Imágenes de páginas


Revised and Edited, with Additions, by David every other Saturday, by Mason Brothers, NewA. Wells. Gould & Lincoln, Boston.

York, and presents a rich amount and variety This is an excellent work of 500 pages, set

of musical matter. Dr. Lowell Mason, Wm. B. ting forth “in a concise and familiar manner

Bradbury, George F. Root, and others of the the nature and variety of the various productive

most eminent musicians of the country are forces in modern society, together with the re

| among its regular contributors, each number sults which have been attained to by the union of

containing more or less from the pen of one or labor, capital and skill.”

| all of them. A very useful and instructive feaIt is a valuable repository of facts, fully es

ture of The Review is its Answers to Correspontablishing the title of the book as a truism. Ev

| dents. All questions on musical subjects, as to ery teacher should have a copy, from which

its theory or practice, are carefully answered, to give general information to his school.

often at length. The Review also collects mus.

|ical news from all sources, and keeps its readers THE Poor BOY AND MERCHANT PRINCE: or well posted up as to what is doing in the musical Elements of Success drawn from the life and

world. Each number also includes several pages character of the late Amos Lawrence. By Rev. William M. Thayer. Gould & Lincoln,

of new and popular music. $1.00 a year. Boston.

A capital little book of 350 pages, showing We hereby tender our thanks to the several how a Poor Boy may become a Merchant Prince; State Superintendents who have favored us with how he may attain success in any pursuit of life. the following reports : Report of SuperintendMr. Lawrence was a model man. His life and ent of Public Instruction of Iowa ; of State character deserve to be studied by the young. Commissioner of Common Schools of Ohio; of That life and character are admirably portrayed Superintendent of Common Schools of Pennsylin this little book.

vania, with Common School Laws; of Board of

Education of Massachusetts, and Annual Report PLEASANT PAGES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE; or Book of the Secretary of the Board. of Home Education and Entertainment. By

By We shall refer to them, and quote from them S. Prout Macomber. Gould & Lincoln, Bos

from time to time. ton. A capital book for the family, or the school;

THE LADIES' REPOSITORY is one of the best giving daily lessons on Morals, Natural History,

Religious Monthlies for the family. The April History, Object Lessons, Travels, Physical Ge

number is full of choice matter. We wish our ography, and Drawing; with Hymns, Poetry and

families patronized such journals more, and the Music. The Drawing Lessons are worth the

lighter trash less. price of the book.

THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY, for April, is the best THE Box of PriNCIPLE, THE MAN OF HONOR. number yet. The “Autocrat” grows better and Or the Story of Jack Halyard. By William

better. It is full of good things. The poetry of S. Cardell. Uriah Hunt & Son, Philadelphia.

this number is of a very high order. The politA very pretty story for boys, inculcating the

Tical article is able, bold and manly. principles of morality and virtue. The young people will find it entertaining and instructive. We are indebted to W.C. Damrell, M. C. for Teachers who have school libraries, would do Patent Office Reports, and other Public Docuwell to add this book.


We have missed our HARPER for March and NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, April, 1858. Cros. April. We regret this.

I by, Nichols & Co. Just received.

The R. V. Schoolmaster.


MA Y, 1858.

NO. 3.

For the Schoolmaster.

it an intrinsic or an associated value. The Studies in English Etymology.---No. 2. Inew, well-cut, and polished jewel will attract

any eye, but the familiar, and hitherto unnoIn a former number of The SCHOOLMASTER,

ticed stone, when its real worth is once dis(January, 1858,) we gave some results of ety

covered, will more gladden and better repay mological study, in an examination of a few

him who has the skill to discover it, and the lines from Shakspeare's "Julius Cæsar.” We

wisdom to improve it. An unusual, newly propose to give, in this paper, some further

imported or invented word cannot fail to be illustrations of the same sort, in an etymolog-cilin

010% striking; but the old, and oft-recurring words ical criticism of two of the opening stanzas

of our every day speech may be shown to have of Gray's “Elegy."

equal, if not greater, impressiveness. "The curfew tolls the knell of parting day, The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea,

In our former paper we had occasion to noThe ploughman homeward plods his weary way, 1

tice many of the words of most frequent ocAnd leaves the world to darkness and to me.

currence in our language,-the articles, the

pronouns, and prepositions; the etymology of Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight, And all the air a solemn stillness holds,

such as have been already traced to their Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight,

source we shall not again refer to. And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds.” “Curfew” is one of the words which em.

There is an advantage in selecting for study body facts in national history. Our Angloa passage so familiar as this. We need to be Saxon ancestors had originally no such term reminded that in well-known words there lies in their vocabulary, even as they had in their concealed an unsuspected wealth of meaning. social and domestic economy no such custom The common pebble by the way-side which as it designated. Saxon lord and Saxon we carelessly pass in our daily walks may en-churl in the days of their independence piled close, or may itself be, an unwrought gem: high the logs in the blazing chimney, and it may, during its unrecorded history, have trimmed their lights at as late an evening hour been washed down from a distant mine, side as they chose. But Norman rule brought by side with the golden sands of some prec- with it from the continent a wise precaution ious river; and it may have still clinging to it against fires, and required alike of baron and or united with it, something which shall give of vassal that at the ringing of a bell at eight

o'clock in the evening both fires and lights be knoll,” • knowls in the ear of the world," put out. Wise as the precaution was, it was (Beaum. and Fletch.) have the broader meanan innovation upon Saxon habits, and being ing. But as a language so long as it lives is enforced by the Conqueror's power it was re- ever striving after greater precision by distingarded as an oppressive burden. The very guishing differences of ideas by correspondname of “curfew," "couvre feu," "cover ing differences of expression, it was natural fire,” was offensive. We all remember the that our later English should use this word out-burst of passion which its unwitting men- to designate the “passing bell," the bell tion called forth from Cedric in “ Ivanhoe.” which at first announced a death, and afterThe hated law was repealed by a successor of wards was sounded at funerals. It was once William, Henry I. ; but the name of the bell the custom for the passing bell" to strike, had already become part of the English after a pause just before stopping, a number tongue ; and for hundreds of years in many of strokes corresponding to the age of the perof the villages of England, the “curfew," son deceased. In many places the "curfew" though no longer an unwelcome sound, has sounded, in like manner, the number of the been rung at the close of every day. The day of the month. It might then be most nine o'clock bell which still sounds from the fitly called “the knell of parting day." steeples of so many of our New England Parting" comes to us through the French towns and villages is one of the customs which partir ” from the Latin “partiri,” and that our Puritan ancestors brought with them from from pars," "a part." It may be well for their father-land. The hour for the "curfew," us to remember that the “day” which dies after it ceased to be required by law, varied at night, is but the matured dawn,"—both in different places, and with the seasons of the being derived from a Saxon verb meaning to year. Indeed there is a passage in Shakspeare begin to shine." which implies that industry or revelry turning! The instinct which prompts children to im. night into day caused it to be rung as late as itate natural sounds prompts nations in their the early hours of the morning. Thus lady childhood to coin words of an imitative char. Capulet says to Juliet's nurse,

acter. Hence the Saxon, like most other "The second cock hath crowed,

tongues, has a class of terms at once describThe curfew bell hath rung, 't is three o'clock.” ing and reproducing the cries of animals. The antiquated diction of one of Bishop Hall's

To this class belongs the original of to low," satires gives us the term with its original spel

found in the passage before us in its particiling, most clearly showing its derivation :

pial form. A "herd” is something kept or

guarded. The primitive form is “heorde," “A new rope to ring the couvre feu bell.”

from the verb “hyrdan,” “ to keep." Among The bell which is tolled is lifted. A Saxon a pastoral people, cattle would naturally be verb, “tilian, ” “ to lift up,” unquestionably the kind of possession most highly prized and a relative of the Latin “ tollo," "I raise,” | most carefully kept. It is not strange, thereprobably survives in our verb, "toll.” Therefore, that they should have applied the name is room, however, for the supposition that this of the guarded possession exclusively to this word is onomatopoetic. “ Knell” was not sort of property. When, however, the cattle originally limited to the funeral bell. Its are exchanged for some marketable commodiSaxon root "cnyllan ” meant merely to sound ty, and especially for money, the “herd " bea bell. Old English forms of the word, e.g.,'comes a " hoard"; the two derivatives har. ing this in common that the things they de- Saxon origin, is related to the verb “ werian,” signate are jealously kept. It is to be noticed" to wear.” That which is “ weary" is worn, that in accordance with the usual economy of and that which is “worn" is not only used, language, “herd” pays a double debt; it but according to a secondary meaning of the may designate either the keeper or the charge. word, has been injured by wear. We must " Hurdles," i. e. osier fences, aid the "herd” not fail to observe the two-fold alliteration in in keeping his “herd.” “Winds," a word this line, in "ploughman" and "plods," "weawisely chosen for its speciality, denotes the ry" and "way.” English poetry lawfully indevious motion which our Saxon ancestors herits this ornament from its Anglo-Saxdesignated by the verb “ wendan.” “ Slow- on parent; and in its earliest forms lavishly ly," with its final syllable perpetuating the employs it. When moderately and skilfully Anglo-Saxon adverbial ending “lice,” bears used, as in the present instance, it adds a real unmistakable marks of its parentage. In some beauty to the expresssion. of the older writers “ lea" will be found in the last line of this stanza, “world" spelled " lay.” This spelling points distinct

may be traced to the Anglo-Saxon verb ly to the derivation of the word. A “ lea” |

" waerlan,” “to go round”; not that the is a meadow, a piece of land which lies un

Angles had a true view of the solar system, cultivated. Thus Beaumont and Fletcher say,

and knew of the two-fold revolution of the “Let wife and land,

earth, but that they recognised the return of Lie lay till I return."

the season, the succession of the years, the By an obvious metaphor the unfruitful sea is, whirling of the spheres, and borrowed thence by Spenser called “the watery lea.”

a name for the planet with which they were “Ploughman" illustrates one of the most

moet personally connected, and with whose welfare frequent forms of composition in our tongue

they associated these natural changes. The and in that of our ancestors. “ Plough,” the

rhetorical figure is not unlike that used by the first of its constituents, is connected with an

apostle James where he speaks of “the course Anglo-Saxon verb, “pleggan," which de

de of nature," literally, the “wheel of nature.” scribes the act by which the implement it de

“ Fades,” of the second stanza, comes from signates is to be used. Tooke says it means

the French "fade," " impotent," "spiritless;" "to lean upon,” “to press.” The ruder

though both the meaning and the occasional forms of plough in use among barbarous na

old spelling of the word “ vade" suggest a tions fully justify this etymological associa

relationship with the Latin “ vado," “ I go." tion. Thus the crew of the “ Beagle " saw in

“Glimmering" is the present participle of a the island of Chiloe men ploughing who

diminutive of the verb " gleam,” the English thrust the pointed ends of long poles into the

form of the Anglo-Saxon “hlioman,” “ to ground by leaning against their other and

lighten.” “Landscape" is the land's shape,— . broader ends, and then turned up the soil by

the termination, in the Saxon, “scipe,” being pressing down the broad end like the arm of expressive of form.

arm of expressive of form. Two early modes of a lever. « Plods.” in the same line with spelling it more clearly display its origin, e. g. "ploughman,” and descriptive of his gait, is “ Landsi

“ Landskip” and “ landschape.” Our frea word of kindred origin, for the laborious quent ending “ ship,” as in fellowship, &c., motion or sluggish action which it designates has the same source. és a "leaning upon." "Weary," a word of! " Solemn" is from the Latin " sollennis,"

a word which from its derivation, “ sollus,” sheep-bells, “ distant" from the Latin "di. “whole,” and “annus,” “year,” denotes stare," " to stand apart,” and “folds" from primarily that which takes place every year, the Saxon fealdan," “ to enclose,” we have and hence fitly designates a rare and sacred time to notice only the verb, “ lull.” It is a observance. From indicating the frequency word of childish memories, and tells us of with which such service was paid it came to many a time when we, with weary heads and describe its nature, and was then employed to tired limbs, have lolling,fallen asleep to describe anything possessed of a similar char- that measured but inarticulate song of mothacter. “Stillness,” a term of Saxon origin, ers and nurses, which because thus indistinctretaining a frequent Saxon termination, is re- ly chanted, - lolled," or "lulled," (from the lated to “ stilan," a word like the German Dutch “lollen" or "lullen,” “to sing in“ stellen," “ to place.” That which is placed articulately,") we call a “lullaby." The is still. The preposition or conjunction "save" soporific, liquid sound of this first syllable is the imperative of the verb of the same form, repeated in manifold combinations, and with from the French "sauver.” “Except” with recurring cadences, produces an effect which the same meaning is similarly related to the may be well designated by the name of the verb “ except." That which is saved is ex- act which causes it. This word with which cepted. This connexion between the prepo- we close our paper, in one of its derivatives, sition “save" and the verb “ to save" al- like that with which we began, has a story to lowed Chaucer's somprour to offer the equivo- tell. The first English Protestants, the folcal prayer for his companion, the friar: lowers of John Wiclif, like the early Christ.

ians, sung hymns of praise to God. This “God save you all, save this cursed frere,"

practice won for them, from those who deAny one who on a summer evening has felt

spised them, the name of “Lollards," the men the clumsy insect mentioned in the third line

who sung or “ lolled.” Their faith and conof this stanza, strike against his person, or

stancy endured the test of persecution and heard it dash blindly against the window

imprisonment. The stone-walls of “the Lol. pane, appreciates the fitness of its name of

| lards' tower" heard their nightly song-a “ beetle.” Though of almost airy lightness

Christian lullaby." when compared with the ponderous mallet of the same name, it sustains by its decided

Where Does Wood Come From ? blows its claim to be derived from the verb - to beat.” Its lazy, humming flight is aptly! If we were to take up a handful of soil called “ droning." This word primarily de- and examine it under the microscope. notes motion. It is from “ dran,” past par- I should probably find it to contain a number ticiple of the Anglo-Saxon “ drygan," “ to lof fragments of wood, small broken pieces of drive." The droves are driven by the bees. the branches, or leaves, or other parts of the Secondarily it denotes the humming notes of tree. If we could examine it mechanically, these lazy out-casts. The epithet used here we

used here we should find yet more strikingly that it may have both meanings.

was nearly the same as wood in its compositMerely noticing by the way “drowsy,"ion. Perhaps, then, it may be said, the from the Saxon verb “ dreosan,” “ to droop,” | young plant obtains its wood from the earth sc. the head,-a precursor of slumber, "tink-in which it grows ? lings," an onomatopoetio word, suggestive of' The following experiment will show wheth

[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinuar »