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Lioeanjie, Rene C., director, Central and South America, National
Lopez, Franklin Delano, chairperson, New Democratic Party of Puerto
Lowenthal, Abraham F., secretary, Latin American Program,
Miller, Prof. Donald E.; accompanied by Merle Crouse, Church of
Portell-Vila, Herminio, editor, Radio Free Americas, American
Roberts, Maj. Gen. J. Milnor, U.S. Army Reserve, executive director,
Rusk, Hon. Dean, former Secretary of State..
Schlafly, John Fred, chairman, Emergency Task Force on the Panama
Tambs, Prof. Lewis A., professor of history, Arizona State University,
Taylor, Gen. Maxwell D., (ret.) Former Chairman, Joint Chiefs of
Thompson, William P., president, National Council of Churches,
Williams, Capt. J. R., president, Panama Canal Pilots Association,
Zumwalt, Adm. Elmo R., Jr., USN (ret.) Former Chief of Naval
Insertions for the record:
Communist support in Panama for Canal treaties (Supplied by State
Article from the Christian Science Monitor by James Nelson Goodsell,
Biography of Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, USA (ret.).
"Canal Treaties: The Maturing of America," article by Arthur Collins,
Letter to Patricia T. Fulton, president, Pacific Civic Counsel, from
Biography of Donald Marquand Dozer...
Proposed Joint Resolution of Congress to incorporate the Canal Zone
Letter to Senator Howard Baker from Robert M. Bartell, dated
Political Facts about Franklin Delano Lopez, chairperson, New Demo-
Letter to Capt. J. R. Williams from John Sparkman, dated October 25,
"Canal Diplomacy and U.S. Interests", excerpt from U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, January 1977, Vol. 103/1/887, p. 43, by Page Capt. Paul B. Ryan USN (ret.).
Letter to Michael K. Deaver from Senator John Sparkman with enclosed testimony by Hon. Ronald Reagan.......
Letter to Senator John Sparkman from Rabbi Arthur Hertzberg,
Prepared statement of National Coalition of Cuban-Americans_
Letter to Senator John Sparkman from Richard C. Spaulding with
Letter to Senator John Sparkman from Frances E. Neely, Friends
Letter to Senator John Sparkman from Maj. Gen. Philip D. Shutler,
Committee questions submitted to the State Department for coordi-
Letter to Hon. John J. Sparkman from Talmage E. Simpkins, execu-
PANAMA CANAL TREATIES
MONDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1977
UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS,
The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:40 a.m., in room 318, Russell Senate Office Building, Hon. John Sparkman (chairman of the committee) presiding.
Present: Senators Sparkman, Church, Pell, Glenn, Sarbanes, Case, Percy, Griffin, and Baker.
The CHAIRMAN. Let the committee come to order, please.
According to our poll, we are going to have a very good attendance this morning. I see that 10 Senators will be here and 3 additional Senators may be able to come. I think we had better get started, however.
Senator Glenn, I was almost going to say that I thought we had an unbalanced line to the left, but I will not say that now that you are here. I am glad you could come this morning.
The Committee on Foreign Relations is meeting this morning to continue its consideration of the proposed Panama Canal treaties. Throughout this week, in fact, every day this week, we will take testimony from a variety of experts and public witnesses on these agreements.
To start the hearing process this morning we are pleased and honored to have with us three retired military officers who have served their country at the highest level. We will hear from them individually, beginning with former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Adm. Thomas H. Moorer, who, if I may interpolate, is my fellow Alabamian. Following Admiral Moorer's testimony we will ask the former Chief of Naval Operations, Adm. Elmo R. Zumwalt, to present his views to the committee.
Last, but by no means least, we have another former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staffs, Gen. Maxwell Taylor.
After hearing from our military experts the committee will take testimony from a panel of four American citizens who are residents of the Canal Zone. These individuals represent several civic groups in the Canal Zone. We look forward to hearing from them.
May we begin with Admiral Moorer. I will ask him if any of his colleagues who wrote to President Carter on June 8 objecting to the Panama Canal agreements are with him this morning. I want the
record to show that an invitation was extended to each one of them, either directly by the committee or through Admiral Moorer.
Admiral Moorer, we welcome you to the witness stand. We will be very glad to hear from you.
But first, I would ask our Senators if any of them has an opening statement or other remarks at this time.
Senator PERCY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
I would like to make just one brief comment.
COMMENT BY SENATOR PERCY
I have explained to Admiral Moorer that a few of us have other hearings which we must attend this morning. The suggestion was made over the weekend by Senator Church that the members of this committee go to Panama. I would hope we could go.
It has been many years since I was down there, and I was not there for the purpose we now have in mind. Certainly I think we are all agreed at this stage-Strom Thurmond expressed this, too, in his very eloquent testimony-that we cannot live with the 1903 treaty, that we cannot hold the Panamanians to that outdated instrument. We cannot live without disruption down there and assure security for the canal if we hold them to an agreement that in the light of today's circumstances is unrealistic and unfair.
I think there is some agreement among the members of this committee, also, that the ambiguities in our present treaties must be cleared up. We cannot possibly enter into a new covenant and risk a misunderstanding on both sides as to what we really mean by the language which we have signed. Everyone admits now that there are ambiguities that must be clarified.
I think Senator Church's suggestion is an excellent one, that members of this committee, who have the responsibility for making a recommendation to the Senate, should hear firsthand from the Panamanians, from the Panamanian Government, and those who negotiated the treaties. Once we finish our hearings here, we should see firsthand down there what the conditions are and talk to the people right on the scene.
I cannot speak for all of the minority, but I think it would be good to try to make ourselves available on a very high priority basis after the Congress adjourns.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Senator BAKER. Mr. Chairman, would you yield to me for a moment on that point?
The CHAIRMAN. Senator Baker.
COMMITTEE TRADITION OF NOT HEARING FOREIGN WITNESSES
Senator BAKER. I was much taken with Senator Church's suggestion, as you were, Senator Percy, indeed as I was with Senator Church's entire presentation on television yesterday. It was thoughtful and it was thorough, as I would expect from him.
Mr. Chairman, I was wondering if we were to accept the suggestion by Senator Church that hearings be held in the Canal Zone, would we