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done for Don Carlos. Never- pathetically called La Inocente theless, we have heard a great —the Innocent.

-the Innocent. But their condeal of late of agitations, of tention is in direct contradiction significant movements on the both to the written law and the part of the Pretender, of com- uniform practice of all the states mittees at work in the towns of the Peninsula. We will not to collect recruits, and of what, oppress our readers with a disif true, is serious — namely, of play of what is, after all, suffiattempts, more or less success- ciently easy learning. It is ful, to debauch the troops. At enough to say that two things the lowest there is something are certain in Spanish history. in all this, even if it be only One is, that the right of the a Stock Exchange manoeuvre king's daughter to succeed when meant to frighten the public he left no son was beyond disand affect the market. People pute. It is affirmed in the would not be frightened by code of laws called the Siete what they know to be a mere Partidas. It was acted on when scarecrow of rags and patches. Urraca succeeded her father Therefore it is not superfluous Alfonso VI. in Castile, and to take a look once more at the Petronilla succeeded her father Carlists, their chiefs, their real Ramiro, the ex-claustrated monk, cause, and their technical case. in Aragon. Isabel la Católica

A few words — very few succeeded her brother Henry in will suffice—may be given to Castile. Her right was only the last - named. The Carlist contested by Henry's putative case is not what it professes daughter, Juana la Belibaneja, to be, and what the rather who set aside by the comic poseurs of the White Cortes because it

not Rose League, who perform humanly possible to believe her private theatricals in the streets legitimate. Observe the contest round the statues of Charles I. here was between two ladies, and James II., emphatically tell and the right of La Belibaneja us that it is-namely, a legiti- (in which name there is conmist case. Even comparatively cealed an old scandal) was clear, sober people talk about “the if certain notorious transactions, undoubted right of Don Carlos.” ignominious to human nature, There is no such thing. The had allowed the Prelates, Ricostheorists of the party maintain, hombres—i.e., the barons—and since there is rooted desire in good towns of Castile to accept human nature for a legal excuse her as the daughter of King of some kind, that the descent Henry. The Catholic sovereigns of the crown in Spain was to were succeeded by theirdaughter, heirs-male only, and that Ferdi- Juana la Loca—the Mad. Durnand VII. had no authority to ing all the poor lady's long life set aside his brother, the first of melancholy insanity her name Don Carlos, in favour of his appeared in public Acts as daughter, Isabel II., grand- Queen of Castile. The second mother of the present sovereign, point is, that in disputed cases who in her early years was the Cortes decided, There is



a famous example in the choice and cried, “Ore. Castilla, por la of Ferdinand, surnamed of reina Isabel"—Hear, Castile, for Antequera, of the House of Queen Isabel—they were proCastile, to succeed to the crown claiming the "legitimate soverof Aragon on the death of eign of Spain.' And so much Martin the Humane. He was for the pedantry of the story. preferred for his known wisdom If, then, the Carlists do not and sufficiency; but he claimed stand on a clear legal right, through his mother, a princess as the French Legitimists can, of Aragon. The Hapsburgs did on what do they stand? On indeed make a family compact the ambitions of the male line by which the Spanish and Aus- of the Spanish Bourbons, to trian branches were to be heirs which the passions, the fears, of one another, on the failure of the faults, the virtues, the local heirs-male in either. This family patriotisms, and the fanaticisms compact was never law, and of certain portions of the Spanwas disregarded by Carlos II., ish peoples have given validity. the Bewitched, who made his As these qualities have really will in favour of his sister, the made the Carlist cause, which wife of Lewis XIV., and her owes little indeed to its princes, heirs. Philip V., the first of let us look at them first. the Bourbon kings, did indeed The whole Iliad in a nutshell establish the Salic line in of modern Spanish history is Spain, for reasons of his own, the reaction of the old bottles by “pragmatic sanction,” and against the invasion of the new against the will of his Spanish wine. It is the Carlists who subjects. This pragmatic sanc- have conducted the fight on the tion was revoked by his grand- side of the resistance, and what son, Charles IV., in a Cortes they opposed was everything in assembled for the purpose. The politics, religion, or irreligion, revocation was not promulgated which first produced the French till his son, Ferdinand VII., found Revolution, and then by means himself dying with no male of it recast all Europe. They heir. Ferdinand was a miserable may be said to have begun becreature, mean and cunning, fore the armies of Napoleon had cowardly and cruel. He be- been driven out of the country. haved wretchedly

wretchedly — deciding There were already men who and revoking his decisions to said that the expulsion of the the last moment. Yet his final French was not enough. It word was for his daughter; and if was also necessary to expel the he had never spoken, the Cortes Afrancesados, the Frenchified would have been entitled to Spaniards, by which name was disregard the “pragmatic sanc meant all who were known, or tion of Philip V. as a mere even suspected, to be touched arbitrary and temporary inter- by “Liberalism." The conflict ference with the old-established fills the whole reign of Ferdinlaw of succession. When the and, and it is this clash of prinheralds stood in front of the ciples which alone gives some great white Palace at Madrid measure of interest — and in

ary welter.

telligibility — to a long, most kings please—and the saying brainless, and always sanguin- is no less true of parties. The

The immediate an- Carlists adhered to the innovacestors of the Carlists were the tion of the first Bourbon king, organisers of the so-called war though it had been formally reof the “Agraviados," which voked, because they thought it blazed up among the mountains would enable them to resist of Catalonia in 1827. The other innovations which they Agraviados, or aggrieved per- regarded with active hate. sons, were in fact the extreme The Carlists militant and the churchmen and their lay sup- Carlists in sympathy were cerporters, who thought the king tainly the majority of the poptoo lenient to “Freemasons ulation of Spain in 1833, when and suchlike. They had for Ferdinand died. Why, then, motto “Religion, King, and In- did they not win?

Firstly, quisition," and for chief The because the king had been Trappist, who again had for his forced in his later years to Egeria a lady of mixed Spanish propitiate the Liberals in order and Irish blood, by name Jose- that they might support his fina Comerford-of whom one daughter. The Liberals were would like to know more. The strong in the towns, and numAgraviados were partly sup- erous among the army officers. . pressed, partly soothed down, Secondly, because Ferdinand but from them came the Car- put the whole machinery of lists. It is necessary to com Government into the hands of press, but the reader will under- his wife Cristina before he died, stand that there was

and the Carlists had to fight treme bigot party, for which the whatever organised force there despotism of Ferdinand VII. was in the country. Thirdly, was not despotic enough. It because their princely chiefs looked to Don Carlos, the king's were but Spanish Bourbons, next brother, as chief, and would which means persons of very probably have risen before Fer- little courage

courage and conduct. dinand's death if its princely Fourthly, and mainly, because figurehead (for he was really of the essentially anarchical little more) had not shown an character of the

the Spaniard. invincible reluctance to take This it was which, in the longarms against his lord and run, and though it has helped sovereign. This being the them to many successes, has situation, we can easily under- proved their ruin.

The same stand how it came to pass that thing was working on the other men who professed above all side; but there, at any rate, it things to be resolute in stand was found in combination with ing on the old ways were found some machinery of Government. to declare that the pragmatic It is very necessary to dissanction of Philip V. was too tinguish between what may be sacred to be revoked. “ Allà van called the sentimental and the leyes do quieren Reyes," says the effective Carlists. Under the Spanish proverb-Laws go as first were and are to be put






many of the clergy, and knots follow the spurs of the Pyrenees, of clerically minded persons which stretch to the valley of found in most Spanish towns, the Ebro. Beyond the river together with many of the is another block of rocky peasantry. You will be told, country—the mountain region and with truth, that Toledo of Valencia. This also he must for instance is a nest of Car- include, and he will now have lists. So it may be, and so run over all that part of Spain there were nests of Jacobites which is Carlist in the serious in England who drank the of the word. Gentlehealth of the king over the men of blue blood, more water, and would even now and less authentic, who meet in then send him a little money, the Círculo Tradicionalista at but who stayed at home in the Madrid (of which a word here'45. Such supporters are a after), canons of Toledo, and broken reed, and of themselves pious ladies ready with their can do no more against the prayers,

and a modicum of Government at Madrid than money, ready also to intrigue the French Legitimists can do and use influence with official against the Third Republic. persons, peasants of central and As for the peasantry, they are southern Spain, who listen detoo docile, too unorganised, too voutly to the parish priest, much under the hand of the good. But the pith and subtax-collector and the civil gov- stance of the Carlist cause has ernor, to be dangerous. If Don been, and is, in the "clans" of Carlos can win by other means, the great angle of hills which they will be his loyal subjects; holds the north and east of but he will never win by their Spain. When they move, and help. Moreover, it must be have attained some success, remembered that they are less bands may appear anywhere. numerous than they were. The Till they have acted nothing effective Carlists must be looked can be done. for where the fighting Jacobites We hasten to add that the were to be found during the '45 word clan is used wholly and -in the hills of the north and solely for purposes of illustraeast.

tion, and as giving some sort Let the reader take his map of approximate idea of what of Spain, and put his finger it is that supplies the fighting on the province of Santander, rank and file of a Carlist army. which lies in the middle of the There are no clans proper in northern coast facing the Bay Spain - only peasant proprieof Biscay. Then let him draw torstilling their own land, his finger eastward across the small landowners with their Basque Provinces, Navarre, the métayer tenants, great estates, hill-country of Upper Aragon which the landlord may never to the mountains of Catalonia, visit in all his life, and where which look down on the Medi- he is represented by his intenterranean. Having now reached dent, labourers, and shepherds. the sea, he must turn south, and It follows that there are



chiefs—no Cameron of Lochiel, tics; and he is, by the way, no Cluny. Indeed the aristoc- often called a “caudillo.” We racy may be left out of the must be content to know that account in Spanish politics, throughout the Carlist country, whether peaceful or pugnaci- and on the outskirts of it, ous. “We grandees of Spain,” there are men, often the sons said the Duke of Wellington, of leaders in the first war, the " are very well-bred, agreeable grandsons of guerrilleros of people, but also very childish, the Napoleonic days, who are fit only to hold offices about marked out as leaders. The the Court.” None of the not- continued existence of these able Carlist leaders of the first stocks of potential insurrection

- neither Tomas Zumala- ary chiefs may be accounted cárregui, the most considerable for by the fact that none of the man of action Spain has pro- Carlist wars has ended in clear duced since her great days, nor victory for the Government. Ramon Cabrera, nor any other They have been closed by com

came of aristocratic houses. promises in which the caracArmy officers of clerical opin- terizados, the marked men, have ions, or merely of adventurous been bought off, and bribed to ambition, priests, and “cabe- keep quiet, by pensions, half cillas,” have been the real pays, and small places. These chiefs of the cause of “God, sources of income, together with King, and Country.”

the help afforded by the sentiThe first need not detain us, mental Carlists, and the patronbeing very intelligible. They age of the clergy, have kept were more conspicuous in the them alive. There are differfirst war than they have been ences among them. Some have since, for obvious reasons. The always been the handy men of priest again explains himself. the dethroned Bourbons everyNothing is more easy to under- where. Others have served the stand than that he should have established Government, with a been to the front in a mental reservation of their right which was first and foremost to take to the hills for Don clerical, and which supported Carlos as occasion offered. the claim of one branch of the One specimen of each kind royal family because it could be may be quoted by way of extrusted to repay the Church by ample. Tristany (a name which absolute obedience. But the no Englishman can pronounce Cabecilla is very much a cosa till Catalan teaches him, and de España. The word is a often not even then, so hard is diminutive of cabo, a chief; but it to master the peculiar liquid that is no explanation. As for “ny”) is a type of the handy what constitutes any given man To be quite candid, the

cabecilla,” it is difficult to difference between him and a say. He is the fighting equiva- bravo, or brigand, was not lent of the “cacique,” the local great. Tristany having, we bigwig, jobber, and wire-puller believe, served under Ramon of Spanish parliamentary poli- Cabrera between 1833 and 1840,




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