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which may have serious consequences for the peace and security of the region. I am writing you this letter to warn you that it is not with threats that you will gain our support and continued vigilance, which will ensure that the canal continues to operate efficiently and with the proper defense. Panama is confident that the justice of our cause will triumph by the force of the law, without any need to resort to violence.

4. We do not wish to publicize our indignation and displeasure in the face of this rash accusation made by your government, particularly because we wish to avoid inflaming the people and, in particular, to prevent the young people of Panama from engaging in angry and vigorous protests.

Our duty, as chief of the armed forces, is to work to avoid upsetting public order, especially now that we are on the brink of an agreement. We hope that good sense will ultimately prevail and that the new international morality will induce the United States team to return to the negotiating table so that soon we may conclude the canal treaty which will signify a new era in the United States relations with Latin America.

Accept, sir, the assurances of my highest consideration.

WASHINGTON, DECEMBER 23, 1976.

OMAR TORRIJOS,

Head of State and Commander in Chief
of the National Guard of Panama.

APPENDIX (8)

9-10-27

FOREIGN ASSISTANCE AND RELATED AGENCIES

APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1977

HEARINGS

BEFORE A

SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE

COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

NINETY-FOURTH CONGRESS
SECOND SESSION

SUBCOMMITTEE ON FOREIGN OPERATIONS AND RELATED AGENCIES OTTO E. PASSMAN, Louisiana, Chairman

CLARENCE D. LONG, Maryland

J. EDWARD ROUSH, Indiana
DAVID R. OBEY, Wisconsin
TOM BEVILL, Alabama

BILL CHAPPELL, JR., Florida

EDWARD I. KOCH, New York

JOSEPH D. EARLY, Massachusetts

GARNER E. SHRIVER, Kansas
SILVIO O. CONTE, Massachusetts
LAWRENCE COUGHLIN, Pennsylvania

DONALD E. RICHBOURG AND DONALD L. DENTON, Staff Assistants

PART 2

ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE:

Administrator, Agency for International Development

International Organizations and Programs

Operating Expenses

American Schools and Hospitals Abroad

Security Supporting Assistance

Population and Humanitarian Assistance

Printed for the use of the Committee on Appropriations

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON: 1976

COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS

GEORGE H. MAHON, Texas, Chairman

JAMIE L. WHITTEN, Mississippi
ROBERT L. F. SIKES, Florida
OTTO E. PASSMAN, Louisiana
JOE L. EVINS, Tennessee
EDWARD P. BOLAND, Massachusetts
WILLIAM H. NATCHER, Kentucky
DANIEL J. FLOOD, Pennsylvania
TOM STEED, Oklahoma
GEORGE E. SHIPLEY, Illinois
JOHN M. SLACK, West Virginia
JOHN J. FLYNT, Ja, Georgia
NEAL SMITH, Iowa

ROBERT N. GIATMO, Connecticut
JOSEPH P. ADDABBO, New York
JOHN J. McFALL, California
EDWARD J. PATTEN, New Jersey
CLARENCE D. LONG, Maryland
SIDNEY R. YATES, Illinois
FRANK E. EVANS, Colorado
DAVID R. OBEY, Wisconsin
EDWARD R. ROYBAL, California
LOUIS STOKES, Ohio

J. EDWARD ROUSH, Indiana
GUNN MCKAY, Utah

TOM BEVILL, Alabama

BILL CHAPPELL, JR., Florida
BILL D. BURLISON, Missouri
BILL ALEXANDER, Arkansas
EDWARD I. KOCH, New York
YVONNE BRATHWAITE BURKE,
California

JOHN P. MURTHA, Pennsylvania
BOB TRAXLER, Michigan
ROBERT DUNCAN, Oregon

JOSEPH D. EARLY, Massachusetts
MAX BAUCUS, Montana

CHARLES WILSON, Texas

ELFORD A. CEDERBERG, Michigan
ROBERT H. MICHEL, Illinois
SILVIO O. CONTE, Massachusetts
GARNER E. SHRIVER, Kansas
JOSEPH M. MCDADE, Pennsylvania
MARK ANDREWS, North Dakota
BURT L. TALCOTT, California
JACK EDWARDS, Alabama
ROBERT C. MCEWEN, New York
JOHN T. MYERS, Indiana

J. KENNETH ROBINSON, Virginla
CLARENCE E. MILLER, Ohio
LAWRENCE COUGHLIN, Pennsylvania
C. W. BILL YOUNG, Florida
JACK F. KEMP, New York

WILLIAM L. ARMSTRONG, Colorado
RALPH S. REGULA, Oblo

CLAIR W. BURGENER, California

KEITH F. MAINLAND, Clerk and Staff Director

(II)

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Mr. COUGHLIN. You mentioned another country I want to ask about în Latin America. Because of the strategic location of Panama, is the level of assistance adequate?

Mr. KLEINE. Panama has been for some time No. 1 in terms of per capita aid. It is a country whose absorptive capacity has been quite remarkable considering the size of the country. It is also a country which is quite remarkable in terms of the consistency of its development objectives with congressional mandate. It is focusing on the rural poor, and it is in that area that we are providing assistance to Panama, to help it improve living standards in rural areas.

Mr. COUGHLIN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I will reserve further questions.

[Mr. Eisenmann's and Dr. Robles' biographies follow:]

BIOGRAPHY OF RICHARD EISENMANN

Born a U.S. citizen, July 16, 1913, in Panama, to Gustave Eisenmann and Ethel Brandon-Maduro. Both families have, for more than 110 years been associated with the political, civic and economic development of the Isthmus and the new nation.

All his formative years were in the United States where he received his education in the public and private schools of the Gulf States and New York. He attended New York University and later taught Foreign Trade and Export Management at the City College of New York.

After establishing an export management firm in New York, he served during World War II at the U.S. Embassy in Peru as Board of Economic Warfare representative for quinine development and procurement.

Following a career in foreign trade, he returned to government service in 1960 with the Department of Commerce Bureau of International Commerce. He promoted, organized and directed trade and investment missions to 55 countries, with emphasis on Latin America.

Active in community, civic and professional organizations both in the U.S. and Panama, his many offices included: Commissioner of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, and Founding President of the Friends of the Panama National Museum. Amongst his honors are: the Medal for Superior Federal Service (U.S.) and the Order of Vasco Nuñez de Balboa (Panama).

After retiring in 1974, he devoted himself to fostering negotiation of a new Panama treaty. In 1975, with his wife, he helped in educational work which (a) ensured a continuation of treaty negotiations without Congressional interference; (b) organized a broad based business support for continuation of treaty negotiations.

In 1977 he registered as an unpaid Washington Representative of the Panamanian Committee for Human Rights.

BIOGRAPHY OF WINSTON ROBLES, LL. D., CORAL GABLES, FLA.

Born: 1940, Panama, Rep. of Panama.

Married to U.S. Citizen, 1 child.

Graduate studies: Doctor of Law and Political Science, Universidad Libre, Bogota, Colombia; and Special studies in Criminal Law, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Academic career: 1965-67, Asst. Professor, School of Law, University of Panama; 1967-76, Professor of Political Science, University of Panama; 1969-76, Professor of Philosophy of Law, University of Panama; and 1975-76, Professor of Political Science, University of Santa Maria de la Antigua, Panama. Professional practice: Firm: Robles & Robles; 1967-69, Director of Legal Dept.-National Bank of Panama; and 1968-69, Secretary, Board of Directors, National Bank of Panama.

Offices and honors: Founder and Vice President, National Center for Study of National Problems, Panama; 1969-70, Vice President of National Bar Assoc. of Panama; Founder and Vice President of Independent Lawyers Movement; January 20, 1976: One of 14 civil leaders forcibly exiled by military dictatorship; and Founder and Director of Panamanian Committee for Human Rights.

Present occupation: Asst. Professor of Political Science, Florida International University.

STATEMENT OF RICHARD EISENMANN, PANAMANIAN COMMITTEE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, ACCOMPANIED BY DR. WINSTON ROBLES, PANAMANIAN COMMITTEE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, WASHINGTON,

D.C.

Mr. EISEN MANN. My name is Richard Eisenmann.

I thank you, Mr. Chairman, for this opportunity of being here. I am assisted today by Winston Robles, a doctor of laws and formerly a professor of law at the University of Panama, for any technical matters that may come up regarding Panama law.

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