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equal to two thirds of the radii B and B', be

Mathematical Questions. drawn to touch externally the circles B and B'. Then will the circumference of circle A be tan- 1. Two men, A and B, travelled the same road, gent to those of circles C, B, and B'.

and at the same rate, from New York to Boston. In proving this it is necessary simply to show When A had travelled to within 50 miles of BosA G to be equal to A E and A F.

ton he overtook C, travelling at the rate of 3 It is evident that A B C is a right-angled tri- miles in 2 hours, and in two hours met D, trarangle. By construction B C is equal to five elling at the rate of 2} miles per hour. B overthirds of radius B; and as A B is three thirds, took C 45 miles from Boston, and met D 2 hours then, in accordance with a well known property before he came within 31 miles of Boston, of right-angled triangles, AC must be four Where was B when A reached Boston ? thirds. CG is two thirds, thus making AG 2. What two numbers are those whose proequal to six thirds, to which A F, and A E are duct is equal to their difference and the quotient also equal. From this it follows that circles C

from the division of the greater by the less is nd C', answer the conditions named in the prob- equal to the square of the greater? lem.

These circles, having each a radius of one third radius A, have together an area of two

THE School Committee of Boston have reninths circle A. This, added to the former one

cently forbidden the assignment of lessons for half, gives us thirteen eighteenths, the space oc

study, out of school, in the grammar school for cupied by circles B, B', C and C'.

girls. This action was taken at the instance of Next, draw the circles D, D, D", D'", each the city physician, who, after giving his atten. with a radius one sixth of radius A. That they to

tion to the subject, had become convinced of will not intersect the previously drawn circles is

lv drawn circles is alarming consequences resulting from such studevident from the case of D. Completing the

ies - cases of broken constitutions, feebleness, rectangle A B C D C D is equal to A B. The insanity and death. radius C forms two thirds of this line. Hence radius D is one third, which is equal to one sixth Messrs. LONGMAN have signified their intenof radius A. In the same manner, B D is equal tion of inserting the word “telegram” in all to A C or four thirds of radius B. Take from the dictionaries published by them. It will, this radius B, radius D remains, equal to one therefore, appear in the new edition of Johnthird, or one sixth of radius A. The circles, son's Dictionary, upon which Dr. Latham is now therefore, do not intersect.

engaged. As each of these four circles has a radius of one sixth radius A, their areas must together! MR. WILLIAM S. Kent, who has been for a equal four thirty sixths ; which, being added to long time an efficient teacher at Phenix, has rethe former thirteen eighteenths, gives an aggre-cently taken charge of the Grammar School at gate area of five sixths of circle A. The unoc-River Point. We wish him abundant success. cupied space must, therefore, be equal to one sixth.

From the discussion of the above, several in- THE SECOND VOLUME of the Nero American ferences may be drawn, to the consideration of Cyclopædia is now ready, and offered to subscrib. which, the reader is, in conclusion, most respect- ers by D. Kimball & Co., Market Square. fully invited.

HESIL. Providence High School, April 21, 1858.

We shall notice Eaton's Arithmetic in our

next. See the advertisement of the publishers, I Please send in your subscriptions. Messrs. Brown, Taggard & Chase.

OUR BOOK TABLE. practical rules, to govern him in the work. It

embraces the principles of Punctuation, Syntax, LIFE THOUGHTS, gathered from the extempo- and Prosody. raneous discourses of Henry Ward Beecher,

Its exercises for Reading, Reproducing and by one of his congregation. Phillips, Samp

Comparing with the original, are admirable. We son & Co., Boston. 1858.

commend the book to the favorable attention of There is no necessity for our saying a word for

those in want of a work for the school-room on this book. But we must speak. It is full of Live

English composition. Thoughts. Here are recorded and preserved the richest and choicest of the thoughts and sayings of this great man, and eloquent preacher. Very | A THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ARITHMETIC ; few writers or speakers are so felicitous in illus

Designed for Common Schools and Academies.

Revised Edition. By Daniel Leach and Wiltration as Henry Ward Beecher. The writer of

liam D. Swan. Hickling, Swan & Brewer, this volume remarks, in the preface, that “it is

Boston. not given to the world as the full-boughed tree;

Arithmetic is one of those subjects, with rebut only as some of the leaves which have fallen gard to which there is a great diversity in teachfrom it through two successive seasons.” We

ing, and on which there is such a variety and think that it is rather the full, ripe, golden grain number of text-books that many find it difficult of two successive seasons, plucked from the dry

to decide which is the best. The work before us stalks, separated from the chaff, and served up claims to be “eminently both a practical and as nutritive, wholsome, palatable bread. a theoretical treatise on the science of numbers." Price, $1.00. For sale by Gladding & Brother.

| The authors say "they have bestowed great la

bor on the rules and definitions, in order to make A NEW SYSTEM OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-Pro-them concise, lucid and accurate."

gressively arranged, concisely embodying the The book is not cumbered with unnecessary Principles of Analysis and Synthesis. By W.

and extraneous matter, and is therefore not so S. Barton, A. M. Gould and Lincoln, Boston.

| large and high-priced as some other text-books Here is another Grammar added to the already

on this science infinite number of text-books on this subject.

| The contractions in the Appendix are, many of But, unlike many, it has some good things in it;/

them, original, ingenious and useful. There is some things worth learning. It is evidently the

a simplicity and conciseness about many of the result of study and practice. In many things, it follows with remarkable closeness Greene's

rules which we like. It is the text-book in the

Public Schools of Providence. system. For example, see. Pronouns, Conjunctions, and especially Syntax.

Teachers will do well to procure a copy, as we THE TEACHER AND THE PARENT; A Treatise feel assured they will find it useful.

upon Common School Education; containing practical suggestions to Teachers and Parents.

By Charles Northend, A. M. Eighth Edition, PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN ENgLish COMPOSI- Enlarged. A. S. Barnes & Co., New York.

TION: or the Young Composer's Guide. By! This is a book that EVERY TEACHER and EVEW. S. Barton, A. M. Gould & Lincoln, Bos- RY PARENT should own. It is one of the fero ton.

standard educational works that are really pracThis seems to us, on a hasty examination, to tical. It ranks side by side with the world-rebe a well-arranged and very useful work. It nowned “ Page's Theory and Practice of Teachgives abundant practice in the difficult art ofling," composition, calling attention to the most com- On the receipt of $1.25, the publishers wlll mon and natural mistakes, and placing be- forward a copy, frce of postage. Teachers, send fore the pupil's eye, what appear to us, simple,' for it.

THE ATLANTIC Monthly for May completes SMITH'S ILLUSTRATED ASTRONOMY, designed for volume 1. It contains the following articles:

the use of the Public Schools in the United

States. Illustrated with numerous original “American Antiquity; Roger Pierce ; Amours

Diagrams. By Asa Smuth. Sanborn, Carter, de Voyage; Intellectual Character ; Loo Loo ;

Bazin & Co., Boston. Charley's Death ; The Catacombs of Rome;. The

We are personally acquainted with this book Pure Pearl of Diver's Bay; Camile; The Hunel in the school-room. It is the best elementary dred Days; Epigram on J. M.; Beethoven, his

work on Astronomy that we have ever seen. It Childhood and Youth; A Word to the Wise; consists of a quarto book of 79 pages, with numHenry Ward Beecher ; Mercedes; The Autocrat

erous illustrations, which seem to us admirably of the Breakfast-Table.”

adapted to assist the scholar to understand the The literary character of this work is undoubt

Ibt. movements and relations of the earth and the edly of a higher order than that of any other heavenly bodies, and to apprehend the laws of Monthly Magazine in America. Those who wish | Astronomical Science. to improve themselves in English literature should, by all means, read the ATLANTIC MONTH

SARGENTS SCHOOL MONTÉLY. — This is just LY monthly.

one of the nicest magazines for children and

youth that comes to our table. The schoolPETERSON'S MAGAZINE for May comes to us

children and the home-children to whom it with its usual full supply of stories, poetry, fash- makes its monthly visits, will all thank Mr. Sar. ions, and an original steel engraving. It is one

gent for so instructive and entertaining a book. of the cheapest magazines in the country.

The April number is excellent.


| Arthur's HOME MAGAZINE.-We welcome CUTION, on the basis of Dr. Rush's Philosophy of the Human Voice. To which is added a

the monthly visits of this excellent magazine. copious selection of exercises for Reading and Its contributions are of a superior order, and its Declamation. By Sam'l R. Gummere. Uriah | visits cannot fail to be pleasing wherever it goes. Hunt & Son. Philadelphia.

The May number has some choice articles. The work of Dr. Rush, which forms the basis of this book, is known as one of the best extant

AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES AND RECOLLECon Elocution. Mr. Gummere is an experienced

TIONS, during a thirty-five years' residence teacher of celebrity in New Jersey and Pennsyl.

in New Orleans. By Rev. Theodore Clapp. vania, and has devoted himself with great zeal Phillips, Sampson & Co., Boston. and labor to the preparation of a work on Elo- The author of this book is an aged Universalcution, which should at least receive his own ap- ist clergyman, who in his old age has given to the probation. He is independent in his views, world the story of his life. He portrays with many of which will strike the common scholar vigor and pleasing earnestness the scenes of his as, at least, quaint, especially his system of pro- early life in New England, his college course at nunciation, with regard to which, he frankly Yale, and Theological study, at Andover, his says many will “find him a skeptic, beyond all call and settlement at New Orleans, his change hope of redemption.”

of doctrinal views, and subsequent ministerial

| and philanthropic labors. The book is written GODEY'S LADIES Book for May is excellent. with talent and scholarly ability, but appears to We regard this magazine as standing at the head

as standing at the head us false and sometimes unfair in its reasonings. of this department of family reading. The May number is embellished with a very fine steel en- ! We are indebted to Hon. James F. Simmons, graving. It is an exquisite picture, alone worth U.S. S., for the fifth volume of the Report of the the price of the book.

Pacific R. R. Exploring Expedition.

The R. J. Schoolmaster.


JUNE, 1858.

NO. 4.

For the Schoolmaster.

erted, and to adduce a few illustrations for The Reciprocal Influence of Language and

proof and amplification. Character.

But before we proceed to our subject, it will BY THE EDITO'R.

be well for us, that we may have a correct

perception of the ground upon which we AMONG the noble powers given to man by tread, to define our terms. “ Language,” his Creator, and which we must suppose he says Webster, “consists in the oral utterance shares in common with angelic beings, is that of sounds, which usage has made the reprefaculty by which he communicates his thoughts, sentatives of ideas. This is the primary sense feelings, desires, to another.

of language. Articulate sounds are repreAmong the renowned and valuable inven- sented by letters, marks, or characters, which tions of man, is especially prominent that of form words. Hence, language consists also clearly and understandingly representing to in words duly arranged in sentences, written, the eye, the burning thought as it is conceiv- printed, or engraved, and exhibited to the ed in the soul, or the priceless result of calm eye." Custom is defined to be “an habitual and laborious study and reflection.

practice, an established manner, a repetition That speech has an untold power upon the as an untold power upon the of the same act."

the mind, is so much an axiom that it need not Now the act pre-supposes the idea which be questioned here. That the orator and the called it into existence; and as words are the writer exert a powerful influence upon the representatives of ideas, it is evident that the character of such as come within their magic idea must have had existence previous to the circle, is equally clear, and need not be dis-word; and since we may naturally conclude cussed or disputed. It will be our aim in the that the first forms of language were names present article to render it evident to all, that of things and actions, it follows that lancharacter, on the other hand, has an equally guage must have been preceded by things and powerful influence upon language ; so that actions, for a name would never be given to one would hazard little in saying that the lat- a thing without existence. ter may be an accurate index to the former. Therefore, since custom is the “ repetition We shall endeavor to point out some of the of an act,” we conclude that custom precedes ways in which this reciprocal influence is ex- language. “Shadows,” says one, “ follow substances, so words result from things. tion this word entirely disappeared, except as There will, therefore, be a correspondence be- it was applied by sorcerers in their superstitween the customs of a people and their lan- tious incantations, as the cognomen of a fabu guage, and as the one changes, so changes ulous ghost. the other.

The Chinese have maintained but a limited It would be easy to show from history that

commerce and a restricted intercourse with those nations which are sunk the lowest in

other nations, while they have preserved a' ignorance and degradation, have a greater

rigid adherence to the customs of their fathers, number of words to designate the various

and a strong aversion to every species of in- . species of vice, and a less number relating to

" novation upon established usage. Confining the development of the higher faculties of our

themselves within their huge walls, and per. . nature.

mitting no foreigner to intrude upon their do It is said that a Brazilian tribe has no word mains, they have presented the anomoly of a to express the idea of “thanks ;” and we people retaining the same unchanged customs : do not wonder at all, when we are also told and language for thousands of years. While ! that although “inveterate askers," upon re-l in other parts of the world nations have fallen i ceiving a gift, it is their custom merely to re- and others risen to the first rank of power, this! mark, “I am glad of this,” or “this will be people remaining in statu quo, and plodding 1 useful to me.”

on in the same path in which their fathers ! The language of Van Dieman's Land has were accustomed to tread-has stood apart. : four words to designate the taking of life, as if forming no portion of the human family. not one of which conveys any reprehension, If, then, there exists this correspondence or points out the difference between oto kill" between a people's character and language, and “to murder,” and although abounding and if the one be an index to the other, then in words denoting “hate,” even of the deep- national peculiarities and distinctions must be est dye, yet they have not one word to convey found to correspond to certain characteristics the idea of love !"

| in their language, and we should be able to History shows, also, that as a nation has prove from history our position that as the improved in the arts and sciences, in general character of the people changes, so changes civillization and happiness, so has its language the language. Let us now examine a single been refined and purified. As one vice after peculiarity of several nations, and the corresanother becomes extinct, the very name by ponding indices of their languages. which it was known eventually is lost. As The three prominent modern lauguages are the practice of a virtue becomes established, the French, the German, and the English. the name of that virtue, its attributes, and These three languages contain nearly all the numerous words more or less nearly related modern literature of the world, and the nato it, become established and received into tions speaking them are the leading and the general use. So also is the contrary true, most powerful nations. We also find, in that as a nation degenerates in character, the proof of the position we have assumed, that language deteriorates in like proportion. the prominent characteristics of these three

A missionary tells us of a Caffre tribe in languages point to the distinctive peculiariAfrica, having at one time a word designating ties of the several nations. the Supreme Being, and in a single genera- | The leading features of the German mind

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