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resistance, not because they in the last century, but since its feared to lose what they held, reconstruction it has been albut because they thought that lowed to reopen its schools. a settlement of titles would Mr Worcester speaks of the put a stop to their power of Jesuits as the most educated expansion at the expense of men he met in the Philippines. lay owners. As it was, no Perhaps because they do not man who opposed them could own land they have escaped be sure that he would not be sharing the unpopularity of robbed by the chicanery of the other Orders. The Spanish Govjudges, who were bribed or ernment has encouraged, overawed by the friars. In even compelled, its colonists to short, the Orders were hated send their sons te the university in the Philippines for much at Madrid, in the hope that those reasons which brought they would be trained into sound about the revolt of Protestant sentiments. As a matter of Europe in the sixteenth century fact, the result was to bring
or for that matter, the vio- them into contact with modern lent attack made upon them “Liberalism.” The young Filiin Catholic Spain itself little pinos who came to Madrid in more than half a century ago. search of a diploma as doctor or Where it has the power, the lawyer not infrequently wanChurch of Rome never fails dered on to Paris and Brussels. to show that it has learnt Colonel Monteverde says, and nothing and forgotten nothing. no doubt with truth, that they
If such power as this was to took their models everywhere last, it ought to have been care- from the men who
were disfully excluded from all outside contented with the government influence. This was impossible, under which they lived.” We partly because of the action of can believe him, for we know the Spanish Government itself. the educated baboo.
Of course Revolutions at home had some these civilised Filipinos came effect even on this remotecolony. back with their heads full of The power of the religious Orders Liberalism, and of vague aspirhad been limited in theory. If it ations after “rights” which was little reduced in practice, were perfectly incompatible with the reason is to be found in the "the government under which constant intrigues of the chiefs they lived." An example of of the Orders at Madrid. Yet it this class was the José Rizal, a was being steadily undermined. pupil of the Jesuits, an M.D. of Bad as the administration was, Madrid, a student at Paris and it did not prevent native Fili- Brussels, and also an oculist of pinos from acquiring wealth by some reputation, who was finally trade. They sought to secure shot by the Spaniards. Just education for their sons, and when the ground had been well found it in the Jesuit school at prepared in this fashion, came Manila. The Society has never the Spanish revolution of 1868. recovered the vast estates it The amazingly feather-headed held before it was suppressed persons whom it brought to the
helm at Madrid thought fit to the Katipunan, or League. permit the meeting of a “reform- This organisation was probably ing assembly” at Manila. Of imitated less from the Freecourse this body had nothing masons, Carbonari, or any other more pressing to do than to set European body known to the about reforming the Spanish educated Filipinos, than from administration out of existence. the familiar Chinese model. In A trifling knowledge of the the matter of secret societies histories of revolutions will en the Chinamen who swarm at able any reader to tell the rest Manila have nothing to learn of the story for himself. The
The from anybody. The Katipunan friars were angered, and Gov- included all ranks—and not a ernment frightened at the fire few of the native troops. Its it had raised in the heather. members made an incision on There was reaction, suppression, the leg, and signed with their and coercion—and there was blood. The scar was the mark also hidden discontent and secret of the brotherhood. During agitation. It would seem, how- the years preceding the outever, that the Filipinos were break of the rebellion in 1896 not as yet resolute or prepared. the Katipunan had practically The futile conspiracy of 1872 organised an unseen army. It was easily stopped, and rather was divided into districts and more than twenty years passed sub-districts, each with its own before anything dangerous hap- chief.
a regular pened. During that last in- hierarchy of leaders, and a head terval of peaceful corruption centre. Nothing was wanting Spanish governors robbed and but an opportunity, and that their subordinates pilfered as was supplied when the vices before; a swarm of legal officials of Spanish administration alhampered all industry, to the lowed the rebellion in Cuba to injury of their own countrymen become formidable. Then the engaged in trade, as well as the Filipinos saw their opportunnatives. The religious Orders ity. Mr Forman says that were restless, possessed with a they sent a numerously signed fear of “Fracmasones,
," Free- petition to the Mikado, and masons, and therefore ever more that the Japanese Government severe in exercising their author- communicated it, names and ity. The Spanish Government, all, to the Spaniards. One with all the foresight it dis- may entertain some doubt how played in Cuba, allowed its far this story is well founded, garrison to sink to fifteen hun- and yet it is perfectly consistdred men.
This handful of ent with Spanish methods that white troops, and a few thousand the doomed Government at native soldiers, formed all the Madrid should have had the force it had to control seven or warning, and still should have eight millions of discontented taken no effectual measures to subjects ripening for rebellion. meet the danger. Certain it is
The friars were so far right that when the revolt broke out that there was a secret society, it found Don Ramon Blanco,
VOL. CLXV.NO. MIV
the Captain - General, with The rebels had concentrated 1500 Spanish soldiers and in the province of Cavite, on some 6000 native troops, of the south side of the bay of whom numbers belonged to the Manila. The island of Luzon Katipunan-and this was all runs north and south, with a there was to meet a whole projecting peninsula, or rather population in arms.
bunch of peninsulas, at the With all their weaknesses south-eastern corner. Manila and vices there is still a founda lies on the western side, near tion of manhood in the Span- the southern end. Here the iards. Therefore, though taken land is narrowed by the great at a terrible disadvantage, by sweep of the bay. In the their own fault, they yet stood centre of this narrow part, and and fought. It was little they south-west of the capital, is could do except keep their hold the large Laguna de Bay, or on Manila till help came.
For Lake Bay.
The space between once the old saying, Socorro de the lake and the western sea España é tarde llega, o nunca, is the province of Cavite. The Help from Spain comes late, or border on the south is a range never, was falsified. Though ter of hills running east and west, ribly hampered by the demands which separate Cavite from the of Cuba, the Spanish Govern- province of Batangas. From ment poured out troops to the these hills the land slopes number of 26,000 or 27,000. It gradually down to the north also sent out a new General till it sinks into the bay of the Don Camilo de Pola vieja, Manila. This cockpit, of some who has been already intro- forty kilometres from north to duced to the readers of Maga.' south, and forty-four from east Don Camilo is the very model to west, was the scene of the of that hombre de pan y palo, campaign of 1897 and of much the man with bread and a rod of the late fighting imposed or in other words, rewards for on the Americans. It seems his friends, and blows for his a small space for an irregular enemies—who continues to be force which has to face discithe Spaniard's true ideal of a plined troops; but the difficulty governing person.
He is of a country is not in proporHigh Churchman, and there- tion to its size. Cavite is fore sure of the support of the harder to overrun than hunfriars. Under the direction dreds of miles of open desert. of Polavieja the neighbourhood The rainy season--from June of Manila was swept of the till near the end of the yearrebels by the end of 1896. turns the soil into a full sponge. Then in the dry months, which Innumerable streams rise in the begin in January and last until southern hills of Tagaytay and June, the new Captain-General run to the bay of Manila. In carried out the campaign de- the rains they cut deep courses, scribed in the too eloquent but which in the dry season beinstructive pages of Colonel come what the Spaniards call Monteverde.
barrancas — sandy river - beds
with steep banks. Though the leather. The inner tube is a religious Orders have some of piece of iron water-pipe. Bars their best estates in Cavite, of metal are laid along it and the province is yet full of well fastened on, served, as the wood, bush, and patches of sailors would say, with rope, reed. These montes, cogonales, and the whole covered with and cañiverales supply ample leather. The breech-piece was cover to the Tagalos, and afford made of wood. Rude as these the material for stockades. guns are, they can still do Wet as the province is in the damage. Colonel Monteverde rainy season, there is often a describes how one of his comdifficulty in finding water- rades, Major Vidal, was blown particularly for large bodies of to pieces by one of them while men—in the dry months. leading his men to the storm of
A country of this character a stockade. One can believe presents obvious advantages to that, when well charged with the side which is fighting to slugs and nails, and fired at resist invasion, even when it is short range into a storming well supplied with roads and party, they are capable of scatbridges. But from the very tering a good few wounds. nature of Spanish administra Necessity has plainly proved tion there were few of the first herself once more to be the and still fewer of the second mother of invention, The Filipinos, too, were far from among the Filipinos. But, inbeing ill supplied with arms. deed, Colonel Monteverde's narColonel Monteverde calculates rative leaves the impression that they possessed some 15,000 that these barbarians are by good rifles, Remingtons, Spring. no means so feebly barbarous fields, or Berdans. They clearly in their tactics as we might never wanted for cartridges. believe them to be when we Some of these weapons were only knew that they had finally seized in the stations of the prevailed over the Spaniards. Civil Guard overpowered by Thanks, no doubt, to the prethe rebels in the early days of liminary efforts of the Katithe rising; others were brought punan, they possessed a regular in by deserters from the native military organisation. At the troops. Not a few must have head was Emilio Aguinaldo as been obtained by smuggling. Generalissimo, with his staff The Filipinos had no modern of lieutenants-general, majorsordnance, but endeavoured to general (in Spanish, Mariscales supply the want by guns of de Campo), brigadiers, and so on. their own invention called lan- All these officers had their due intacas. From Colonel Monte- signia. In the matter of uniform verde's description it would the Filipinos were indifferent, seem that the lantaca bears a but their marks of rank were close resemblance to the once simple and not without decorafamous Swedish guns of the tive merit. On the whole the army of Gustavus Adolphus, Filipino measures of defence which were made of copper and were not contemptible. Their
villages, usually built by the side were led by a boy who wore of a stream, in one, two, or wings, and who in their belief three long streets joined by bore a charmed life by virtue of lines, were fortified. Lunettes an extremely powerful Antingcovered the ends, stockades anting, and the protection of arranged in quincunx were an archangel. Mr Worcester erected to close all openings, has much to say of the confiand the solid stone churches dence the natives have in these built by the friars were barri- charms, and how impossible it caded and loopholed. In many is to remove their belief. They cases these works were con- will present you with one of structed by Filipinos who had them, and assert that it cannot been educated as civil engineers. be damaged by a bullet. When The sections and profiles given you destroy it with a wellby Colonel Monteverde do not directed shot, they only remark look contemptible. Nor was it that your Anting - anting is only round the villages that stronger than theirs. Anythese works were to be found. thing, apparently, will do, so Many
erected, and long as it is credited with strengthened by abutting rifle- magic powers,—a book, a butpits and trenches, to stop the ton, a medal, a fragment of roads through the forests. metal, a piece of paper with a Finally, there was one resource few words of gibberish written to which the Tagalos might be on it, may all be Anting-antdriven. In order to keep ings. Colonel Monteverde gives water for irrigation in the dry specimens of this last kind. months, many presas or weirs They are covered with rude have been constructed on the drawings of a symbolical reupper reaches of the rivers in ligious character, and words of Cavite. It was seriously feared dog Latin. Colonel Monteby the Spanish authorities that, verde's contempt for these amif driven to desperation, their ulets does not sit very graceenemies would flood the country fully on a Spaniard. The bullby opening the sluices.
fighters of his own country go Colonel Monteverde speaks into the ring protected by such with more rancour than gener- things. Among the soldiers osity of the fighting quality of who served under Colonel his foes. Their rebellion is to Monteverde's orders there must his mind explicable only by a have been many who carried double dose of original sin. round their necks little medals Their courage is to his mind bearing the picture of the Virfounded only on folly, ignor- gin or some saint, blessed by ance, superstitions, and an un the priest, and given to them by pardonable hatred of the Span- their mothers in the villages of iard. As for the superstitions of Castile, of Aragon, and the hillthe Tagalos, and all other Filip- sides of Navarre. And if these inos, there can be no question. things are not Anting-antings, Colonel Monteverde assures us the reason is that this is not that in several actions they the name for them in Castilian.