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HARBOR AND MARINE REVIEW
ridges surmounted by chains of locks, constructed with extraordinary skill and daring. At the present rate of work it should not be long before the entire plan becomes a reality, declares the Frenchman, which will mean that Germany will be in a position to test whether she can indeed become supreme overlord of the trade of Central Europe; whether she can sit, like a huge spider, at Hamburg, in the centre of a web stretching even into Russia, watching, as a spider watches the struggles of captured flies, the desperate attempts of Belgian, Dutch, French and British seaports to prevail against her.
These plans include the canalization of the River Main as far as Bamberg, the construction of a new canal from Bamberg to Kelheim on the Danube, and the canalization of the Danube between Kelheim and the Austrian frontier in the vicinity of Passau. This waterway is to be navigable by vessels up to 1,500 tons Its total length, from Mayence, at the junction of the Rhine and Main Rivers, to Passau, on the Danube, will be just short of 500 miles. There will be a total of sixty-one locks and thirty-three power plants, exclusive of some already existing. In connection with this tremendous undertaking, the waters of the Lech, an affluent of the Danube, are to be deflected into a canal emptying into the projected canal between the Main and Danube.
The total cost of this undertaking has been estimated at 550,000,000 gold marks (about $137,500,000). Work has already been started, especially on the Danube section, between Ratisbon and Passau. The canalization of the Main as far as Aschaffenburg was completed in 1921; the first string of barges went over the new channel in November of that year, amid immense enthusiasm on the part of the inhabitants of the river banks. German experts estimate that the annual traffic along the new waterway, when it is finally completed, will reach a total of 4,500,000 tons.
Corporation Governmentally Controlled
On December 30, 1921, a company was formed at Munich, with a capital of 900,000,000 marks, for financing the undertaking; this capital comprised 600,000,000 marks in ordinary shares and 300,000,000 in preferred stock. The German Government subscribed 45 percent. of the common stock and Bavaria 26 percent., the remainder being subscribed by cities or associations. A group of banks subscribed 250,000,000 of the preferred stock, the rest being taken up by various Municipal Goverments.
On January 30, 1922, the company floated a loan aggregating 300,000,000 marks, which was taken up with such avidity all over Germany that it was subscribed twice over within a few days. In March, 1922, the canal company doubled its original capitalization, and the German Government later granted it a subsidy of 120,000,000 marks as a first instalment of a much larger subsidy.
In his article M. Toudouze enumerates no less than eighteen parts of the undertaking-subdivisions of the three main sections already listed-on which actual work is now being done or is in contemplation. He goes into considerable detail on each, in order to show how far the scheme is from being a mere nebulous dream on paper. Wherever he can, he takes pains to show how much money is available for each part of the work. Here is a summary of what he has evolved from the mass of official French data:
additional, of which 160,000,000 are provided by the German Government and 40,000,000 by Wurttemberg, Baden and Hesse. The company, founded at Stuttgart on June 1, 1921, has already floated a loan of 350,000,000 marks at 4 percent.
2. The Neckar-Danube Canal is under construction. It will be forty miles long, stretching from Plochingen, on the Neckar, to Ulm, on the Danube. This is one of the most daring undertakings of all, from an engineering point of view, as the canal must be carried across a ridge some 2,000 feet high. Twenty locks will be needed. On one section there will be three locks on a stretch of fiveeighths of a mile of canal.
3. Work is being done on the canal between the Danube and the Lake of Constance, which is destined to connect the great German inland waterway system with Switzerland. It will be navigable by vessels up to 1,900 tons. Its length will be about sixty-five miles; it will have nine locks and nine plants for providing power. This canal will be very expensive, in view of the difficulties of construction; its total cost has been set at 91,000,000 gold marks (about $22,750,000), including the buildings and equipment of hydraulic plants.
Connecting Danube With Rhine
Plans have been made for an extremely important inland waterway to connect the Danube and the Rhine across Bavaria, and bring Bavaria and the entire territory of Southern Central Europe into direct communication with the great mining and industrial regions of Westphalia, in Northwestern Germany-where the Krupp factories and many of the most important German manufacturing plants are situated.
"Which shows," writes M. Toudouze, "that the German Government, Bavaria, Municipal Governments and private individuals are vying with each other in generosity toward the company which has undertaken to unite the Rhine with the Danube, thus making this undertaking a great national work. The enthusiastic favor shown it by the Germans is sufficient evidence of its value, material importance and practical purpose."
5. Plans are under discussion for canalization of the upper Danube, between Ulm and Kelheim. So far no plan has been definitely decided upon, but it is probable that a lateral canal over 100 miles in length will be built, following the course of the Danube, and passing alternately from one bank to the other. It is to be of a size capable of accommodating vessels of a tonnage up to 1.200-later on, possibly, up to 1,500. It will have fourteen locks. Should this plan be carried out, it will entail an expenditure of 215,200,000 gold marks (nearly $54,000,000).
1. The River Neckar is being canalized between Mannheim and Plochingen. When this work is completed, the river will be navigable for vessels of 1,200 tons. A company has been formed with a capital of 300,000,000 paper marks, backed by 200,000,000 marks
All Middle Europe Linked Up This project comprises, in addition, the construction of a special canal between Munich and Augsburg.
6. A special bureau has been established by the German Government at Elsenach for the purpose of drawing up plans for a canal between the Weser and Main Rivers. Two rival projects are under discussion: the building of a canal through the Werra Valley, connecting Hanover and Minden, in the Weser region, with Bamberg-on-theMain, and a canal through the Fulda Valley, toward Frankfort-on-the-Main. These plans, says M. Toudouze, arouse passionate interest in Germany and are being pushed forward "with a sort of nationalistic fever."
The projected Weser-Main Canal will be about 170 miles in length. It will require more than fifty locks. Actual work has already been begun, a huge reservoir having been completed in 1918. The total cost is estimated at 220,000,000 gold marks (about $54,000,000).
HARBOR AND MARINE REVIEW
Direct communication between the Rhine, Weser and Elbe is to be provided by a waterway navigable for vessels of 1,000 tons, two sections of which were opened to traffic just before the war and two more while the war was in full swing. In addition, work is being pushed forward on the section between Hanover and Magdeburg, and on other sections of the main waterway and its branches. The total cost is estimated by German engineers at 343,000,000 gold marks (about $86,000,000). Already the German Government has contributed large sums for defraying the expenses of construction.
8. Work has been begun on a canal, about fifty-five miles long, destined to link the great industrial region of the Rhine lands and Westphalia with the ports of Bremen and Hamburg, and thus strike a serious blow at the importance of the Dutch port of Rotterdam as an outlet for German commerce. The Government of Oldenburg, through whose territory this canal is to pass, has undertaken the first steps toward building it, backed by considerable subsidies from the German Government.
14. Special interest has been aroused among Germans by the Masurian Lakes Canal. When the war broke it was already three-fourths completed; since the armistice work has been pushed forward actively on it. From 1920 onward Prussia has spent 27,000,000 paper marks on this waterway and the German Government has voted a like sum and set aside 50,000,000 paper marks in the 1922 budget for continuing the construction work.
Westphalia to be Exploited
15. A company has already begun the canalization of the River Ruhr between Mulheim and Hagen, in the extremely important Westphalian mining and industrial region. The stream is to be canalized for a distance of some forty miles. Twelve locks will be built, big enough to admit vessels of 1,700 tons. In spite of the costliness of this undertaking, there is a probability that it will soon be pushed to completion, because of the active interest shown in it by the great industrial interests of the region. 16. As soon as the war closed, work was resumed on the canalization of the River Lippe, which is to be pro
vided with a lateral canal big enough to admit vessels up to 1,700 tons. Already the construction work on the section between Datteln and Hamm is far advanced. The total cost is estimated at 577,000,000 paper marks. Large sums have been set aside for this work in the German Government's budget.
17. The company engaged in canalizing the Ruhr is also at work on several canals of lesser importance, destined to connect the Ruhr region with other parts of Germany. When completed, they will be of great value industrially.
18. Plans have been made for canalizing the River Lahn and linking it with the Weser-Main Canal by means of an artificial waterway similar to the Mittelland Canal, already in existence.
Summing up the significance of this colossal German canalization project, M. Toudouze writes:
"We are, in fact, confronted not with some ordinary program of public works, like what is conceived under normal circumstances by sovereign nations, but with a complete and far-reaching transformation of the entire equipment of Germany throughout her territory, which will link her with Switzerland, Austria and Russia. Never before was such a project contemplated in Europe; it constitutes a complete rearrangement of the map, a daring violation of all orographic and hydrographic laws.
"Should Germany bring her plans to realization, she will possess the most prodigious network of navigable waterways in the world, combined with an entire system of plants capable of providing an enormous amount of power to German industry. This network will form a maze of canals and canalized rivers, with multiple groups of subsidiary waterways, covering all Germany without a gap from east to west and north to south. All these waterways will be navigable for vessels of an average tonnage of 1,000, which is three times the tonnage of the barges commonly in use on French inland waterways. This means that the capacity of the German navigable waterways will be triple that of the French.
"Economic isolation of France and Belgium; maritime isolation of Great Britain; deflection of the stream of commerce from America to the New York-OrkneysNorth Sea-Hamburg route; enslavement of Switzerland, Russia, Poland, Czecho-slovakia, Austria and the Balkans; creation of a Germany capable of controlling Central and Eastern Europe, to the exclusion of all other powers-these are the goals envisaged without concealment by Germany in the gigantic work which she has undertaken, to which she is devoting billions, upon which she is concentrating her technical efforts.”
Quicker Milk Distribution Coming
Milk producing and distributing agents of the States of New York and New Jersey were represented at the annual dinner of the New York Milk Conference Board, held in the Hotel Pennsylvania, New York City. The guest of honor was Senator Royal S. Copeland. Benefits accruing to the milk interests by the effectuation of the plan for better terminal facilities were described by Eric H. Palmer, Director of the Bureau of Information, Port of New York Authority. Milk in standard refrigerated cars will be brought through the proposed automatic electric system for serving Manhattan, saving several hours in distribution.
HARBOR AND MARINE REVIEW
Chairman Lasker's Plans
Chairman Lasker, of the United States Shipping Board, is back in Washington, and is preparing alternative plans for President Harding to consider applicable to the future disposition of Government-owned merchant ships. It is stated that one plan will propose a continuance of Government operation of ships. The other will outline a comprehensive method of disposing of the fleet to private owners. Both plans will be completed for the President's consideration, it is said, early in the present month.
Chairman Lasker spent several weeks with President Harding in Florida during the course of which the future of our American merchant marine was discussed from many angles. It is well known that President Harding is strongly in favor of turning the Government-owned fleet over to operation by private interests, taking the view that shipping concerns are better equipped to handle the business economically because of the many restrictions imposed upon the Government by law, particularly the requirement that the Shipping Board is not permitted to make any contracts over a year's duration. The time consumed and expense in connection with the Government advertising also was discussed.
It is stated that it has been told to the President that privately-owned shipping interests are able to cut harbor towing charges to about 20 per cent. of what it costs the Government.
On the other hand there is a strong sentiment among members of the Shipping Board and the Emergency Fleet Corporation that the Government can operate ships in a manner to astonish the country, the statement having been so persistantly circulated, iterated and reiterated, that the Government cannot operate the ships as efficiently as private interests do, nor as economically, either. Enthusiasts who desire to see the Government undertake the operation of ships say that the board has things so thoroughly systematized and regulated, now, that it can operate ships even more cheaply than private interests can, and these people want an opportunity to demonstrate what they can do. It is believed that, in the end, this plan will prevail, until Congress enacts a protective shipping
New York has not lost a vast proportion of the nation's foreign commerce because of the natural growth of the country-not at all. It has lost it because it has neglected it-it can regain it when it cultivates it
New Port Commissioner
Julian A. Gregory, of East Orange, New Jersey, was appointed a member of the Port of New York Authority, upon the nomination made by Governor Silzer on March 22, and confirmed by the Senate on the succeeding day. He will supersede J. Spencer Smith, of Tenafly, New Jersey.
Consulting Engineer For San Diego, Cal. Charles W. Staniford, former Chief Engineer of the Dock Department of the City of New York, now a consulting engineer, has just been appointed consulting engineer for the city of San Diego, California, for the purposc of planning for the future development of that port. On March 30 Mr. Staniford started for San Diego, but his return date is unknown. He is also consulting engineer for the city of Wilmington, Delaware, and is one of the foremost experts in the United States on port planning and development.
Loading Grain at Staten Island Piers Several steamers engaged in the loading out of grain off-shore, have been in evidence recently at the Union Transport piers, 15 and 16, Stapleton, Staten Island. Slips 360 feet in width and piers 1,100 feet in length, have proven quite a distinct advantage in the efficient and uninterrupted handling of floating grain elevators and grain barges. With 6 boats abreast outside of steamer, and the absence of drift ice, graining at these piers spells speed and economy-much sought for by steamship men in the Port of New York.
When Brooklyn and North River slips were congested with ice and seriously delayed the docking and departure of steamers, as well as the ingress and egress of barges and lighters, the Staten Island slips were entirely free of ice, which favorable condition obtains throughout the winter season. This is just another factor responsible for increased activity and more extensive use at and of the Union Transport Terminal piers. When to this is added the company's complete all-port service, the situation proves ideal.
New York Canal Bill (Continued from Page 26)
if any, as may be determined by the Classification Committee of the American Bureau of Shipping, or such other competent persons who may be designated by the Canal Board to appraise such vessels for the purpose of their sale by the State. The money received from the sale of any vessels constructed under the provisions of this Act shall be immediately returned to the General Fund of the State.
SECTION 13-The Commission created under this Act shall have power to call upon the State Engineer and Surveyor, and the Superintendent of Public Works for such assistance and clerks in the employ of either of such departments, who shall be detailed for such temporary service under the Commission herein created as may be necessary to enable the Commission to carry out the purposes for which it is created. The Commission may also employ the services and expert advice and assistance of such marine engineers, naval architects and others as they may deem to be necessary to perfect plans and specifications, and inspect construction, and may pay for such services such compensation as the Governor shall approve, within the appropriation made in this Act.
SECTION 14-The Commission shall report to the Governor from time to time or whenever he may require, and shall submit a final report to the Governor and the Legislature of all their operations at the end of the term for which they are appointed.
SECTION 15-The sum of eight hundred thousand dollars ($800,000), or so much thereof as may be needed, is hereby appropriated for the purposes of this act. Such moneys shall be paid out by the State Treasurer on the warrant of the Comptroller on the requisition of the Chairman of the Commission. SECTION 16-This Act shall take effect immediately.
What Is to Be Done With Shipping
(Continued from Page 6) that the conferences would run on interminably and that no work would be concluded.
Despite the gloomy predictions made by the shipping groups, there is no intention of quitting, Mr. Lissner said. "You can rest assured that plan will be framed," he said. "I am open minded on some features of the plan." It is hoped to have the plan ready early in the present month so that it can be taken to the full board.
Best location in port.
Deep water. Completely icefree. Easy access under all weather conditions. Ask for our flat rate per ton for complete handling of your steamers, and for our despatch schedule.
Better facilities Better despatch-Less cost.
UNION TRANSPORT COMPANY, Inc.
"A NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL REAL ESTATE SERVICE TO MANUFACTURERS" WATERFRONT PROPERTIES AND FACTORIES-NEW YORK AND NEWARK HARBORS
18 E. 41st St., New York CROSS & BROWN COMPANY Essex Bldg., Newark, N. J.
Murray Hill 7100