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tain and general principles. He considers fire and pure air as two elementary principles which have a remarkable affinity to each other, and whose different combinations form all the aeriform substances that have been obtained by the operations and experiments of modern chemists. The details into which he en. ters, relative to these combinations, and the different kinds of air, or aeriform substances, that are derived from them, are curie ous and interesting: they exhibit several new facts, and are fingularly recommendable for the method and precifion of their arrangement.

ART. XV. · De l'Esprit du Gouvernement æconomique, i. e. On the economical

Spirit of Government. By M, BOESNIER DE L'ORME. 8vo. Paris. 1786. THOUGH we cannot adopt all the opinions held forth in

1 this work, yet it abounds with ingenious points of view, and contains a variety of observations and facts, which a wise ftatesman may turn to his profit, and that of the public. The Author's great object is national felicity, and we believe him lincere in his zeal for its advancement. To point out its true sources, he treats successively of the right of property, and the origin of fociety; of agriculture, arts, manufactures, and commerce; of the union of the different operations of industry in one great end; of the functions of government; and the advantages that arise from the unequal distribution of landed property.

A R T. XVI. Voyage en Suise, ou Tableau historique, civil, politique, et physique de

la suille, i. e. Travels through Switzerland. By M. MAYER.

2 Vols. 8vo. Paris and Amsterdam. 1786. (7 Livres 4 Sols.) 'THE motto of this book, if we were to devise it, would be,

multum in parvo, much solid matter in a small compass, M. MAYER is not one of those superficial travellers who are pleasantly exposed in the following comparison :

Never by tumbler through the boops was shown

Such skill in passing all, yet touching none. Far from it: he bears all the marks of an attentive observer, an acute reasoner, a spirited painter of the objects he exhibits; but his political reflections on the Helvetic constitution are, undoubt. edly, che most thining parts of his work. He bas profited, indeed, considerably, by the travels of his predecessors, particularly the accurate and judicious Mr. Coxe, and he does not disdain to make an ample use of their labours; but he has added more than the widow's mite to the treasure of information which we already pofless with respect to Switzerland. He has gone over the ground, with their books in his hand, and with ardent curi

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ohity in his eye. In short he writes away, adding, correcting, and modifying; and exhibits a complete view of Switzerland, as if nobody had described it before him.

ART. XVII. Leçons elementaires de Mechanique, i. e. Elementary Lectures on Me

chanics. By the Abbé Jantet, Professor of Philosophy in the

College of Dole. 8vo. 454 Pages. With 9 Plates. Paris. 1785. IN this work, remarkable for the perspicuity, precision, typo

graphical neatness, and the extensive knowledge of mecha. nics, which it displays, the Author sets out by laying down the elementary principles of the science of mechanics. He deduces from one single propofition the general laws of the balance: he afterwards points out the cenier of gravity, the laws of uniform motion, the principal discoveries of Galileo, and the descent of heavy bodies. He explains the theory of central forces, and the application of that theory to motion in conic sections : he demonstrates that, by the laws of gravity, the planets can only describe conic sections: he treats also of the motion of the center of gravity, of the percussive powers of bodies, and the obstacles with which bodies in motion may meet.

The principle of equality of pressure (which is proved by all the experiments made upon Auids, though not perhaps sulceptible of demonftration by reasoning) is a truth whence the whole science of hydrostatics may be deduced. It is, accordingly, from this principle, that the Abbé JANtet derives the laws of the equilibrium of incompressible or elastic Auids, fubjected to the free action of their gravity, and the laws of the equilibrium of Auids with the solid bodies, which are immersed in them. A general view of hydraulics, with some of the plaineft doctrines relative to the motion of Auids in the various directions that are observable in water-works, to the percussion of Auids and the refraction of the rays of light, which pass from one medium into another, terminates this useful work.

ART. XVIII. Idylles, ou Contes Champêtres, i. e. Idyls, or Rural Stories. By Ma.

demoiselle Levesque. 16mo. Paris. 1786. F the name of this young lady was not prefixed to her work,

we might have conjectured that Gesner was her fire ; for the soul of Gefner seems to breathe in her charming poems. The sweet serenity of the rural scene, the various beauties which it exhibits, the mild and peaceful virtues of which it is the asylum, the lovely affections that constitute the comfort of domestic life, are the subjects on which this virgin mufe, in her fixteenth year, pours forth her chaste, tender, unaffected Atrains. These ttrains,

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though though in prose, have all the soft and affecting melody of pastoral poetry: they are dedicated to her parents; and what tender and delightful emotions must such an offering, from such a hand, have excited in their breasts *?

Tbe subject of the first of these idyls is, The dangers of love, which, though represented with a tender naïveté, seem rather to be painted from fancy than from feeling. The titles of the following idyls are, Filial Love the Dream-the Birtb-dayLisis and Alexis the Spring-the Midnight Conversation.

ART. XIX. Colle&tion universelle des Mémoires particuliers relatifs à l'Histoire de

France, i. e. A general Collection of particular Memoirs relative to the History of France. 10 Vols. 8vo. Paris. THIS valuable Collection comes forth successively, and exhi.

bits a circumftantial view of characters, events, and revolutions, accompanied with interesting notes and observations on all the most important points of French history. The tenth volume goes no farther down than to the first book of the memoirs of Philip de Comines, so that a multitude of volumes is yet to be expected.

ART. XX. Observations fur les Obstacles qui s'opposent aux Progrés de l'Anatomie,

i, e. Observations on the Obstacles that retard the Progress of Anatomy. By M. Tenon, Regius Professor in the College of Chirurgerie, and Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences. 4to.

47 Pages. Paris. 1786. DUY the book, anatomical Readers ! it is small, and cheap; D it is judicious, and therefore worthy of a perusal. Ic is published with the approbation of the whole anatomical Faculty, and also of the Academy of Sciences; and all this, surely, is sufficient to recommend it.

ART. XXI. Recherches sur la Direction du Fluide magnetique, i. e. Inquiries con

cerning the Direction of the magnetic Fluid. By M. BRUNO, Master of the Ceremonies to MONSIEUR, the King's Brother. 8vo.

206 Pages. With 8 Plates. Paris. 1785. OUR Author Alatters himself, that after a long series of ex

periments made on a variety of natural and artificial loadstones, he has at length arrived at the knowledge of all, or almost all, the laws to which the magnetic Auid is subjected,

• The father of this lady is M. Levesque, Author of the Hiftory of Rullia (of which we have given an account), who has been lately promoted to the profefforship of history at Berlin.

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This knowledge has led M. Bruno to form what he calls a new idea, and new indeed it is to us, and will appear probably so to many of our Readers. This idea is, that we are all mit taken when we lay or think that the magnetic fluid is emitted from one pole or extremity, and circulates to, and enters the opposite one: for our Author's experiments have convinced him, on the contrary, that this fluid, or effluvia, precipitates itself toward the poles, through all the points of a spherical circumference ; that it afterward re-unites itself at one common center, and that at this center a re-action is produced toward all the points of a spherical circumference. He may be in the right or in the wrong for aught we know ; for we do not well under. stand him : but we are tempted, by analogy, to apprehend, that he is in the wrong, when we see him affirming, in another place, that the inclination of the earth's axis may be explained by the action of the magnetic fluid on our globe.

As to the attraction and repulsion of the magnet, our Author attributes them to the elasticity and pressure of the air and the surrounding Auids. These impel the iron towards the part where it will find the least resistance; and that part is the space occupied by the magnetic fluid, in which there is a smaller quantity of air (or of any other grosser Auid) than that which ads upon the loadstone. We lould be glad to see the experiments that led to such results.

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ART. XXII.
Descriptions des Machines elektriques à Taffeta, &c. i. e. A Descrip-

tion of electrical Machines made with Taffeta, with an Account
of their Effects, and their various Advantages. By M. ROULAND,
Professor of Experimental Philosophy in the University of Paris.
With Plates. 8vo. Paris.

GENTLEMAN, surprized at the beauty and brilliancy of the n ele&trical pencils and corruscations which he had produced by rubbing, in the dark, with a cat's skin, two large taffera curtains, conceived the idea of employing silk in bis electrical machine. M. ROULAND caught the idea, and in a large machine has employed taffeta instead of the two plates of glass that are used in the machine of M. Van Marum, of whole prodigia dus effects we lately gave an account *. The construction of this machine, in which there is no glars, and which is much less expensive, and less liable to accidents, than that of the Dutch philosopher, has been examined by commissioners appointed for that purpose by the Royal Academy of Sciences: and their report is, that the machine of M. ROULAND is ingeniously constructed, and exempt from the accidents to which others

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* See Appendix to our 73d volume.

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are exposed--that it opens a new field for electrical experiments, and is adapted to produce the greatest effects. This report, given into the Academy by Count de Milly, Messieurs Leroi, Brillon, and de la Place, is every way worthy of the confidence of the Public.

ART. XXIII. Etudes de la Nature, i. e. The Study of Nature, or rather Studies of

Nature. By J. Henry BERNARDIN DE Sr. PIERRE. 3 Vols.

12 mo. With Plates. Paris. 1785. THIS is a first-rate publication. Its plan is irregular, but

1 moft extensive; for it takes in the whole compass of nature (that is, what we can see or conjecture of it), both in the physical and moral world. It is, in point of originality, one of the most remarkable productions we have met with ; for, beside a multitude of new ideas, the old ones acquire an aspect of novelty in paffing through this Author's pen, and we do not recollect any writer who has drawn so constantly from an internal fund of native genius and deep obfervation. Ancient fyftems, established principles, fage authority, received notions, new dis. coveries, are nothing to him, until they have been melted down in his crucible (if we may use that expreffion), and examined in all their constituent parts. He attacks, without respect of persons, what he looks upon as erroneous; but his attacks are always conducted with decency, candour, and amenity: he pulls down many new systems, and revives several old ones : he feems, indeed, to be over-fond of deviating from the beaten track : but he never quits the main path of genuine religion, though he separates from it the spirit of fanaticism, that gives it an odious aspect, and the follies of superftition, which would render it contemptible. His style is eloquent, animated, and of. ten picturesque and poetical. He deserves to be translated - but who shall translate him? as we may apply to him the Hibernicism in the batho :

None but himself can be his parallel.

vencer who has is Authornes acquire with; he

ART. XXIV. La Religion défendue contre l'Incredulité du Siecle, &c. i. e. A Defence

of Religion against the Attacks of modern Infidelity ; containing a Summary of Sacred History, and some preliminary Reflections, relative to the Design of this work. 12mo: 6 Vols. Paris. 1785. THOUGH we need not foreign aid to repulse the ad I versaries of religion, it is nevertheless an interesting, and may sometimes prove a useful object of curiosity, to know how a controversy of such moment' is carried on by our neightours, and particularly in a country, where a bold and pernicious association of sophists have been long undermining or endea

vouring

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