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The variation in the length of twilight at dif- they increase on account of the increasing incliferent periods in any given latitude depends on nation of the circles. the size of the diurnal circles, and the position 2nd. The length of twilight varies at difof their centers in respect to the two planes. ferent periods in a given latitude. (a) At the 1st. The length of twilight varies at any giren equator the twilight increases in length as the period in different latitudes. (a) At the time of sun retreats towards the north or the south, and either equinox the center of the diurnal circle in attains its maximuin at the period of either sol. every latitude lies in the horizon plane. There-stice. For while the center of the diurnal circle fore the variation in the length of twilight at is there always in the plane of the horizon, its these periods depends only on the varying incli- size is always less than that of a great circle exnation of the diurnal circles to the horizon. At cept at the time of either equinox. the equator, the angle of inclination being a allel planes cutting concentric circles, or circles right angle, and the diurnal circle being then a having their centers in a commun axis, intercept great circle, the eighteen degrees of twilight will greater arcs in the smaller circles. Therefore a be measured upon it, and will give a duration of larger arc of the diurnal circle will lie between seventy-two minutes. As we proceed north or the two planes at the solstice than at any other south from the equator at these periods, the twi- period, and at any time between these and the light will be found to increase as the diurnal cir- equinoxes, than at the equinoxes. (6) At the latı cles pass more obliquely through the space be- tude of Providence the longest twilight occurs tween the two planes, until within eighteen de- at the summer solstice, for then the diurnal cirgrees of either pole it becomes perpetual from cle is least and its center lies farthest from the sunset to sunrise, since there the diurnal circle twilight plane. The shortest occurs a little bedoes not pass below the twilight plane. The fore the vernal equinox, and a litile after the length of twilight at these periods may be easily autumnal, for then the centers of the diurnal cirdetermined by the solution of a right-angled cles lie between the two planes, and the arcs inspherical triangle. (6) At the period of either tercepted between them are less than when the solstice the centers of the diurnal circles are all centers lie without. But the diurnal circles at above the horizon plane on one side of the equa- these periods are so little inferior to great circles tor, and below it on the other. The duration of that the increase of the intercepted arcs on this twilight will therefore, at those periods, increase account is not sufficient to balance their dein either direction from the equator, as the dis- crease on the other. tance of the centers of the diurnal circles from

Note.-It will be perceived that no account is taken the horizon plane, and the inclination of those of the effect of refraction on twilight circles increase. It is evident that the same is 4. The largest number of Roman letters si true for any time between the solstices and the used in expressing the years 888, 1388, 1788, equinoxes. Thus it appears that there is a 1838. much greater difference between equatorial twilight, and that beyond the tropics in summer and

THE MAINE TEACHER.-The extreme “ Down winter, than in autumn and spring. It must be


” has succeeded at last in establishing an observed, however, that at all the periods except Educational Journal, through the persevering the equinoxes there are points at short distances efforts of Hon. MARK H. Dunnell, Superinfrom the equator on either one side or the other tendent of Public Schools. The teachers of Maine where the twilight is shorter than at the equator. may well congratulate themselves on so able a For as the axis of the diurnal circles sinks be-journal. It is filled with articles, valuable, inlow the horizon plane, the arcs intercepted be- teresting, spicy and short, not long, “dull and dry" tween this plane and the plane of twilight will, essays, like too many of our cotemporaries. Pubfor a time, decrease on this account faster than 'lished at Portland.

D. G.


the first, and, in the ability of its articles, the

care and industry with which the latest facts BARNARD'S AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCA- have been gleaned, and the candor and impar

TioN. June, 1858. F. C. Brownell, Hartford. tiality everywhere manifested in the work, it $3.00 a year, or $3.25 with The Schoolmaster.

more than makes good the promise of the first This educational quarterly grows better with

volume. We have had occasion to examine it every number. The issue now before us has a

very critically, and while there never will be a series of 19 articles, covering 320 pages.

Cyclopædia which has not some sins of omission It opens with an excellent steel engraving of

to answer for, we must say that in this respect it our State School Commissioner, Hon. John

is greatly more satisfactory than any work of Kingsbury, LL. D., accompanying a sketch of

the kind hitherto published. The editors, we his life and labors, with a full and exceedingly know, take unwearied pains to avoid errors, and interesting account of the exercises at the Re

they have been remarkably successful thus far." union of the Young Ladies' Iligh School, over

Subscribers will be supplied by Mr. S. Clough, which Mr. Kingsbury had presided with unrival

of the firm of' D. Kimball & Co., of this city, ed success for thirty years. A fine portrait of John S. Hart, LL. D., Prin- agents for Rhode Island, We hope it may have

a large sale in our little state. We should be ripal of the Philadelphia Public High School, introduces an article on the life and character of glad to furnish it to any of our friends who may

desire it. Price, $3.00 per volume. this well known teacher, with some account of the institution over which he has presided for sixteen years. A long sketch on the “flistory Lossing's Pictorial History of THE UNITED

STATES. -- Lossing's Primary History of the of Common Schools in Connecticut,” by the ed

United States. Mason Brothers, New York. itor, is an able and valuable contribution to our

Seldom do we find school books that please us educational literature. We also notice a tribute

as these do. A history of the United States to the memory of the late Moses Brown Ives, of

which should be an improvement on those hiththis city.

erto in use is a desideratum which we have long We hope this number, so rich and valuable,

felt. The beautiful, fascinating style in which will serve to swell the subscription list of the

these little books are written, the candid and im" American Journal of Education,” which may proudly be placed by the side of the educational partial views taken of political matters, the atworks of Great Britain and continental Europe. ise of their soon being appreciated by intelligent

tractive cuts illustrative of the text, give prom

teachers and school committees. The smaller APPLETON'S NEW AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA.

of the two is well adapted to the children in the Vol. II. D. Appleton & Co., New York. D. Kimball & Co., Agents for Rhode Island.

nursery or the primary sehool. Convinced by frequent reference made in the school-room of the merits of this great work,

THE Missot'RI EDUCATOR. Glad are tre to and of this volume in particular, we were intend welcome to the Brotherhood a new journal from ing to elaborate a notice which should do it jus the “Far West. The first number has just reach tice; but our eye falling on the following from ed us. It is a neat monthly of 32 pages, Edited the pen of Hon. Henry Barnard, editor of the by Thomas J. Henderson, Jefferson City. American Journal of Education, we thought it would have more influence than anything we Tue anniversary exercises at the Providence could say. No man is better qualified to judge Conference Seminary, East Greenwich, are to be of the merits of such a work than Henry Bar- held June 28th, 29th and 30th. The dedicatory nard.

exercises of the New Seminary Building are no"It contains some twenty-five pages more than tified for Tuesday, June 29th.

Essays IN BIOGRAPHY AND CRITICISX. - By the work to our subscribers and friends as one

Peter Bayne, M. A., author of “The Christian of our best magazines, especially for yocng men. Life, Social and Individual,” &c. Second Se

Subscriptions received by Snow & Greene, ries. Gould & Lincoln, Boston. 1858.

Booksellers, Providence. An intelligent reading public can hardly express sufficient gratitude to Messrs. Gould &

ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.-By Benjamin GreenLincoln for their re-publication of various excel

leaf, A. M. Robert S. Davis & Co., Boston. lent foreign works. Among these publications

We have received specimen pages of this new the works of Peter Bayne and Hugh Miller take mathematical work, soon to be issued It is a prominent place. The present work is a con

beautifully printed on fine white paper, and is an tinuation of the learned author's former volume

attractive looking book. We have no doubt it of " Essays on Biography and Criticism,” in a will be found a valuable work. It will be mail" Second Series." It includes eleven papers, on

ed, prepaid, to teachers for examination, on rethe following topics :

ceipt of 60 cents in postage stamps, by the pub1. Charles Kingsley.

iishers. 2. Thomas Babington Macauley. 3. Sir Archibald Alison.

THE GOLDEN HARP, a Collection of Hymns, 4. Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

Tunes and Choruses for the use of Sabbath 6. Wellington.

Schools. By L. 0. Emerson. Oliver Ditson

& Co., Boston. 6. Napoleon Bonaparte.

An admirable collection of old hymns and fa7. Plato.

miliar tunes, which must be found acceptable to 8. Characteristics of Christian Civilization. 9. The Modern University.

those who want a new hymn book for their Sab

bath Schools. It contains about 400 pieces and 10. The Pulpit and the Press.

100 tunes. We have recommended it personally 11. “ The Testimony of the Rocks.". 1 Defense.

to our friends. Up:n a somewhat cursory glance at this voltime, we have found rich mines of thought,

We have received a circular from Messrs. Mc. stirring biographical incidents, and close-reason- Alpine & Haines, of Allentown, Pa., stating that ing, scholarly criticism of men and principles, they are about to commence the publication of a all written in the finest style of “British Essays," new “Teachers' Journal ” at that place. Mr. which promise a harvest of great profit to the McAlpine is a young teacher of talent and abilicareful reading which shall follow.

ty, and we doubt not will give his readers many (lry jokes and practical hints. We wish them

abundant success, and certainly the Key Stone THE YOUNG MEN'S MAGAZINE. Edited by R. C. McCormick. New York. $1.50 per an

State is large enough to support several educa

tional journals. This is the only Magazine in the country wholly devoted to the interests of young men. Barxes' PRAYERS.-C. Desilver, Philadelphia. It is ably edited, and embraces among the con- The Great Awakening of the past winter and tributors to its pages some of the best writers in spring has opened many mouths in prayer which America. Each number contains 48 pages of were never accustomed to commune with God in choice matter. The present volume, commenco thanksgiving and supplication. This excellent ing with May, has a series of Biographical and judicious selection of prayers for family use, Sketches of distinguished Self-Made Men, of a compiled by Rev. Albert Barnes, will be rehighly interesting and valuable character. The ceived by such as well as by many older ChristMay number is embellished with a fine steel en-ians with great favor, and will be found eminentgraving of Dr. Kane. We cheerfully commend' ly conducive to a deep-toned piety.


Pamphlets Received.


MAR.-Elementary Course. By Thomas Clark. Third Annual Report of Births, Marriages and

Charles Desilver, Philadelphia. Deaths, in the city of Providence. By Edwin

The object of this Grammar is to obviate the M. Snow, M. D. 1858.

tediousness of learning grammatical forms with

out at the same time applying them. The plan purNeed and Availability of the Writing and

sued is to call upon the pupil for translation as Spelling Reform. By Wm. T. Coggeshall.

soon as he commences to learn the declensions. Permanant Rcalities of Religion, and the Interlinear translations are given him with signs Present Religious Interest. A Sermon. By F. and references to the declensions and conjugaD. Huntington, D. D. Gould & Lincoln.

tions. Service the End of Living.Delivered at the Neither this or any other plan for teaching LatAnniversary of the Boston Young Men's Christ- in can ever obviate the necessity of study on the lan Association, May 24, 1858. By Rev. A. L. part of the learner, since “ There is no royal Stone, Pastor of Park Street Church, Boston. road to knowledge." An excellent and beautiful exposition of the By those who approve of and use interlinear principles of the Christian Religion.

translations this book will be received with great Apollo, or directions to persons commencing favor. We shall make use of it in our own a religious life. Boston, Gould & Lincoln. classes for examples in translation.

Fourth Annual Report of the State Commis- It contains 268 pages, and is finely printed, and sioner of Common Schools of Ohio.

bound to match the series of classics by the same Report of the Superintendent of Public In- author and publisher. struction to the General Assembly of the State of Iowa.

WLBSTER'S COUNTING HOUSE AND FAMILY Catalogue, History and Organization of the DICTIONARY. With Synonyms. Mason Broth

ers, New York. Hartford Public High School.

A fine edition for common use; not so full as Seventeenth Annual Catalogue of the Provi

the Unabridged, consequently not so large and dence Conference Seminary.

unwieldy. It contains 490 pages and includes Report of School Committee of city of New

various useful tables. Bedford.

Webster's High School Dtctionary, by the same Report of Superintendent of Education for

publishers, is a capital school edition, containing Lower Canada, for the year 1856.

300 pages.



Webster's Common School Dictionary, still furTwelfth Annual Report of School Committee ther abridged, containing 320 pages, is a neat lite of Smithficid.

tle pocket edition for every school-boy and girl Annual Report of School Committee of Glou- in the tommon schools of our lan í.

Every teacher should see that each scholar has Report of the School Committee of Burrill

the Bible and a Dictionary. ville.

Report of the School Committee of Warwick.

Twelfth Annual Report of the School Com- Our LITTLE ONES IN HEAVEN.-Gould & Linmittee of Scituate.

coln, Boston. Annual Report of the School Committee of A beautiful little 12mo. of 248 pages, filled Cumberland.

with a choice selection of short articles of prose We shall be glad to receive reports from other and poetry, wisely selected, for the comfort of towns, that we may in due time give a Narration bereaved parents, by “The Author of the Aimof the condition of Education in our State. well Stories."

The R. J. Schoolmaster.


AUGUST, 1858.


For the Schoolmaster,

.The frequent repetition of this course so disParental Sympathy.

courages and disheartens the tender sensibility Perkats there is no duty devolving upon

of the child that he finally comes to the con

clusion that, although his parents are his natparents in the training of children more hab. itually and universally neglected, than that of ural protectors, to whom he must look for the parental sympathy. The moment the child supply of his bodily necessities, some one else begins to distinguish one person from another,

must satisfy the cravings of his nature for in all real or fancied danger it will cling to its sympathy. Very naturally, therefore, he turns parent for protection. This drawing of the to whomsoever is ready to meet the demands child to the parent seems almost instinctive,

of his inner being, never stopping to consider

what elements of moral rectitude a sympaand this very act seems to indicate the natural

thizing friend should possess, - in fact never relation existing between them. Could instinct (if we may call it by this name) be al- suspecting that untold evils may be the result lowed to go on in this natural and confiding

of such a step. Thus, year after year passes manner, this same commingling of soul with by, the parents often wondering why their

children are actuated by low and pernicious soul would continue through life. But such is seldom the case. On the contrary, the

motives and governed by wicked, selfish habsympathies of the child and parent become its, forgetting that they have neglected to sow alienated, and that by a very simple but oft- the good seed, and have given the enemy unrepeated process.

interrupted opportunities for sowing tares. The parents are busily occupied with the Such results in a large proportion of cases are turmoil of business and the anxiety of house- the natural fruits of this lack of parental hold duties. It may be that weighty responsi- sympathy. We do not mean to assert that

all who are deprived of this sympathy grow bilities are resting upon them and unpropia tious storms seem to be gathering to burst up to lead lives of wickedness, for some men upon their heads. Thus occupied and per

in spite of the wicked associations thrown plexed, the child desires assistance in the ad- around them, and neglect of proper parental justment of what is to him a serious difficul- influences, do, by the inherent power of their ty; but the parent regards not his necessities, own motives, rise to distinction and useful. and sends him away unaided and unsatisfied. I ness.

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