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cheiter, whose secret consists only in the peculiar mode of apa plication.

Our Readers will judge, from the above short quotation, that this writer is in little danger of becoming obscure by aiming at brevity. In some cases, as particularly in the directions for measuring heights by the barometer (built on Sir George Shuckburgh's experiments in the Philor. Transact.), prolixity and tau. tology have rendered the operation apparently more intricate than it really is. The language is in general animated, but not free from affectation, nor always correct; nor will the fingularity of writing constantly woud, coud, sboud, throu', floguiston, floguisticated, make any great addition to his literary character. In the two last mentioned words, the u is probably inserted to thew that the g is to be pronounced hard, as in guilt; but we apprehend the mere English reader will be more likely to give some sound or other to the u itself. He had perhaps some similar reason for writing aironaut, airoftat, airopaidia (the title of the book) with an i instead of an e; a mode of spelling and pronouncing which we could not have expected from one who quotes Greek. But these are only fraws Aoatiog on the surface of the stream ; and we thould not perhaps have noticed them if they did not appear to have been designedly scattered there, and injudicioufly meant as embellishments.



Art. XII. The Triumph of Benevolence; occafioned by the national

Design of erecting a Monument to John Howard, Esq. 410. Is. 6d. Dodley, &c. 1786. . TI E have frequently, when speaking of Dr. Howard's be

V nevolent and useful publications *, embraced the ocsasion of paying our tribute of fincere applause to the merit of his transcendant philanthropy; but no writer hath more happily expressed the peculiar character of his patriotic virtue, and labour's of love for the benefit of the distressed part of his fellow-creatures, than hach Mr. Burke, in one of his eloquent addreffes t to the Public:-" To dive into the depths of dungeons; to plunge into « the infection of hospitals; to survey the mansions of sorrow and “ pain; to remember the forgotten, to attend to the neglected,

to visit the forsaken, and to compare and collate the distresses " of all men in all countries ;"—there have been the objects of this excellent man's researches, in his vifits of fingular and un

* State of Prisons in England and Wales, Rev. Vol. LVII. p. 8. Account of Prisons in Germany, Italy, &c. Rev. Vol. LXIII. p. 530. Historical Anecdotes of the Bastile, Rev. Vol. LXIV. p. 95. Appendix to the State of Prisons, &c. Rev. Vol. LXXII. p. 41. And, we betieve, some other tracts, which we do not at present recollect. + Speech at the Guildhall, Bristol, 1780.


** supposed to be written by

mm Pratt.

against one of the jail which hes of Tur.

precedented charity, to almost every country in Europe! And which he is now extending to the inhospitable regions of Ture key,-in the laudable hope, that the means which he has dircovered to check the influence of the jail infection, will be efficacious, likewise, against the plague,"-May his generous enterprize be crowned with succefs !

The Poem now before us, is written in praise of this excelJene Friend OF Man! and the perusal of it hash afforded us great pleafure. With the wreath which the Poet, « with ani.' mated haste,' has woven to deck the fhrine of Howard,' be hath twined no mean chaplet for his own brow: as the reader will perceive, from the following short extract:

• From Public Gratitude the notes arise,
• To honour virtuous Howard yet on earth;
While Providence yet spares him from the skies,

Th'enduring Statue shali attest his worth.
Lo, Albion's ardent fons the deed approve,

Wide o'er the realm to spread the generous flame,
A spirit like his own begins to move,

A thousand virtues kindle at his name.
This, this the moment, Britons, ye should chuse,

While the fair act no modeft blush can raise :
The good man's absence shall our love excuse,

And give the full-plum'd luxury of praise.
By Heaven commission'd, now our Patriot flies

Where Nature scourges with her worst disease,
Where plague-devoted Turkey's victim lies,

Where spotted Deaths load every tainted breeze:
With love unbounded, love that knows not fear,

Wherever pain or sorrow dwells he goes,
Kindly as dew, and bounteous as the sphere,

His social heart no poor diftinction knows.
Ah, what is friend or foe to Him, whose soul

Girding creation in one warm embrace,
Extends the saviour arm from pole to pole,

And feels akin to all the human race!
To all the human ! all the brutal too;

Bird, beart, and insect, bless his gentle power,
From the worn steed reposing in his view,

To the tame red-breast warbling in his bower.' By a note added to one of the Letters annexed to the Poem, we learn, that · Mr. Howard allots to his horses, grown'old, or infirm, a rich pasture to range in, for their lives :'-This is, indeed, girding the creation in one warm embrace !' The charity of Howard is uniform throughout; it extends to all animated beings; and may be juftly compared to the dew of heaven, which descends alike on all the juft and the unjuft! What an admirable consalt to the conduct (the boafted fern virtue ! ] of those re


nowned heroes of old Rome, who turned out their aged and exbaufted llaves, and left them to starve !

The poem from which the foregoing extract is taken, is fol. lowed by a pretty Sonnet, written by W. Upton, and addressed to Dr. Lettlom, a zealous and munificent promoter of the design of erecting a ftatue in honour of Mr. Howard, in his life-time; a design which, perhaps, few beside the modeft Howard himself will dilupprove. '. We have, also, in this publication, copies of letters * from various friends and contributors to the above-mentioned undertaking some offering their advice, for the improvement of the plan, and an extension of it, to prison charities and reforms; and pointing out whar the writers conceive to be the most proper ficuation for the intended column.-There is also a list of Sube fcribers, who are numerous ; and we have the pleasure to see that the sum subscribed is already very considerable.

* Chiefly, if not wholly, selected from that valuable miscellany, the Gentleman's Magazine,

Art. 13. The

to which Surgeon


For SEPTEMBER, 1786.

Art. 13. The remarkable Effects of Fixed Air in Mortifications of

tbe Extremities; to which is added the History of some Worm
Cases. By John Harrison, Surgeon, of Epsom, Surry. 8vo. 19.
Baker and Galabin. 1785.
THE two cases, here related, of mortifications, seem to be in-

stances of the Gangrena Senilis ; for which poultices of flour, yeast, and honey, were applied in the act of fermentation. In the firft case (that of Mrs. Budworth, aged 90) it was applied on the zoth of February; but though the sore had contracted a fifth part, and had no appearance which threatened a return of mortification, Mrs. B. died on the 8th of March following. The second case (that of Buckle, aged 70] is more in point, and bears more favourable testimony to the operation of the poultice. Is it right in this case to ascribe the good effect produced to the fixed air? Is not the heat, generaced by the fermentation, of use? Warmth and moisture are very beneficial in checking the progress of the Gangræna Sexilis. Warm water fima ply has been known of service in such cases.

The histories of some worm cases cured by an unknown medicine, (to use the Author's expression) are subjoined. These we shall not examine. We do not, however, agree with the President of the College, in the play, in maintaining that it does not become us to enquire; though, like Dr. Laft, Mr. Harrison would stop us at once, and say, as he does in his book," the means are a secret.” Such concealments are generally suspicious, and are always unworthy of proRev. Sept. 1786,


fessional men. They who practise them have seldom mach to dif. close.

M Art. 14. An Account of the late epidemic Ague, particularly as it

appeared in the Neighbourhood of Bridgnorth, in Shropshire, in 1784, with a successful Method of treating it. To which are added; fome Observations on a Dysentery that prevailed at the same Time. By William Cooley, Surgeon in Bridgnorth. 8vo. 1S. Murray, &c. 1785. Mr. Cooley appears to be a great admirer of Dr. Cullen, and applies, in this book, the Professor's theories to explain the appearances of the epidemic ague which occurred, as above, in Shropshire. A Art. 15. Dr. Milman's Animadversions on the Nature and on the

Cure of the Dropsy. Translated from the Latin, into English, by F. Swediaur, M. D. 8vo. 35. Dodney, &c. 1786.

When we noticed * the Animadverfiones, c. (of which the book be. fore us is a translation), it appeared to us, that the learned Author had suggested a considerable improvement in the treatment of an obftinate and dangerous disorder. Subsequent experience has confirmed the opinion we then expressed of the methods of cure recommended by Dr. Milman. In the Preface to this publication, Dr. Swediaur adds his testimony to the advantage of them; and we think the Public much indebted to him for giving these useful observations an English dress, as they will, doubtless, be thereby rendered more extensively beneficial.

M Art. 16. Remarks on morbid Retentions of Urine. By Charles

Brandon Trye, Member of the Corporation of Surgeons in London, and Surgeon to the general Infirmary in Glocefter. 8vo. 25. 6d. Murray. 1785 Mr. Trye refers preternatural retentions of urine to the following causes : ilt. A want of tone in the muscular fibres of the body of the bladder; by which it will be deprived of the power to contract, 2dly, To a paralytic affection of the bladder ; in which case it will not receive (feel we suppose is meant) a disposition to contract. 3dly, An inflammation or spasm of the muscular fasciculi, which surround the opening of the bladder into the urethra. 4thly, The canal of the urethra being rendered incapable of dilatation by inflammation, spasm, ftricture, or pressure. 5thly, An extraneous body, as a stone lying upon the opening of the bladder, or lodged in the urechra. 6thly, The retention of the urine in the body may arise from a bursting or laceration of the coats of the bladder. The remedies for these affections are confidered. In the case of the urine's not coming away from a paralytic bladder, after the introduction of the catheter, Mr. Trye proposes to draw it off by means of an air-pump, a glass receiver, and a flexible tube terminating in a conical metallic pipe ; an engraving of which instruments accompanies this book, and des ferves the consideration and attention of the professional reader. ML Art. 17. An Essay on the Jaundice, in which the Propriety of

using the Bath Waters in that Disease, and also in some particular Affections of the Liver, is considered. By Williain Corp, M. D.

* Soe Rev. vol. LXII. Numb. for Jan. 1780.


Member of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, and Physician to the Pauper Charity of Bath. 8vo. Is. 6d. Dilly. 1785.

This Essay, though in a compendious form, bears many marks of good sense and judgment. The Author is accurate in his descriptions, and right in his discriminations. We recommend his book as likely to afford the same satisfaction to others that we have experienced from the perosal of it.

M. Art. 18. Medical Cautions, for the Confideration of Invalids,

those especially who resort to Bath : containing Essays on fashionable Diseases; dangerous Effects of hot and crowded Rooms; Regimen of Diet, &c. an Enquiry into the Use of Medicine during a Course of mineral Waters; an Essay on Quacks, Quack Media cines, and Lady Doctors; and an Appendix, containing a Table of the relative Digestibility of Foods, with explanatory Observations. Published for the Benefit of the General Hospital at Bath. By James Mackitrick Adair, M. D. Member of the Royal Media cal Society, and Fellow of the College of Physicians, Edinburgh. 8vo. 35. 60. Boards. Dodsley. 1786.

Dr. M-k Adair having given the heads of the several chapters of his book in the title-page, has saved us the trouble of extracting them. The fashionable topics here mentioned are plausibly, though not profoundly treated : and as he professes to design this book for the toilette, so the contents of it seem to be suited to that class of readers. We hope it will do some good; and that it will thereby answer another end which the Author wishes it to serve,-that of making some compensation for the manifold profeffional errors he thinks he muft necessarily have committed in the course of almost forty years extensive practice. Art. 19. `An Essay on the Theory of the Production of Animal Heat,

and on its Application in the Treatment of cutaneous Eruptions, Inflammations, and some other Diseases. By Edward Rigby, Member of the Corporation of Surgeons in London. 8vo. 45. sewed. Johnson. 1785. Mr. Rigby supposes that the various kinds of food, when admitted into the stomach, and assisted by the heat, moisture, and peculiar action of that organ, undergo the most perfect decomposition, and that the matter of heat, which probably forms a very considerable part of them, is there separated, and rendered capable of diffusing itself through every part of the body, for the support of life. The heat, however, produced by the first decomposition of the food in the stomach, is not, according to Mr. R. all that it brings with it into the animal; he supposes that as the production of heat must answer a vital purpose more than cold would do, it is no improbable conjecture to imagine that every such change, every new arrangement of the particles of the food in its progress through the different parts of the body, may occafion heat. These principles are applied to the explanation of the general theory of cutaneous eruptions, of the small pox, the miliary eruption, the measles, the scarlatina, the erysipelas, and twenty-cwo different diseases, including even the gout and the scurvy. How difficult is it for a man to quit a favourite hobby-horse, when once he has mounted it!

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