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vented weariness, were properly secured, and fine its force to that sphere of action, nor bethe most astonishing progress made, both in come incapable immediately upon leaving it. facility and beauty of writing. Many persons It has been developed to true proportions ; it can write well by slow care, but few are at is distorted by no clogs of bad habit, and it once both rapid, easy, and legible in their has within itself the principle of growth. penmanship. That kind of chirography is Instead of being productive of good results, of little worth which is not for everyday use, many schools now force upon the scholar and careful imitations of copperplate certainly frivolity of pursuit, and inertia of mind and are not.
body. Such schools should be carefully After this brisk exercise, the girls were us- avoided – if children are to be allowed a fair ually wide awake, and in good humor, in-chance for healthful development, mentally stead of being overcome with ennui. and physically.
There is another thing which must be pur- The latter subject is a very important one, sued daily — Arithmetic; and there is none I can only glance at it. Vigor of body, of which can be used for such severe discipline course, increases vigor of mind, and vice versa. of the mind. Colburn's first book was pre- I do not say that fatness of body increases pared by a profound philosopher; and she vigor of mind, nor that irritability and excitwho has properly gone through with it, ac- ability of mind increase vigor of body. I cording to the plan of the author, must have mean that the health of one helps the health a readier, stronger head in consequence. But of the other. how shamefully is this book abused ! — the But how is a poor child to attain to health pupil often being allowed to recite with it in of either, shut up as she is from exercise and her hands — thus losing the benefit of the sunlight nearly all day long? Not taught the strict command of attention which it means proper way to study, she wastes hours on a to demand.
task requiring but a few minutes' deep attenAnd there are substituted for it numberless tion. And she is incapacitated from giving books of “ Arithmetic made Easy!” as if the that attention by habits of idleness, and by object was to get so much ciphering accom- general debility of purpose and nerve. Moreplished in a life-time, so many sums done be- over, at the Barnacle school she has only fore leaving school - sums which will be rub- | learned “How not to do it.” bed from the mind as quickly and as utterly! The way in which children's lessons are as they are from the slate! Teachers (and pa- learned nowadays is exceedingly unfair to rents) lose sight of the real object, viz: to parents, who sustain at home all the annoystrengthen and exercise that mind, until it ance of forcing them to give up their play becomes clear, prompt, efficient in thought hours to study with an unwilling spirit, and and action, to solve all of life's hard problem. in a most improper manner. Those who are
A little child trained to Attention, Associa- most anxious for their daughters' improvetion, and Retention, can, with half the usual ment, have actually all the trouble of teaching time, fatigue, and trouble bestowed upon its themselves, and the privilege of paying the lessons, become strikingly efficient in study, schoolmaster for hearing a perfect recitation and of course simultaneously active and at his ease! This is an unnatural transfer of shrewd in every-day affairs. For exercised duties, and I wonder that parents submit to strength and vigor in school, it does not con- 'it.
mother was struggling with her needle to give this way, even if all the literature of the counhim an education. The boys often made sport try to meet her apprehension be comprised in of his patched knees and elbows, and he Mother Goose. would run sobbing home to his mother. But Some persons may say, “That plan would when the story of the “ calico cloak" reach- take too much time ; our children would neved the scholars, the little boy, (for he was er get around the world during the whole naturally a noble-hearted child,) became very course of their schooling.” popular in school; and the children, from
Perhaps not. But they will have formed that time, were very kind to "Little Patchey,” |
good habits for the future, and have gained a as he had always been called.
knowledge of how to go to work to pursue When Mrs. Maynard heard the story of
study when alone. Above all, they will have “ Little Patchey," she felt that she was well
an appetite for it; they will know its real repaid for all she had suffered in childhood.
pleasures, and will thenceforth crave them.
A wise old Scotch proverb says: “Do your Girls' Schools.---No. 4.
turn weel, and none will spear what time ye
took.” Parents, do remember this, pray do; “ Ye mak' it not what is she?'” but “what and do not urge on the teachers of your childhas she !'”-SCOTCH PROVERB.
ren, until they adopt an unsafe speed, which The law of association of ideas is a great will end by running them off the track altohelp which Nature has granted to teachers, Seth but they generally reject it utterly. For in
Teachers themselves often find this plan enstance, a jumble of daily lessons, which are
are tirely too much trouble, and they cry, "We unconnected by any chain of interest, simili- cannot help having variety in study. There tude, or natural relation to one another. is are some exercises which necessarily recur given to the scholars; and perhaps the suc- every day, such as writing, in which constant ceeding day has another jumble, totally dif- practice is indispensable. ferent. These tasks, from their diverse na-| Granted. Let a half hour be devoted to it, ture, are learned with effort, and without the under the same system of compelled attention, least expenditure of interest. It should be upon a plan like that adopted perhaps de quite otherwise. One should lead to another vised — by a Mr. of Philadelphia. He - the geography of a country to the histori- gave a letter, or
w r itten upon a slip of cal facts connected with it - history to the paper, to each s copy. She had time biography of its great men — biography to given her to
look at it, and to literature - the noble poems, and plays, and make two o
ations as carefullnarrations in prose. Thus pleasant memories she could
whole class was will cluster around the name of that country, ed to wr
ad over agair and interest to know more will be fully arous- ute as fil
could mak ed;- there you have a nucleus, a center of move.
time wa attraction, and accumulation for knowledge, counte
hey by which will last a lifetime. Thus dry studies, who
ceas veritable tasks, become pleasures, which may claim excite even an enthusiastic pursuit.
TI A child cannot be too young to begin in inter
“ Debate on the Bill Establishing Free other states, in consequence of purchasing Schools,
foreign tickets. In years past, laws prohibitAt the January Session of the Rhode Island
ing the sale of foreign tickets have been passLegislature, A. D. 1828."
ed, proved wholly ineffectual, and repealed.
And we cannot calculate on any immediate In our last we placed before our readers change in the principle of human nature which the introductory remarks of Hon. Joseph L. produces this result. But if we could, our Tillinghast on this bill. We present below treasury, I believe, might still be supplied. the closing remarks of that gentleman before Being, then, in a situation to make a presmoving the adoption of the bill. The remarksent provision, let us for a moment consider relate to the lottery question and to the gen- the principle of the bill reported. By the first eral provisions of the bill as at first introduc-section a sum left blank, and which, upon the ed.
supposition that the rest of the bill passes, I In our next we propose to give some short shall propose to be $10,000 --- is to be set and spicy paragraphs from the remarks of sev- apart from the revenue arising from lotteries eral gentlemen who spoke upon the bill. and auction sales, to be paid out annually to · At our point of view, what the honorable the towns, according to their respective progentleman says upon the system of lotteries portions under the last estimate of rateable savors a little of expediency. Having shown property. This seems the most obvious, just, that the sum of $10,000 might probably be and equal ratio of distribution; and, as far appropriated annually from the lottery reven- as we can pursue equality, we are bound to ue, he proceeds to say:
do so. When we come to the actual applica
tion of the money to its immediate object, the “I know that individual opinions are divid-Liden of
idea of equality, in respect to the numbers or ed upon the propriety of the system of lotter
individuals to be benefitted by each portion, ies — that this mode of resorting to the lot, as
cannot be retained. An individual who has it has been called, is by some censured, and
but one child, though he may be assessed at by others advocated. It falls not in my way,
twenty dollars tax, will receive less fruits of at present, to advocate or to investigate any
the appropriation than he he who is assessed conscientious opinion upon this subject. But at a dollar and has ten children. And this I believe there can be no difference of opinions
10 will apply also to the respective towns, as on this point, that while this branch of busi
well as families, who may have more or less ness exists, unprohibited by public authority, |
children requiring education than their reit is not unwise to make it subservient to the
spective proportions in the estimate. Perfect public good — to enable those who reprobate
equality in the application, therefore, is imposit to perceive that, as far as practicable, it in
sible. But equality in the distribution, acmakes restitution and atonement, on the one
cording to the proportion in which the towns hand, for such evils as they suppose it occa
occa are bound to contribute to the public expenses, sions on the other.
is attainable, and seems just. Nevertheless, I Judging from past experience, we may be have heard suggestions from several members lieve that tickets will be offered for sale, and that the ratio of population might be preferawill be bought, in this state ; and the money able. If so, it is open to discussion ; — and, of our citizens, if not expended in lotteries if, upon discussion, that ratio is deemed best, originating at home, will go abroad to benefit'it will prevail. I wish to be distinctly under
stood, that if the main principle and benefit towns that neglect to raise their proportion contemplated by the bill is established, it is do not thereby lose their right to partake of not my purpose or wish to adhere pertina- the fund except for each year of the neglect. ciously to the exact provisions of the bill on l'heir proportions are to be added to the fund this point, or on any other, or to refuse my for distribution the next year, and they can vote to any fair modification. Whatever at any time come in and partake. The sucqualifications consistent with the spirit and ceeding sections provide for the appointment efficacy of the measure, may be found exped- of school committees, and their powers and ient by the expressed sense of the House, af- duties; and for the mode in which the treaster due deliberation, shall have my cheerful urer is to keep his accounts of the revenues acquiescence. And from the effect of this re-appropriated, and report and publish each mark I would not exclude the second section, town's annual proportion. which provides that each town, before receiv- The last section provides for an appropriaing its proportion, is to raise a sum equal to tion of a certain sum out of the money now - I should say the sum – which it is entitled in the treasury, to be invested in productive to, as its proportion of the appropriation. A stock for the commencement and formation of difference of opinion exists as to the amount a permanent school fund, allowing only so so to be raised by the towns; and half the much of the interest to be used as may be reabove sum has been named. This also is open quired in case of a deficiency in the sum for to discussion, in settling the details of the annual distribution. The object of this is to bill. But I would here suggest that it is cer- form a nucleus upon which future appropriatainly an object to provide as much as twenty tions and donations accruing, may accumuthousand dollars annually. Upon twenty late and be preserved inviolate for the purthousand dollars apportioned according to poses of public education. the estimate, the smallest towns in the state These being the principal features of the would have one hundred and sixteen dollars. bill before you, I now move, sir, that we pro
The treasury could not probably spare twen-ceed to consider it section by section. And I ty thousand dollars a year without resorting
sincerely hope and trust that we shall proceed to other modes of supplying it than those that in the spirit of conciliation, and mutual conhave of late sufficed. And of all modes of cession without embarrassment and with unitdirectly raising money, none are so satisfac
ed purpose, to adopt the main principle of the tory as that by which the freemen of each bill: to make it conform to our best views of town, by themselves and their own officers prudence and utility; and at all events, beunder their own inspection and at their own fore we leave it, before we separate, now, in times, raise what is wanted for their own use our day and opportunity, to discharge our and benefit. Raising part of the fund direct- duty to the republic in this particular, and ly from themselves, they would feel a direct make an effectual provision for the education interest in seeing to its careful application,
eeing to its careful application, of our youth which may be felt in its salutary and I think we should be mistaken if we effects upon this and each succeeding generashould suppose that the freemen of most of tion.” the towns in the state are not, at this time, prepared, willingly and cheerfully to raise their proportions, for the objects of this bill. Advice generally requires some very pow. By a provision in connexion with this the 'erful argument in order to be taken.
For the Schoolmaster.
their common weight, however, is from fifteen Modern Coins.
to nineteen grains. The earliest Saxon coin
known, is a sceatta of Ethilberht I. of Kent, BY MANFRED,
who reigned from A. D. 561 to 616. In point MODERN coins comprise those struck since |
of antiquity the penny succeeds, the name of the fall of the Western Empire.
which first appears in the laws of Ina, king The Italian coins under the Ostrogoths were
of the West Saxons, whose reign commenced issued soon after the year 480 of the Christian
A. D. 688. The word is probably derived from era. The French series commence with Clo
pendo, to weigh, and is now, as it was then, vis. A. D. 490. The Spanish with Liuva the 240th part of the nummary pound. LitPrince of the Visigoths, about a. D. 567. tle is known in regard to the half of the penThe German States issued money soon after
ny. A Saxon half-penny of Edward the Eldthe reign of Charlemagne, probably during
er is said to exist in the Bodleian collection at the ninth century, as well as the independentlo
Oxford, England. Lombard cities, and the Neapolitans. The From the reign of Ecgfrith, who ascended Papal currency begins with Pope Hadrian I., the throne in A. D. 670, to that of Eanred, A. D. 772. Denmark has coins of an early whose reign began A. D. 808, a space of more date, but few of them are intelligible until than a century, no coins have as yet been the reign of Canute, about a. D. 1000. Con found. One silver penny of Eanred is known. temporary with this date are the coins of the The last silver half-penny was struck under petty kings of Ireland. In Sweden it is said the Commonwealth. The last silver farthing coinage was begun under Biorno. A. D. 818. was coined in the reign of Edward VI., but In Norway with Olave or Olaf, A. D. 1066. no specimen of it has been seen. The testoon, Russian coinage is of a later date than other or shilling, was first coined by IIenry VII. in European countries. Scotch pennies, it is 1503. The appellation of testoon was from said, are found which are ascribed to Alex-teste or tete, the head of the king upon it; ander 1. A. D. 1107, while those of William that of shilling was of old but uncertain orithe Lion, A. D. 1165, are even now quite nu-gin. Pinkerton says that coins of that name merous in antiquarian collections in that land. had been struck in Hamburgh in 1407. Pennies were the earliest coins issued in most Henry VIII. struck some patterns for a silof the European kingdoms, and the prevailing ver crown, but the first crown for currency device upon them was a cross.
was struck by Edward VI, with the half As a matter of course we have more minute crown, sixpence, and threepence. Queen detail of the early English currency than that Elizabeth, in 1558, coined three-half-penny, of any other country save our own. The pre- and in 1561 three-farthing pieces. Pinkerton cise date when Roman currency passed out of says they were dropped in 1582, but there is circulation is not known. The early kings of a three-half-penny piece in the British MuKent had struck, probably during the sixth seum bearing the date of 1599. Charles I. century, sceattæ, derived from the Anglo Sax-struck twenty-shilling and ten-shilling pieces on, and signifying shot — money. They are in silver, but they soon passed out of circulatoo rude to admit of a description, are of sil- tion. ver, and of different weights, from seven In the year 1257 a manuscript chronicle in grains and a half(troy)to twenty and upwards; 'the archives of the city of London, states that