee questions for Martin Gerber, UMW followed by responses.

Biography of Alfred J. Graham...,

Prepared statement of Alfred J. Graham..

Letter to Senator John J. Sparkman from J. R. Williams, dated Octo-

ber 17, 1977.

Letter to Capt. J. R. Williams from John Sparkman, dated October 25,

1977..

Additional committee questions and responses of Mr. Schlafly--

Dr. Romulo Bethancourt, head of the Panamanian Negotiating Team

before the National Assembly of Panama address concerning the

Neutrality Pact with the United States August 19, 1977--

Prepared statement of Gary L. Jarmin..

Letter to Senator John Sparkman from Gary Jarmin enclosing answers

to additional questions for the record..

Biography of Dr. Hermino Portell-Vila, editor, Radio Free Americas,

American Security Council.

Prepared Statement of Mr. Portell-Vila.

Prepared statement of Capt. Leonard E. Bell...

“White House Lobbying to Change Opinions on Canal”, article by

James T. Wooten from the New York Times, October 13, 1977----

Biography of Robert Charles Smith...

Prepared statement of Robert Charles Smith.

Biography of Maj. Gen. J. Milnor Roberts, U.S. Army Reserves.

Letter to Maj. Gen. J. Milnor Roberts from Ġen. L. L. Lemnitzer, dated

October 12, 1977-

278 Generals, Admirals Against Panama Canal Treaties, ROA Survey

Shows”, news release, Reserve Officers Association...

Biography of Phelps Jones...

Prepared statement of Dr. John Wasylik, National Commander-in-

Chief, VFW of the United States..

Letter to Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance from Senator John

Sparkman, dated October 6, 1977.--

Appendix:

Letter with enclosure to Hon. John Sparkman from William B.

Gardiner, DAV, dated September 12, 1977-

Letter to Brig. Gen. James H. Stratton, U.S. Army (Ret.) from

John Sparkman, dated November 9, 1977-..

Letter to Senator Sparkman from James H. Stratton dated November

1, 1977 with enclosed prepared statement

Letter to Robert Dockery, staff, U.S. Senate Foreign Relations

Committee, from Capt. Paul B. Ryan, U.S. Navy (Řet.) Hoover

Institute on War, Revolution and Peace, dated October 10, 1977,

with enclosed prepared statement.-

[graphic]

Appendix-Continued

"Canal Diplomacy and U.S. Interests”, excerpt from U.S. Naval

Institute Proceedings, January 1977, Vol. 103/1/887, p. 43, by Page
Capt. Paul B. Ryan USN (ret.) -

621 Letter to Michael K. Deaver from Senator John Sparkman with enclosed testimony by Hon. Ronald Reagan.

630 Letter to Senator John Sparkman from Rabbi Arthur Hertzberg,

president, American Jewish Congress, dated October 10, 1977--- 636 Letter to Hon. Dick Clark from Hans Smit, dated October 21, 1977, with enclosure.

637 Prepared statement of National Coalition of Cuban-Americans.. 639 Letter to Norvill Jones, Chief of Staff, Senate Foreign Relations

Committee from William P. Hilmes, dated November 29, 1977.--- 640 Statement by Col. John K. Eney, USA (ret.), dated November 30, 1977.-

640 Letter to Senator John Sparkman from Richard C. Spaulding with enclosure

642 Letter to Senator John Sparkman from Frances E. Neely, Friends

Committee on National Legislation, dated September 27, 1977, with

enclosed policy statement on approval of Panama Canal Treaties-- 643 Letter to Senator John Sparkman from John Risca Williams, dated September 12, 1977, with attached report.-

643 Letter to Senator John Sparkman from Maj. Gen. Philip D. Shutler,

USMC, Vice Director, Joint Chiefs of Staff, dated December 13,
1977.--

670 Committee questions submitted to the State Department for coordinated executive branch response

670 Section-by-section analysis of the Panama Canal Treaty, the Treaty

Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama
Canal, the Agreement in Implementation of Article III of the
Panama Canal Treaty and the Agreement in Implementation of
Article IV of the Panama Canal Treaty, prepared under the direction
of the Department of State-

689 Letter to Hon. John J. Sparkman from Talmage E. Simpkins, execu

tive director, AFL-CIO Maritime Committee, dated December 28,
1977, with attached answers to questions for the record...

721 American Veteran's Committee Resolution on “Panama Treaties", 722

PANAMA CANAL TREATIES

MONDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1977

UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS,

Washington, D.O. The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:40 a.m., in room 318, Russell Senate Office Building, Hon. John Sparkman (chairman of the committee) presiding.

Present: Senators Sparkman, Church, Pell, Glenn, Sarbanes, Case, Percy, Griffin, and Baker.

The CHAIRMAN. Let the committee come to order, please.

According to our poll, we are going to have a very good attendance this morning. I see that 10 Senators will be here and 3 additional Senators may be able to come. I think we had better get started, however,

Senator Glenn, I was almost going to say that I thought we had an unbalanced line to the left, but I will not say that now that you are here. I am glad you could come this morning.

OPENING STATEMENT

The Committee on Foreign Relations is meeting this morning to continue its consideration of the proposed Panama Canal treaties.

Throughout this week, in fact, every day this week, we will take testimony from a variety of experts and public witnesses on these agreements.

To start the hearing process this morning we are pleased and honored to have with us three retired military officers who have served their country at the highest level. We will hear from them individually, beginning with former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Adm. Thomas H. Moorer, who, if I may interpolate, is my fellow Alabamian.

Following Admiral Moorer's testimony we will ask the former Chief of Naval Operations, Adm. Elmo R. Zumwalt, to present his views to the committee.

Last, but by no means least, we have another former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staffs, Gen. Maxwell Taylor.

After hearing from our military experts the committee will take testimony from a panel of four American citizens who are residents of the Canal Zone. These individuals represent several civic groups in the Canal Zone. We look forward to hearing from them.

May we begin with Admiral Moorer. I will ask him if any of his colleagues who wrote to President Carter on June 8 objecting to the Panama Canal agreements are with him this morning. I want the

record to show that an invitation was extended to each one of them, either directly by the committee or through Admiral Moorer.

Admiral Moorer, we welcome you to the witness stand. We will be very glad to hear from you.

But first, I would ask our Senators if any of them has an opening statement or other remarks at this time.

Senator Percy?
Senator PERCY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
I would like to make just one brief comment.

COMMENT BY SENATOR PERCY I have explained to Admiral Moorer that a few of us have other hearings which we must attend this morning. The suggestion was made over the weekend by Senator Church that the members of this committee go to Panama. I would hope we could go.

It has been many years since I was down there, and I was not there for the purpose we now have in mind. Certainly I think we are all agreed at this stage -Strom Thurmond expressed this, too, in his very eloquent testimony-that we cannot live with the 1903 treaty, that we cannot hold the Panamanians to that outdated instrument. We cannot live without disruption down there and assure security for the canal if we hold them to an agreement that in the light of today's circumstances is unrealistic and unfair.

I think there is some agreement among the members of this committee, also, that the ambiguities in our present treaties must be cleared up. We cannot possibly enter into a new covenant and risk a misunderstanding on both sides as to what we really mean by the language which we have signed. Everyone admits now that there are ambiguities that must be clarified.

I think Senator Church's suggestion is an excellent one, that members of this committee, who have the responsibility for making a recommendation to the Senate, should hear firsthand from the Panamanians, from the Panamanian Government, and those who negotiated the treaties. Once we finish our hearings here, we should see firsthand down there what the conditions are and talk to the people right on the scene.

I cannot speak for all of the minority, but I think it would be good to try to make ourselves available on a very high priority basis after the Congress adjourns.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Senator BAKER. Mr. Chairman, would you yield to me for a moment on that point ?

The CHAIRMAN. Senator Baker.

COMMITTEE TRADITION OF NOT HEARING FOREIGN WITNESSES

Senator BAKER. I was much taken with Senator Church's suggestion, as you were, Senator Percy, indeed as I was with Senator Church's entire presentation on television yesterday. It was thoughtful and it was thorough, as I would expect from him.

Mr. Chairman, I was wondering if we were to accept the suggestion by Senator Church that hearings be held in the Canal Zone, would we

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