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tions on the situation of the country powers with reference to our political interests in that part of the world. To these Mr. Hastings. has added some hints for the proper frame of government over those remote posseflions; which have the recommendation of being the refult of long experience, and may now be accepted as frank disinteTefted communications. Art. 35. Transactions in India, from the Commencement of the
French War in 1756 to the Conclusion of the late Peace in 1783. Containing a History of the British Interests in Indottan during a Period of near thirty Years, distinguished by two Wars with France, several Revolutions and Treaties of Alliance, and the Administration of Governor Haltings. Svo. 6s. Boards. Debrett. 1786.
To criminate the administration of Governor Hastings, seems to be the chief object of this narrative, which is evidently written by an able hand. The Author describes scenes, rather than relates facts. We hope, for the credit of our country, that the picture he has drawn is Shaded beyond the life. Art 36. A serious Address to the Proprietors of Earl-India Stock,
and to all concerned in the commercial Prosperity of Great Bric tain, on the Subject of the present Disputes relative to the Company's Shipping. 8vo. 15. Sewell. 1786.
The neceflity of lowering the freight of Mips employed in the fervice of the East-India Company has been loudly contended for by various projectors--one of whom, in particular, has lately offered to float as many vessels as the Directors of that Company might require, at a saving of five pounds per ton, or 150,000 pounds per annum. This idea of economy in the article of shipping is strongly ridiculed by the writer of the present Address; and he boldly afferts that-calcu. lators, endowed with as great accuracy and comprehension as the ideal savers of the sum already stated, have demonstrated, that the saving which might possibly be made by the new plan (and which is Thewn to be in many respects an hazardous one) would not at the utmoft exceed the annual sum of 60,000 pounds.
The Author informs us, that a capital of two millions sterling has been funk by the owners of fhips for the service of the East-India Company; and he infifts (in answer to the several speculators, who have maintained that vessels of sco or 600 tons burden are better adapted to the India trade than those of 700 or 1000 tons, which are now in use) that Mips destined to encounter, for so long a space of time, all the varieties of climates, seasons, and seas, and exposed to the attacks whether of pirates or national troops in different latitudes of the world, ought to be of a stronger construction, as well as of larger capacity than those employed in what may be called, in compariron of this, ordinary and domestic commerce : that the Portuguese, the Spaniards, the Dutch, and the French have ever made mi. litary preparations a part of their mercantile projects : and farther, that if it be possible to reduce the freight of thips proper to be em. ployed in the aforesaid service, it can only be done by building vessels of a larger size than that of the present-'Which ships (lays he) may with ease, and at a small expence, be converted into men of war, and carry 18 pounders on the middle deck, and 9 pounders on the upper deck ; in all 58 guns.'
There is something particularly specious in the following argument; and the proposal immediately succeeding it, has (as far as we can pretend to judge) every appearance of fairness.
• The number of ships necessary for carrying on the commerce of the East-India Company, is not less than one hundred. Supposing then that we are provided, as in the course of a few years we may be, with such a number of ships in the best condition, constructed in such a manner as to admit of a reduction of freight *, and at the same time to do as much execution as our 60 gun ships, would we not possess a mighty commercial advantage, as well as a strong fecurity for our Eait-India settlements? And is not this a more worchy object of pursuit, than those paltry and perilous parings projected by the reformers in the Company's fhipping?'.
Proposal. • The owners of thips deeply interested in the prospe. rity of the East-Iodia Company, are anxious and willing to adopt every hint for æconomy that is compatible with the safety and stabi. lity of their commerce : they are therefore ready to come forward and build, for the next season, whatever ships the Company shall chuse. And in the mean time, that the Company's commerce may suffer no interruption, and incur no danger by new and unsafe expe. riments, they are willing to fit out whatever number of vessels may be necessary for this season, leaving the matters now in dispute between the Dire&ors and them undetermined ; and trusting for an equitable compensation, if differences cannot otherwise be settled, to arbitration.'
This, as we have already observed, seems honest on the part of the ship-owners. But what the East-India Directors may think on the matter, we know not. “ Secrets! Secrets !" --says Scrub -" to be sure there are secrets in every family.” True : and there are likewise mysteries in almost every profession and trade. It were there, fore absurd to think of diving into the arcana of Leadenhall.street. AMERICAN.
A.B. Art. 37. A Treaty of Amity and of Commerce between the United
States of America and his Majesty the King of Pruffia. 8vo. No Price nor Bookseller. 1786.
This treaty is replete with benevolence; an unparalleled instance of which we find in the 23d Article. “If war should arise between the contracting parties, all merchant and trading vessels, empl yed in exchanging the products of different places, and thereby rendering the necessaries, conveniences, and comforts of human life more easy to be obtained, and more general, shall be allowed to pass free and unmolested, and neither of the contracting powers shall grant or issue any commission to any private armed vessels, empowering them to take or destroy such trading vessels, or interrupt such commerce.' The article concerning the treatment of prisoners of war is also remarkable for its truly benevolent spiric.-The whole treaty is a fingular phænomenon in the history of nacions. Military powers uniting to alleviate the miseries of war, to lesen the horrors of blood. ted, and relieve the distresses of their enemies, is the best lesion of
. * This, we are told, the owners of India Ships have actually in contemplation,
humanity, which a philosophical king, acting in concert with a phi, losophical patriot *, could possibly give to the princes and statesmen of the earth. Happy are we to see such laudable ideas once started in their view ; and happy will it be for the world if its rulers never lose sight of them!
ham Art. 38. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, held at
Philadelphia, for promoting useful Knowledge. 4to. Vol. II, Philadelphia printed. 1986.
The peculiar circumstances of the American revolution since the former volume of these Transactions was published, are alleged, and will serve as a sufficient apology for the long delay in publishing a second t. The Society having, however, resumed their former la. bours, and finding themselves in poliession of materials more than suf. ficient for a second volume of Transactions, appointed a Committee, to select such pieces as might be most proper for the purpose, the results of whose selection are now offered to the Public, conffting of 45 papers, on different subjccts, of which some account will be given in a future number of our Journal. Several others, worthy of publica, tion, we are told, still remain, to appear in a subsequent volume. Dan Art. 39. Laws of the Legislature of New York, in force against
the Loyalists, and affecting the Trade of Great Britain, and Bri, tilh Merchants, and others having Propery in that State. 8vo. 38, Debrett, &c. 1786,
The objects of this collection are specified in the title ; and appear more fully in the concluding paragraphs of the Preface; viz.
"The editor has added the Definitive Treaty, and the refusal of the senate and allembly to ratify the fifth article, together with such other extracts from the journals of those two branches of the legislature, as tend to Mew the spirit that aétuated them in pafling some of those laws, notwithstanding the objections of the Council of Revision, (consisting of the Governor, the Chancellor, and Judges of the fu. preme court), the third branch of the legislature-as also such other extraês as affect British creditors.
! The editor begs leave further to observe:
• Firít, That those parts of the several laws which have been omitted, relate oniy to the internal police of the state.
• Secondly, That the treaty is infracted, not only by such laws as have been palled since the peace, but by the non-repeal of every one of those enacted during the war, and which, to give the treaty its in. rended effect, ought to have been repealed; for they have their operation now in full vigour, the people and subordinate magiftracy being obliged to obey the sovereignty of the country in all the hostile acts commanded or authorized by their laws.?
POLICE. Art. 40. Thoughts on the Construction and Polity of Prisons, with
Hings for their Improvement. By John Jebb, M.D. To which is a ded, An Abitract of Felonies created by Statute, and other Articles relative to the Penal System. 8vo. 2s. With an En. grating of the Doctor, zs. 6d. Dilly.
The reflections upon the penal laws, at the close of this pamphlet (which, with the abstract, and a brief liketch of Dr. Jebb's character, is all the new matter contained in it), may poflibly suggest some useful hints on the important subject of the revisal of our penal laws, which, we trust, will shortly take place under the direction and authority of parliament. On so extensive and difficult a topic, we can only, at present, express a general wish with our Author ( Capel Lofft, E/9.) that such improvements may be speedily adopted in this part of the English law, that its future characteristics may be fimplicity, equity, and energy
EDUCATION. Art. 41. Dramatic Pieces, calculated to exemplify the Mode of
Conduct which will render young Ladies both amiable and happy when their School Education is completed. Small 12mo. 3 Vols. 6s. Marshal.
Several important lessons of moral instruction are, in these volumes, conveyed in a most agreeable and interesting form : they are a valuable addition to the Library for Children, which the Editor is so laudably employed in providing. The duty of filial affection and obedience in difficult situations; the fatal consequences of a life of diffipation ; the folly and odiousness of pride; the advantages to be derived from a liberal education in a state of adversity; and the value of domestic education, are the topics illustrated in these dramatic pieces. NATURAL HISTORY
E Art. 42. Observations of Marine Vermes, Insects, &c. By Ma.
thew Martin, Member of the Bath Philosophical Society. With Notes and Quotations from different Authors. Fasciculus I. 4to. is. 6d. White, &c. 1786.
This Number contains the descriptions of only three worms; namely, the Allinia caryophyllus, Siphunculus nudus, and Siphunculus reticulatus, The Author appears to be a man of observation; and, if he pursues his work with the same accuracy and judgment that he exhibits in this specimen, he will throw considerable light on a part of natural history which is, as yet, very obscure. The accompanying his descriptions with drawings, is a great improvement of his plan. Mr. Martin 'thanks God that he is blessed with a good recollection.' If he means memory, we advise him not to make too much use of it, left he should wear it out too foon ; let him rather commit his observations to writing, as they occur.
MATHEMATICAL. Art. 43. A Table which reduces Deals as imported from the Baltic
to standard Deals. Shewing the Quantity of standard in any Number of Baltic or common Deals from i to 1000, of any Length from 6 to 16 Feet long, and from 7 to 12 Inches broad, Thickness being i}, 2, 2, and 3 Inches, &c. Catculated by Isaac Sandys. 400. 6s. "Liverpool printed; fold by Lowndes, in London.
The timber-merchant and carpenter will find this performance a useful assistant in computing the quantity of any given number of common deals ; fince it will shew in two minutes, what in the ordi
nary course of calculation would require twenty minutes to perform. The merit of Tables of every kind consists chiefly in their being accurately computed, and correctly printed. We have examined this in several places, and find it free from error, in all the examples we have tried.
2 m Art. 44. An entire new Work, and Method of proceeding to dis
cover the Variation of the Eartb's Diameters, with Evidence laid down, amounting to a Demonstration, that its true Ratio is not less variable than as 45 to 46, and hortest in its Pole's Axis 174 Miles, &c. &c. By Thomas Williams, Inventor. 410. 45. No Bookseller's Name. 1786.
As Mr. Williams has given no demonstration of his assertions, we cannot afford our aslent to them.
D: RIVER-FISHING. Art. 45. The Gentleman Angler. Containing brief Instructions
by which the Beginner may, in a short Time, become a perfear Artist in angling for all kinds of Filh. With several Observations on Angle Rods, Artificial Flies, &c. Also the proper Times and Seasons for River and Pond-fithing; when Fish spawn; and wbat Baits are chiefly to be used: with the Art of Rock and Sea-fishing; and an Explanation of the technical Words used in the Art of Angling. By a Gentleman who has made it his Diversion fourteen Years. 12mo. 15. 6d. Kearney. 1786.
Compiled from former publications on the subject, with all their fins and transgressions about them. See Universal and infallible Bait; How to make an artificial Fly; The twelve Sorts of artificial Flies; Directions for Roach and Dace Fishing ; Method of Rock-fishing, &c. &c. POETRY
Th : Art. 45. The Age of Genius! A Satire on the Times. In a
Poetical Epistle to a Friend. By Thomas Bufby. 410. 35. Har. rison. 1786. . This writer, as a professed enemy to laboured productions, has acted very consistently in leaving a few negligences in his piece, left the seader's taste should be cloyed with too much accuracy and elegance. We meet, however, with some bold-itrokes, and good lines, in the poem, which convince us, that if the Author's Syftem had not prevented him, he would have written an excellent fatire on the folly which is so strongly marked in the following lines :
" Cits, scholars now and rhetoricians grown,
• No thirst of letier'd reputation yet