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could not afford to keep hounds and do this into the bargain. But this will give me the most pleasure all to nothing, and then my wife will partake of it -- And we will have music and books I recollect that I have got an excellent library – There is another pleasure I had never thought of- And then no doubt we shall have children, and they are very pleasant company, when they can ta k and understand what is said to them; and now I begin to reflect, I find there are a vast many plealures in the life I have chalked out, and what a fool fhould I be to throw away my money at the gaming-table, or my health at any table, or my affections upon harlots, or my time upon hounds and horses, or employ either money, health, affections, or time, in any other pleasures or pursuits, than there, which I now perceive will lead me to folid happiness in this life, and secure a good chance for what may befal me hereafter.'

The Observer's concluding Number (93). • Being now arrived at the conclusion of my third volume, and having hitherto given my readers very little interruption in my own person, I hope I may be permitted to make one short valedictory address to these departing adventurers, in whose success I am naturally so much interested.

I have employed much time and care in rearing up these Essays to what I conceived maturity, and qualifying them, as far as I was able, to Mift for themselves, in a world where they are to inherit no popularity from their author, nor to look for any favour but what They can earn for themselves. To any, who Mall question them who they are, and whence they come, they may truly answer-We are all one man's fons -- we are indeed Observers, but no Spies. If this thall not fuffice, and they must needs give a further account of themselves, they will have to say, that he who sent them into the world, fent them as an offering of his good-will to mankind ; that he trusts they have been so trained as not to hurt the feelings or offend the prin. ciples of any man, who shall admit them into his company; and that for their errors (which he cannot doubt are many), he hopes they will be found errors of the underítanding, not of the heart: they are the firft-fruits of hi, leisure and retirement; and as the mind of a man in s that fituation will naturally bring the past scenes of active life under its examination and review, it will surely be considered as a pardon. able zeal for being yet serviceable to mankind, if he gives his expe. rience and observations to the world, when he has no further expectations from it on the score of fame or fortune. These are the real motives for the publication of theie Papers, and this the Author's true state of mind: to serve the cause of morality and religion is his first ambition ; to point out some useful lessons for amending the education and manners of young people of either sex, and to mark the evil habits and on social humours of men, with a view to their reformation, are the general objects of his under aking.. He has formed his mind to be contented with the consciousness of these honeft endeavours, and with a very moderate fare of success : he has ample reason notwithstanding to be more than fatisfied with the receprion these Papers have already had in their probationary excur. sion; and it is not from any disgust, taken up in a vain conceit of his own merits, that he has more than once observed upon the frauds


and follies of popularity, or that he now repeats his opinion, that it

is the worst guide a public man can follow, who wishes not to go out · of the track of honesty; for at the same time that he has seen men

force their way in the world by effron tery, and heard others apó plauded for their talents, whose only recommendation has been their ingenuity in wickedness, he can recollect very few indeed, who have fucceeded, either in fame or fortune, under the disadvantages of modefty and merit.

"To such readers, as shall have taken up these Essays with a can: did dispofition to be pleased, he will not scruple to express a hope that they have not been altogether disappointed; for though he has been onaflisted in composing them, he has endeavoured to open a variety of resources, sensible that he had many different palaies to provide for. The subje&t of politics, however, will never be one of these resources; a subject which he has neither the will nor the capacity to meddle with. There is yet another topic, which he has beer no less Audious to avoid, which is personality; and though he professes to give occasional delineations of living manners, and not to make men in his closet (as some Essayists have done), he does not mean to point at individuals; for as this is a practice which he has ever rigidly abstained from when he mixed in the world, he should hold himself without the excuse, even of temptation, if he was now to take it up, when he has withdrawn himself from the world.

In the Essays (which he has presumed to call Literary, because he cannot strike upon any apposite title of an humbler sort) he has ftudied to render himself intelligible to readers of all descriptions, and the deep-read scholar will not fastidiously pronounce them Thallow, only because he can fathom them with ease; for that would be to wrong both himself and their Author, who, if there is any vanity in a pedantic margin of references, certainly resisted that vanity, and as certainly had it at his choice to have loaded his page with as great a parade of authorities, as any of his brother-writers upon classical subjects have ostentaciously displayed. But if any learned crisic, now or hereafter, fhall find occasion to charge there. EfTays on the score of false authority or actual error, their Author will most thanke fully meet the investigation ; and the fair Reviewer shall find that he has either candour to adopt correction, or materials enough in reserve to maintain every warrantable assertion.

The Moralist and the Divine, it is hoped, will here find nothing to except against ; it is not likely such an offence Tould be committed by one, who has rested all his hope in that Revelation, on which his faith is founded ; whom nothing could ever divert from his aim of turning even the gayest subjects to moral purposes, and who reprobates the jest, which provokes a laugh at the expence of a blush.

• The Essays of a critical fort are no less addressed to the moral objects of compofition, than to those which they have more profeffedly in view': they are not undertaken for the invidious purpose of developing errors, and stripping the laurels of departed poets, but fimply for the uses of the living. . The specimens already given, and those which are intended to follow in the further prosecution of the work, are proposed as disquisitions of instruction rather than of subtleRev. Sept. 1786.


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ty; and if they shall be found more particularly to apply to dramatie compositions, it is because their Author looks up to the stage, as the great arbiter of more important delights, than those only which concern che taste and talents of the nation ; it is because he sees with serious regret the buffoonery and low abuse of humour to which it is sinking, and apprehends for the consequences such an influx of folly may lead to. It will be readily granted there are but two modes of combating this abasement of the drama with any probability of success: one of these modes is, by an exposition of some one or other of the productions in question, which are supposed to contribute to its degradation; the other is, by inviting the attention of the Public to an examination of better models, in which the standard works of our early dramatists abound. If the latter mode therefore should be adopted in these Essays, and the former altogether omitted, none of their readers will regret the preference that has been given upon such an alternative.

• If the ladies of wit and talents do not take offence at some of these Essays, it will be a test of the truth of their pretensions, when they discern that the raillery, pointed only at affectation and false character, has no concern with them. There is nothing in which this nation has more right to pride itself, than the genius of its women ; they have only to add a little more attention to their do. mestic virtues, and their fame will fly over the face of the globe. If I had ever known a good match broken off on the part of the man, because a young lady had too much modesty and discretion, or was 100 strictly educated in the duties of a good wife, I hope I under. Iand myself too well to obtrude my old-fashioned maxims upon them. They might be as witty as they pleased, if I thought it was for their good; but if a racer, that has too great a share of heels, muft Jie by because it cannot be marched, so must every young spin. tter, if her wits are too nimble. If I could once discover that inen chuse their wives, as they do their friends, for their manly atchievements and convivial talents, for their being jolly fellows over a bottle, or topping a five-barred gate in a fox-chace, I hould then be able to account for the many Amazonian figures I encounter in Houched hats, great-coats and half-boots, and I would not presume to set my face against the fashion.

The first Numbers of the present collection, to the amount of forty, have already been published; but being worked off at a country press, I find myself under the painful neceffity of discontinuing che edition. I have availed myself of this opportunity, not only by correcting the imperfections of the first publication, but by rendering this as unexceptionable (in the external at least) as I possibly could. I should have been wanting to the Public and myself, if the Aattere, ing encouragement I have already received had not prompted me to proceed with the work; and if my alacrity in the further prosecution of it shall meet any check, it must arise only from those causes, wbich, no human diligence can controul.

Vos tamen O noftri ne feftinâte libelli !

Si post fata venit glória, :08 propera,'. Anot.

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ART. IX. The Natural History of many curious and uncommon Zooe

phytes, collected from various parts of the Globe, by the late JOHN ELLIS, Esq. F. R. S. &c. systematically arranged and described by the late DANIEL SOLANDER, M. D. F. R.S. Wich 62 * Plates, engraven by principal Artists. 4to. il. 16s. Boards. White. 1786. THAT the Reader may understand what he has to expect in

I this work, we will lay the Preface before him; with a little abridgment:

• Mr. Ellis, having discovered that several subjects, which had been arranged by natural historians under the title of Marine vegetables, were in reality animal productions, published, in the year 1755, the result of the researches he had made in the investigacion of that branch of knowledge, in a quarto work intitled “ An Essay towards a Natural History of British and Irish Corallines *." The approbation with which this work was received, gained the Author the patronage of many of the most respectable characters of the age ; and an innate desire to dive deeper into the hidden treasures of nature, induced him to make those inquiries, which produced several me. moirs, which were read at different times before the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions; particularly those “ on the animal nature of Zoophytes, called Corallina," and "the Aftinia Sociata, or Clustered Animal Flower," in the 57th volume, which gained him the honour of Sir Godfrey Copley's medal, delivered to him by the President, in November 1768, together with a compliment, in a speech from the chair, on the nature and utility of the discoveries of the Author.

- Thus encouraged, Mr. Ellis became more anxious in the pursuit of his favourite ftudy; and being then the King's agent for the province of Weft Florida, and agent for the island of Dominica; and in correspondence and intimacy with the learned Dr. Linnæus, and the most celebrated natural historians of the age; he was enabled to collect information from the most diftant countries, which he pursued with unremitting ardour; and with the assistance of his friends, Dr. Fothergill, and Dr. Selander, he intended to have laid before the Public a complete history of Zoophytes. In this, however, he was un. fortunately disappointed ; his declining health preventing himn from proceeding farther than the completion of these plates, which were all engraven under his immediate inspection

" For the arrangement of the descriptions, we are indebted to Dr.' Solander ; whose premature death prevented this, and other valuable works, from appearing in fo complete a manner as they would otherwise have done.

· These are the circumstances under which the following sheets are now published, at the request of Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. P. R. S. who has thought the work not unworthy of his attention, and permitted it to be dedicated to him; and it is presumed, that, even in its present state, it will meet with a favourable reception, since it throws many new lights upon a subject hitherto but flightly investigated.

63 appear in the yolume. + See Rev, Vol. XII. p. 2178

P2. i ' .y .... Ms.

"Mr. Ellis's fondness for Natural History was not confined to any. particular branch. Botany was likewise to him a source of infinite amusement; which he endeavoured to render useful to society in general, but more particularly to the West India islands and America. The Historical Account of Coffee *, published by him in 1774, was designed to encourage the consumption of that article, raised by the planters in the West Indies: while the accounts of the Mangostan and Bread Fruit Trees t, with directions for conveying seeds and plants from the most diftant parts of the globe in a state of vegetation I, were published with a view to introduce those, and many other plants into our own settlements, where they might become beneficial to the Public for the purposes of medicine, agriculture, and commerce : and his active mind was constantly employed in devising means for promoting the welfare of society, until the time of his death, which happened in October 1776.'

Mr. Ellis's name is so well known, and his acuteness and obfervation so thoroughly established, that we have no occafion to enlarge upon them. He has ever ftood unrivalled in this branch of Natural History, and truly merits the sitle which Linnæus conferred upon him, the Lynceus of his age.

But the process of time always brings with it a progress of improvement. Mr. Ellis, perhaps, struck with the wonders which every where presented themselves, or perhaps indeed it might be the fault of the age, which was not yet sufficiently dir. ciplined, did not fix such precise generic and specific characters, as were necessary to the ready discriminating of the several subjects. This did not escape the penetration of the excellent Dr. Solander. To give due efficacy therefore to such laborious diso coveries, he has here introduced System, that vital principle of all researches. At the same time, he has added such new objects, as have been discovered fince Mr. Ellis's publication, either by himself, or by others, who, through fondness for the subject, or through mere accident, did not let such curious objects país unobserved. Whoever, therefore, admired Mr. Ellis's former observacions, will here have fresh pleasure in seeing them presented in a more scientific form. We do not mean to derogate from Mr. Ellis's deserved praise. He characterited all he fet forth; but the subject itself then, especially the influx of new species, required a more correct and more capacious system,

- which Dr. Solander supplied ; so that, while we admire the acuteness of the great leader in this part of science, we cannot but applaud the able illustrator of such wonderful discoveries.

The plates, and particular descriptions of Mr. Ellis's former work, are constantly referred to; and fixty-three plates, containing excellent figures of the new species now first introduced to our notice, are given in this volume, together with ample descriptions in their proper places.

... G--ch * See Rev. Vol. L. p. 497. + Rev. Vol. LIV, p.77. I-Rev. Vol. XLIII. p. 217.


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