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which may have serious consequences for the peace and security of the region, I am writing you this letter to warn you that it is not with threats that you will guin our support and continued vigilance, which will ensure that the canal continues to operate efficiently and with the proper defense. Panama is confident that the justice of our cause will triumph by the force of the law, without any need to resort to violence.

4. We do not wish to publicize our indignation and displeasure in the face of this rash accusation made by your government, particularly because we wish to avoid inflaming the people and, in particular, to prevent the young people of Panama from engaging in angry and vigorous protests.

Our duty, as chief of the armed forces, is to work to avoid upsetting public order, especially now that we are on the brink of an agreement. We hope that good sense will ultimately prevail and that the new international morality will induce the United States team to return to the negotiating table so that soon we may conclude the canal treaty which will signify a new era in the United States relations with Latin America. Accept, sir, the assurances of my highest consideration.

OMAR TORRIJOS,
Head of State and Commander in Chief

of the National Guard of Panama. WASHINGTON, DECEMBER 23, 1976.

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SUBCOMMITTEE ON FOREIGN OPERATIONS AND RELATED AGENCIES

OTTO E. PASSMAN, Louisiana, Chairman CLARENCE D. LONG, Maryland

GARNER E. SHRIVER, Kansas J. EDWARD ROUSH, Indiana

SILVIO O. CONTE, Massachusetts
DAVID R. OBEY, Wisconsin

LAWRENCE COUGHLIN, Pennsylvania
TOM BEVILL, Alabama
BILL CHAPPELL, JR., Florida
EDWARD I. KOCH, New York
JOSEPH D. EARLY, Massachusetts

DONALD E. RICHBOURG AND DONALD L. DENTON, Staff Assistants

PART 2
ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE:

Administrator, Agency for International Development
International Organizations and Programs
Operating Expenses
American Schools and Hospitals Abroad
Security Supporting Assistance
Population and Humanitarian Assistance

Printed for the use of the Committee on Appropriations

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON : 1976

COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS
GEORGE H. MALON, Texas, Chairman

JAMIE L. WEITTEN, Mississippi

ELFORD S. CEDERBERG, Vichigan ROBERT L. F. SIKES, Florida

ROBERT H. MICHEL, Illinois OTTO E. PASSMAN, Louisiana

SILVIO O. CONTE, Massachusetts JOE L. EVINS, Tennessee

GARNER E. SHRIVER, Kansas EDWARD P. BOLAND, Massachusetts JOSEPH M. MCDADE, Pennsylvania WinLAM . VITCHER, Kentucky

MARK ANDREWS, North Dakota DANIEL J. FLOOD, Pennsyivania

BURT L. TALCOTT, California TOY STEED, Oklahoma

JACK EDWARDS, Alabaina GEORGE E. SHIPLEY, Ilinois

ROBERT C. MCEWEN, New York JOAN M. SLACK, West Virginia

JOHN T. MYERS, Indiana JORNI. FLYVT, JA, Georgia

J. KENNETH ROBINSON, Virginia SEAL SMITH, IOWA

CIARENCE E. MILLER, Ohio ROBERT N. GIAIRO), Connecticut

LAWRENCE COUGHLIN, Pennsylvania JOSEPH P. ADDABBO, New York

C. W. BILL YOUNG, Florida JOHN J. MCFALL, Callioraia

JACK F. KEMP, New York EDWARD I, PATTEN, New Jersey

WILLIAM L. ARMSTRONG, Colorado CLARENCE D. LONG, Maryland

RALPH S. REGULA, Obio
SIDNEY K. YAITES, Ilinois

CLAIR W. BURGENER, California
FRANK E. EVANS, Coiorado
DAVID R. OBEY, Wisconsin
EDWARD A. ROYBAL, Calliorula
LOUIS STOKES, Ohio
J. EDIFARD ROUSA, Indiana
GUYN MCKAY, Utal
TOM BEVILL, Alabama
BILL CHAPPELL, JR., Florida
BILL D. BURLISON, Missouri
AILI ALEXANDER, arkansas
EDIŠRD I, KOCH, New York
YVONNE BRATUWAITE BURKE,

California
JOHN P. MURTHA, Pennsylvania
BOB TRAILER, Michigan
ROBERT DUNCAN, Oregon
JOSEPA D. EARLY, Massachusetts
MAX BAUCUS, Montana
CHARLES WILSON, Texas

KEITH F. MAXLAND, Clerk and Staff Director

(II)

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Mr. COUGHLIN. You mentioned another country I want to ask about in Latin America. Because of the strategic location of Panama, is the level of assistance adequate ?

Mr. KLEINE. Panama has been for some time Ne l in terms of per capita aid. It is a country whose absorptive capacity has been quite remarkable considering the size of the country. It is also a country which is quite remarkable in terms of the consistency of its development objectives with congressional mandate. It is focusing on the rural poor, and it is in that area that we are providing assistance to Panama, to help it improve living standards in rural areas.

Mr. COUGHLIN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I will reserve further questions.

[Mr. Eisenmann's and Dr. Robles' biographies follow:]

BIOGRAPHY OF RICHARD EISENMANN

Born a U.S. citizen, July 16, 1913, in Panama, to Gustave Eisenmann and Ethel Brandon-Maduro. Both families have, for more than 110 years been associated with the political, civic and economic development of the Isthmus and the new nation.

All his formative years were in the United States where he received his education in the public and private schools of the Gulf States and New York. He attended New York University and later taught Foreign Trade and Export Management at the City College of New York.

After establishing an export management firm in New York, he served during World War II at the U.S. Embassy in Peru as Board of Economic Warfare representative for quinine development and procurement.

Following a career in foreign trade, he returned to government service in 1960 with the Department of Commerce Bureau of International Commerce. He promoted, organized and directed trade and investment missions to 55 countries, with emphasis on Latin America.

Active in community, civic and professional organizations both in the U.S. and Panama, his many offices included : Commissioner of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, and Founding President of the Friends of the Panama National Museum. Amongst his honors are: the Medal for Superior Federal Service (U.S.) and the Order of Vasco Nuñez de Balboa (Panama).

After retiring in 1974, he devoted himself to fostering negotiation of a new Panama treaty. In 1975, with his wife, he helped in educational work which (a) ensured a continuation of treaty negotiations without Congressional interference; (b) organized a broad based business support for continuation of treaty negotiations.

In 1977 he registered as an unpaid Washington Representative of the Panamanian Committee for Human Rights.

BIOGRAPHY OF WINSTON ROBLES, LL. D., CORAL GABLES, FLA.
Born: 1940, Panama, Rep. of Panama.
Married to U.S. Citizen, 1 child.

Graduate studies : Doctor of Law and Political Science, Universidad Libre, Bogota, Colombia ; and Special studies in Criminal Law, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Academic career: 1965–67, Asst. Professor, School of Law, University of Panama ; 1967–76, Professor of Political Science, University of Panama ; 1969–76, Professor of Philosophy of Law, University of Panama; and 1975–76, Professor of Political Science, University of Santa Maria de la Antigua, Panama.

Professional practice: Firm: Robles & Robles; 1967–69, Director of Legal Dept.-National Bank of Panama; and 1968-69, Secretary, Board of Directors, National Bank of Panama.

Offices and honors : Founder and Vice President, National Center for Study of National Problems, Panama ; 1969–70, Vice President of National Bar Assoc. of Panama; Founder and Vice President of Independent Lawyers Movement ; Janu. ary 20, 1976: One of 14 civil leaders forcibly exiled by military dictatorship; and Founder and Director of Panamanian Committee for Human Rights.

Present occupation : Asst. Professor of Political Science, Florida International University.

STATEMENT OF RICHARD EISENMANN, PANAMANIAN COMMITTEE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, ACCOMPANIED BY DR. WINSTON ROBLES, PANAMANIAN COMMITTEE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, WASHINGTON, D.C.

Mr. EISENMANN. My name is Richard Eisenmann.
I thank you, Mr. Chairman, for this opportunity of being here.

I am assisted today by Winston Robles, a doctor of laws and formerly a professor of law at the University of Panama, for any technical matters that may come up regarding Panama law.

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