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but also the skin and the fur or wool of animals, a vegetable-feeder, far the greater part of his owe their origin to plants, just as their flesh does. food (all the starch of grain and bread, the sta

They furnish utensils, tools, and buildiny ma gar, oil, &c.), after being added to the blood, is terials, in great variety; and even the materials decomposed, and breathed out from the lungs in which the mineral kingdom yields for man's ser- the form of carbonic acid and water. That is vice (such as iron) are unavailable without vege- just what it would become if set on fire and burntables, to supply fuel for working and shaping ed, as when we burn oil or tallow in our lamps them.

and candles, or wood in our fire-places; and in “ They supply all the fuel in the world; and the process, in animals no less than in our lamps this is one special service of that vegetable mat- and fire-places, the heat which was absorbed ter which, in the solid form of wood, does not from the sun, when the vegetable matter tas naturally serve for food. Burned in our fire-produced from carbonic acid and water, is given places, one part of a plant may be used to cook out when this matter is decomposed into carbonic the food furnished by another part, or to protect acid and water again. And this is what keeps us against cold; or burned under a steam-boiler up the natural heat of animals. We are warmed it may grind our corn, or carry us swiftly from by plants in the food we consume, as well as by place to place. Even the coal dug from the bow the fuel we burn. els of the earth is vegetable matter, the remains “In learning, as we have done, How Plants of forests and herbage which flourished for ages Grow, and Why they Grow, have we not learned before man existed, and long ago laid up for his more of the lesson of the text placed at the bepresent use. We may proceed one step farther, ginning of this book, and of the verses that fol. and explain where the heat of fuel comes from; low? Wherefore if God so clothe the grass of for even a child may understand it. Plants make the field, shall he not much more clothe you? ... vegetable matter only in the direct light of the Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we sun. With every particle of carbonic acid that eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal is decomposed, and vegetable matter that is made, shall we be clothed! For your Heavenly Father a portion of the sun's heat and light is absorbed knoweth that ye hare need of all these things.' and laid up in it. And whenever this vegetable And we now perceive that causing plants to grow matter is decumposed, as in burning it, this heat is the very way in which He bountifully supplies and light (how much of each, depends upon the these needs, and feeds, clothes, warms, and shelmode of burning) are given out.

ters the myriads of beings He has made, and es“So all our lighting as well as warming, which pecially Man, whom He made to have dominion we do not receive directly from the sun, we re-over them all." ceive from plants, in which sunlight has been stored up for our use. And equally so, whether | CHARLES B. CHACE. We understand that we burn olive-oil or pine-oil of the present day, this gentleman, recently of Brown University. or candles made from old peat, or coal-gas, or has been appointed Principal of the High School lard, tallow, or wax, the latter a vegetable mat- in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ter which has been somewhat changed by ani. We are constantly losing our best teachers. mals. And, finally,

and shall continue to lose them just so long as The natural warmth of the bodies of animals our committees refuse to give them adequate comes from the food they eat, and so is supplied by compensation. The diminution of salaries in plants. A healthy animal, no longer growing, several places recently has, naturally enough, receives into his system a daily supply of food taken some of the most efficient teachers from without any corresponding increase in weight, or New England and transplanted them to the Midoften without any increase at all. This is be- dle, Western, and Southern States. More are cause he decomposes as much as he receives. If going

OUR BOOK TABLE. JEWETT's Spier's FRENCH AND ENGLISH DIC

TIONARY.-School Edition. Mason Brothers,

New York. New AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA. Vol. III. 768

pages. Bea-Browning. D. Appleton & Co., | The lovers of the French language, especially New York. D. Kimball & Co., Agents for the teachers of that language, will thank Prof. Rhode Island.

Jewett for the book now before us. It is full for This volume appears to us more full and com- a school edition, and the type and general meplete than its predecessors, and certainly does not chanical arratigement exhibit great perspicuity. fall below them in the richness of its contents. We are much pleased with one feature, nameIt has a very large number of articles in biogra- ly: its system of pronunciation. It is impossiphy, but many of them are necessarily short. In ble to represent French pronunciation with Engscience and art it is quite sufficient. In all mat- lish sounds of letters. The work gives the proters pertaining to the practical this volume will nunciation with the French sounds of the letters. commend itself to the mass of men in every | It contains 716 pages. Price $1.50. walk in life. This work when finished will form a complete

We present our thanks to Hon. James F. Simlibrary for every man. It is popular in its char

mons for the eighth volume of the Exploration acter, and at the same time full and exact in ev

and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Misery department of science, art and literature.

sissippi River to the Pacific Ocean. It is especially valuable for sehools, and we hope it will be taken for our school libraries, in the city and the country villages. Price $3 per THE LECTURES OF LOLA Montp:z, including her tolume, payable on delivery.

Autobiography. Rudd & Carleton. N. Y.
For Lola Montez we have nothing to say. “It

is easier to preach than to practice.” But she Two MILLIONS.—By William Allen Butler. D. has written a very readable book, in a style simAppleton & Co. N. Y. 1858.

ple, beautiful and enchanting. It abounds in inThe author of Nothing to Wear has certainly cident, the materials for which her varied life shown his ability to write that beautiful poem by readily furnisherl. the skill and ability displayed in the present one. Although it has somewhat of nonsense and

The plot of the story is somewhat elaborate, silly flippery, yet for the most part it is filled but natural and reasonable. The style is easy, / with good, wholesome advice, which the ladies chaste and in many parts quite ornate. The would do well to follow. We can recommend to meter is well adapted to the story. The moral their especial attention the lecture on Beauty. will be appreciated, certainly by those for whom The print and paper, like all the publications it is intended. We liked the poem much better of this enterprising house, are remarkably pleason the second reading than the first. It im- ing and tasteful. proves by acquaintance. We understand the sale is already very large. The paper, print and

We understand that Eaton's ARITHMETIC style of binding are exquisitely beautiful. It

kus been introduced into the schools of Boston, only wants “illustrations by Hoppin.”

See advertisement.

We have received a beautiful lithograph of lon THE AUTHORIZED VERSION OF THE NEW Cyrus W. FIELD, the energetic and efficient TESTAMENT. By Richard Chevenix Trench, Superintendent of the Atlantic Telegraph. Itis Redfield, New York, 1868. engraved by Grozillier, that inimitable artist, This is a scholarly work, giving the arguments and published by J. E. Tilton & Co., 161 Wash- for a new translation of the New Testament, toington street, Boston. Price 75 cents,

gether with the difficulties and objections to such R revision. It is a masterly treatise of a schol- DAVIES' UNIVERSITY ALGEBRA. — By Charles ar and will antply repay any one interested in Davies, LL. D. A. S. Barnes & Co., New

York. 1858. Sabbath School teaching, or Bible study in any form, for a careful perusal.

The publishers bave sent us a copy of this work, just published, which we have not yet ex

amined. We have been much pleased with Prof. SERMONS OF THE REV. Č. H. SPURGEON, Of

Davies' Elementary and Bourdon, and have long London. Fourth Series. Sheldon, Blakeman, & Co., New York. 1858.

wished an intermediate work, which in many No man of modern times has acquired such

cases might be used instead of the Elementary, popularity as a preacher as Mr. Spurgeon. No

and would better fit the pupil for the higher work. man has attraced such crowds to hear the simple

From a hasty examination of the book we have Gospel of Jesus Christ. Whatever difference of

the impression that it will be found a valuable opinion may exist with regard to his style of work. The typography and perspicuity of arpreaching, or however people may differ from /rangement are cxcellent. him with respect to various doctrinal points, still his sermons will find multitudes of readers who THE ICHNOLITE, or Amherst College Magazine, will surely be interested in their perusal. We July, 1858. wish the number of the readers of this volume

If the contents of this college quarterly be an might be increasod tenfold.

index of the maturity of thought attained by the students of the institution which publish it, the

instruction must be creditable alike to the colFIVE LITTLE STORIES FOR CHILDREN.-1. Hillside Farm ; 2. Johnny M'Kay; 3. Joe Carton;

lege and to New England. 4. The Golden Mushroom ; 5. The Story of our Darling Nellie. Published by Henry Hoyt,

THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY for September comes 9 Cornhill, Boston.

to us with a rich table of contents. We are glad These beautiful little books for the young are

to learn that the enterprising publishers are soon just published and are beautiful indeed. Noth

to issue the "Autocrat of the Breakfast Table " ing can exceed the simplicity and beauty of the

in a volume. history of Johnny M'Kay, the little Irish boy. The story we have numbered 5 is for very little children, who require coarse print and plain,

We would call especial attention to the pubshort words. The others will not fail to interest

de The others will not fail to interest lisher's advertisement of CHAPMAN'S AMERICAN children as old as most of us are.

DRAWING Book. It is the best work of the

kind with which we are acquainted. Those wish. À Woman's THOUGHTS ABOUT WOMEN. - By

ing systematic instruction upon this important the author of John Halifax, Gentleman, &c.

branch of study would do well to send for this Rudd & Carleton, New York. 1858.

work, either complete or in parts. We are obliged to notice this book before read. ing it, but our friends (who have more leisure ONE HUNDRED SONGS OF SCOTLAND. — Words than we) say it is a good book, charmingly inter- and Tunes. Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston. esting, and well worthy a perusal by all. More-l 1858. over their judgment is better than ours, for the A collection of fine old Scotch airs, comprising book was written for them and not for us. We many of the most popular tunes of our modern are content, therefore, to recommend it on their songs, accompanied with the words originally set opinion.

to them by Scotch authors.

ERRATUM.–Page 206, sixth line from bottom, | SEVERAL books have been received notices of second column, “homblende," read "hornblende.” | which will appear next month.

The R. J. Schoolmaster.

VOL. IV.

OCTOBER, 1858.

NO.8.

For the Schoolmaster.

At the time when the faction of the MounCharlotte Corday.

tain was triumphant in the convention, and

the banished Girondists Aled for safety from CHARLOTTE CORDAY D'ARMANS, or, as Lamartine styles her, “ The angel of assassina

Paris, Charlotte was living with an aged aunt tion," is one of those strange characters which

in Caen. Hither came large numbers of the history presents to us in the paradox of heav

vanquished party. Their eloquent appeals in enly beauty and virtue, united with the dark

behalf of suffering France only kindled still est image of crime. Charlotte Corday, the

more a soul that had long beat in sympathy beautiful enthusiast, the murderer of Marat,

with their views. Slowly her thoughts seemthe self-immolated victim upon the altar of a

ltar ofed to group themselves around one great idea, liberty. Through the troubled vistas of na- a resolve to do something for her country. tional discord, in the sanguinary glare of

Those who saw her sitting by the fountain in slaughter, her face beams upon us fair and

the garden, or reading her favorite authors, pure as a celestial spirit, yet calm and pas

little dreamed of the deed she was nerving sionless as a minister of vengeance.

her hand to accomplish. Over and over In the study of history, it is not only need

again she read the works of Jean Rousseau, or ful that we seek the causes that underlie great

of the Abbé Raynal, but most frequently the events, but that we also search out the causes

lives of Plutarch. In this exquisite masterthat led to the formation of certain characters,

painter she found her ideals converted into and fitted them for their work and for their

living realities, her hemes into men. destiny.

All this time the fires of civil war were All souls are moulded by their surround- raging in the capitol, and a worse tyranny ings, and poverty, misfortune, and sorrow, than that of the Roman Marius was exercishad bequeathed to Charlotte a pride above ed by that bloody triumvirate Robespierre, her station, a dignity above her years, and a Danton, and Marat. In this last Charlotte melancholy which inclined her to much vis- Corday thought she perceived the source of ionary dreaming. Long seclusion from the those horrors that distracted France. She world, and solitary study, had turned her conceived the bold idea of going to Paris, mind back upon itself and made the ideal seem and once there, te act upon her plan, kill true and tangible, the real false and visionary. I Marat, and abide the consequences. Thus

she went forth like Judith, "adorned with and honor while we view her as an assassin, a marvelous beauty” to deliver her country. even though the victim be the loathsome

Did no whisperings of home loves draw her Marat. In pitying charity we strive to forget footsteps backward from the threshold of the the dagger while we remember her patriotism. awful future? Once, and once only, she turn-/ The object of the crime of Charlotte Cored aside from her self-imposed task to cast a day was the salvation of France. Vain hope! regretful eye over the scenes of youth. It For the monster Marat was hydra-headed, was when she visited for the last time her fa- and the death of the “ People's Friend " ther's estate in Argentan, the home of her seemed to render his partizans al Marats. childhood, the nucleus of many endearing as- Her hand made the wound deeper, and inaugsociations. Locking her secret in her own / urated the “ Reign of Terror." breast, she had come to crave the blessing of “There are crimes of which 'men are no her parent upon her departure, knowing she judges.” Much of this visionary fanaticism looked upon his face for the last time, al. was the result of a wrong education. She though he believed she sought safety in Eng- lived too much within herself. She saw men land. It was here that old memories, her and things in a soft moonlight glory, like the mother's grave, her father's age and spotless “dim religious light” of her early convent name, seemed to draw her with strong cords cloister rather than the strong healthy light back into the paths of obscurity and peace, of every-day life. She breathed the air of and her whole woman's nature protested saintly buried ages, rather than the pure atagainst the sacrifice. It was but a moment mosphere of work-day labor. and the old enthusiasm returned, and smiling Why, it may be asked, was this young girl at her own weakness, she turned her face allowed by Providence to sacrifice herself for towards that great Beyond so fraught with naught? We may not question the motive of dangerous fortune, and ignoble death. Her Deity. But the eye of reason can discern her father blessed her with tears, laying his hand failings through her enthusiasm and devotion. upon her head in benediction, and from that Charlotte unwittingly made herself equal with time Charlotte consecrated all earthly love, God. “Vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith all selfish feeling to the cause of France and the Lord.” It may be that Divine Justice human freedom. Henceforth she ceased to be intended to punish that daring which arro. an individual ; she lived in, and for an idea, gated to itself the prerogative of the Almighty, a dream of liberty; she became a part of his and to warn others lest they made Reason tory. She went forth from her home to join and Religion secondary to an ideal enthusithe high march of martyrs to the tribunal – asm. to the Conciergerie – to the scaffold.

M. C. P.

We hang with rapture over the heroic story! HIGH WATER. — The highest waterfall in of Joan of Arc; we shed a tear at the sorrows the world is in the Sandwich Islands, and is of Marié Antoinette; we follow with admira-1 stated to be between four and five thousand tion the sublime course of Madame Roland ; | feet high. The stream on which the fall ocbut we pause in a thoughtful silence at the curs, runs among the peaks of one of the grave of Charlotte Corday. Our lips are mute highest mountains, so high that the water to censure while we admire her lofty and no- actually never reaches the bottom, so great is ble character ; our souls cannot yield her love the distance, and it ascends to the clouds again,

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