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For the Schoolmaster.
Specimen of a Collegiate Examination. My Cottage Home.
The following piece of witty satire by My home was once a cottage home
Francis Hopkinson, who was said by Dr. In a rural woodland glade;
Rush to equal as a humorist and satirist A rivulet through the distant wood
Lucien, Swift, or Rabelais, was intended to Its winding pathway made,
turn some branehes, and the mode of studyAnd nature's beauties everywhere
ing them, into ridicule : Were scattered far and wide, And joy and mirth rolled swiftly there
METAPHYSICS. Their never ceasing tide.
Professor. What is a SALT-BOX ? There childhood's hallowed innocence Student. It is a box made to contain salt. Played joyful o'er the green,
P. How is it divided ? And gave a cheerful aspect
S. Into a salt-box and a box of salt.
P. Very well! show the distinction.
$. A salt-box may be where there is no But anon the hardy herdsman's song
salt; but salt is absolutely necessary to the Came forth in gentle lays.
existence of a box of salt.
P. Are not salt-boxes otherwise divided The scenes around that cottage home That home to memory dear
S. Yes; by a partition. Would now recall the hours there spent
P. What is the use of this partition ? In happiness and cheer;
S. To separate the coarse salt from the But time has changed the aspect now, And in its onward flight,
P. How? think a little. Has altered many rustic charms
$. To separate the fine salt from the coarse. That once would greet the sight.
P. To be sure ; it is to separate the fine But still a hallowed influence hag
from the coarse ; but are not salt-boxes yet Endeared that home to me
otherwise distinguished ? By many soft memorial links
s. Yes ; into possible, probable and positive. That hung o'er life's broad sea ;
P. Define these several kinds of saltYet I must bid a last adieu
boxes. To that dear, distant grove;
S. A possible salt-box is a salt-box yet unAnd learn with heartfelt gratitude
sold in the hands of the joiner. Far other scenes to love.
P. Why so ? INSANITY — RELIGION. — Dr. Ray, in the
S. Because it hath never yet become a
S. Because it natn never yet report of the Butler IIospital for the Insane salt-box in fact, having never had any salt in in Providence, says: “I believe — and it is
lieve and it is it; and it may possibly be applied to some in some measure the result of considerable other use. observation of various psychological states
P. Very true; for a salt-box which never that in this age of fast living, nothing can be
he had, hath not now, and perhaps never may relied upon more surely for preserving the name
ving the have, any salt in it, can only be termed a poshealthy balance of the mental faculties, than sible salt-box. What is a probable salt-box? an earnest, practical conviction of the great S. It is a salt-box in the hand of one go. truths of Christianity,"
ling to a shop to buy salt, and who hath six
pence in his pocket to pay the grocer; and a an idea of salt. Is an aptitude to hold salt positive salt-box is one which hath actually an essential or an accidental property of a saltand bona fide got salt in it.
box? P. Very good : – but is there no instance S. It is essential; but if there should be of a positive salt-box, which hath no salt in ito a crack in the bottom of the box the aptitude S. I know of none.
to spill salt would be termed an accidental P. Yes: there is one mentioned by some
property of that salt-box. authors: it is where a box hath by long use P. Very well ! very well indeed! - What been so impregnated with salt, that, although is the salt called with respect to the box? all the salt hath been long since emptied out,
long since emptied out. I S. It is called its contents. it may be called a salt-box, with the same P. And why so ? propriety that we say a salt-herring, salt beef,
S. Because the cook is content quo ad hoc &c. And in this sense, any box that may to find plenty of salt in the box. have accidentally, or otherwise, been long P. You are very right - I see you have steeped in brine, may be termed positively a not misspent your time: but let us now proaalt-box, although never designed for the pur- ceed to pose of keeping salt. But tell me, what oth
LOGIC. er division of salt-boxes do you recollect? P. How many parts are there in a salt.
S. They are further divided into substan- box? tive and pendant, a substantive salt-box is that S. Three. Bottom, top and sides. which stands by itself on the table or dresser; P. How many modes are there in salt. and a pendant is that which hangs upon a nail boxes. against the wall.
S. Four. The formal, the substantial, the P. What is the idea of a salt-box? accidental, and the topsy-turvy. .
S. It is that image which the mind con- P. Define these several modes. ceives of a salt-box when no salt-box is pres- S. The forma respects the figure or shape ent.
of the box, such as round, square, oblong, P. What is the abstract idea of a salt- and so forth; the substantial respects the box?
work of the joiner; and the accidental deS. It is the idea of a salt-box abstracted pends upon the string by which the box is from the idea of a box, or of salt, or of a salt- hung against the wall. box, or of a box of salt.
| P. Very well; and what are the conse P. Very right; and by these means you quences of the accidental mode? acquire a most perfect knowedge of a salt- S. If the string should break the box box; but tell me, is the idea of a salt-box a would fall, the salt be spilt, the salt-box salt idea?
broken, and the cook in a bitter passion ; and s. Not unless the ideal box hath ideal salt this is the accidental mode with its consein it.
quences. P. True; and therefore an abstract idea P. How do you distinguish between the cannot be either salt or fresh, round or square, top and bottom of a salt-box? long or short; for a true abstract idea must S. The top of a box is that part which is be entirely free of all adjuncts. And this uppermost, and the bottom that part which is shows the difference between a salt idea and lowest in all possible positions.
P. You should rather say the lowest part The boys are comfortably seated, and the is the bottom and the uppermost part is the master stands ! top. IIow is it then if the bottom should be "Mean-spirited fellow, there he stands, as the uppermost.
though it were he who had the hardest work S. The top would then be the lowermost; to do! The room is lofty, airy, and well and so the bottom would become the top, and warmed; the children sit, I do believe, in abthe top would become the bottom; and this solute enjoyment of the lesson. No other is called the topsy-turvy mode, which is near- sound interrupts the teacher and his class ; ly allied to the accidental, and frequently the other classes are under the same roof in arises from it.
other rooms. Ruined by luxury, there sit P. Very good; but are not salt-boxes the children — with a grown man, and what's sometimes single, and sometimes double ? worse, a trained and educated man, standing S. Yes.
before them, pouring out his energies. He P. Well, then mention the several combi | isn't hearing them their lessons out of a book; nations of salt-boxes with respect to their the lesson they have learned out of a book, having salt or not.
he is explaining with all the art of a lawyer, S. They are divided into single salt-boxes
enlivening with anecdotes, sprinkling about having salt; single salt-boxes having no salt;
with apt questions. The children are all on the double salt-boxes having salt; double salt
qui vive, and asking questions in their turn — boxes baving no salt; and single double salt
why don't he knock 'em down for their imboxes having salt and no salt.
pertinence? See ! now he asks a question of P. Hold! hold! you are going too far.
the class — up go two dozen little hands! The owners of those little hands believe that
they can answer it. There ! he selects one to Familiar Sketch of a Common School in Germany.
answer, who looks pleased at the distinction.
When the next question comes, he'll tackle The following is a familiar sketch of the some one else. every-day routine of a German elementary! “Now comes a lesson in geography. He school, from Dickens' IIousehold Words.
takes a piece of chalk and turns to the blackTeachers should reject the bad and adopt | board. Dot..dot..dot. There is a range of the good. The great fault of many teachers
mountains. As soon as the shape is defined, with us, as well as in Germany, is that they | the children eagerly shout out its name. In teach too much ; or, rather, they tell too much. five seconds the names of five rivers are indiTo educate, means to draw out the powers of
cated, and named as fast as they are drawn, the one taught. It is not to pour in knowl- | by the young vagabonds, who watch the aredge. The method of teaching geography in- tist's hand. Down go the rivers to the sea, dicated below has some decidedly good fea
and - dot..dot..dot.. - a dozen and a half tures. We like the idea of the last para
of towns are indicated, every dot named in graph.
chorus. Then comes the coast line, bounda“ Just step into the interior of one of these ries of countries, provinces, and chief towns. German schools, and see what manner of out. In ten minutes there is on the board a clever landish work is going on. There ! Did you impromptu map of Germany, and the childever see the like of that! Call that a school! / ren have shouted out the meaning of every dot and stroke as it was made. They think
The Bible in Schools. it better fun than puzzles. Very pretty. “ Now there he is, beginning at the school
1.I JUDGE WHIting has addressed a letter to yard, talking of its size ; then advancing to a
the Governor of New York, recommending notion of the street; then of the town, then that the punishment of O'Connell, convicted of the province; and leading his pupils to an
of murder should be commuted. In the letidea of space, and the extent of country in- ter he says : dicated upon such a map."
- The convict is a youth, as near as I could
judge, about sixteen ; his life a forfeit of the Punctuation Points.
law; a victim of bad habits and a want of
early moral training – if ever an inmate of The points now used in punctuation were one of our common schools, one from which introduced into writing gradually, sometime the Bible, the best school book ever placed in the after the invention of printing. The Greeks hands of children, was probably ruthlessly rehad none, and there was no space between jected. their words. The Romans put a kind of di- The idea that simply to educate the brain, vision between their words; thus, Publius. and to neglect the heart, is the duty of the Scipio. Africanus.
state, is to my mind the greatest error of the Up to the end of the fifteenth century, only age. The Bible is the hand book which points the period, colon, and comma had been intro- out the path, the straight and narrow way, duced. The latter came into use latest, and which leads to life, and is resorted to by all was only a perpendicular figure or line pro- religionists following after our Saviour. Why portionate to the size of the letter. To Aldus should it be rejected if used without note or Manutius, an eminent Italian painter, in 1490, comment? Excuse me, sir, this digression we are indebted for the semi-colon, and also does not belong to this letter, and I trust your for the present form of the comma. He also Excellency will forgive it. My heart bleeds laid down rules, now observed, in regard to for not only this poor lad, but for hundreds I their use. The note of interrogation and the see around me every day, following in his note of exclamation were not added till some footsteps, which the goodness of an unseen years later, and it is not known by whom. arm, rather than the moral training of the Inverted commas (“) were first used by state
used by state or of the home, restrains.” Guillemet (pronounced gheel-ma), a French There is great truth in this although it is printer, and were intended by him to super- nothing new. The Bible is the best school sede the use of Italic letters; and the French book ever placed in the hands of children. printers now call them by the inventor's name. The precepts that are learned before they are But these marks are at present used by Eng- fully comprehended well up into the soul lish printers to denote quoted matter. In a long afterwards, a living spring to refresh and London book —-" The Art of English Poe- invigorate it. Apart from its religious chartry” — printed in 1807, it appears that this acter, its literary merits, its elevation of senmode of denoting quoted matter is of late timent, its beauty and sublimity render it the origin, as such matter is therein denoted by book of all books for the education of the inbeing set in Italic. It is not known by whom tellect as well as of the heart. - Providence the apostrophe and dash were invented. | Daily Journal.
A Letter from Georgia.
education, not so much for the want of op
portunity, as for the want of inclination. Savannah, Ga., Sept. 13th, 1858.
| That something should be done to extend My Dear Schoolmaster :
educational facilities to all the children of the We are so far behind you of New England
state, is not only admitted, but is felt as a in almost everything relating to educational
necessity, by all interested in the welfare of progress, that we have hardly the courage to
our state. Hitherto, on account of the practell you of our present condition and pros
tical difficulties in the way of a general syspects. Nevertheless, since you have request
tem of education adapted to the unequally ed me to do so, I will give you a brief out
conditioned localities of the state, together line of what the friends of education in this
with the various elements of opposition to state hope to accomplish during the approach
such a system, nothing has been done by the ing winter.
state. Indeed, the friends of education have You are probably aware that we have no
at last been compelled, though reluctantly, to public school system in Georgia.
But it reling
but relinquish all idea of a general system adaptwould do the people of this state great injus
ed to all portions of the state, and have unittice to conclude from this fact, that they are
ed with great harmony, on a plan embracing indifferent to the great matter of popular ed- the following pointe. ucation. In almost every county of the state
1. The appointment of a State Superintenthere is a chartered academy, liberally endow
dent of Public Instruction, whose duty it shall ed with the proceeds of state lands, granted
be to visit the different parts of the state for some years ago for this purpose. In every
the purpose of obtaining educational statistics, , community, also, where a sufficient number
the present condition of the schools, and the of children can be gathered, a school of a
wants of the people; also, by lectures, teach- : lower grade may be found. Many of these
ers' associations, educational conventions, and schools in the most favored communities,
| such other means as he may be able to emwould suffer little in comparison with the best
ploy, to awaken an interest in popular educa-schools in your own little state. In the plan
tion, and disseminate sound and enlightened tation districts, especially along the sea-board,
views on the subject. where the scattered condition of the white population necessarily precludes the idea of al 20 10
2. To pass a law authorizing any county school, the planters, in order to educate their to elect a Board of Education, to establish a children, are compelled either to employ pri- system
lov pri system of public schools within its jurisdicvate tuition, or to send their children away to
tion, subject to certain general restrictions, and. school. Ample provision is made for higher
to levy a tax on the property of the county education in our state. We have a well en
for the support of such schools. dowed university, five or six colleges, at least 3. Either to sell the State Railroad, valued as many female colleges, and several profes- at $5,000,000, and set aside the proceeds as a.. sional schools, – all in a flourishing condi- permanent educational fund, or apply the antion. Notwithstanding all this, however, nual net proceeds of the road, about $300,000, there are many children growing up in this to the support of the schools of the state. grent state almost destitute of the means of In distributing this sum annually to all the obtaining even an ordinary education : while counties of the state, it is proposed to dismany more, I regret to say, fail to obtain an criminate somewhat in favor of those coun-