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Navy concurred with him. I expressed myself as being entirely agreed to reduce the sum to be paid from 30 to 15 millions and to modify the line as suggested by Mr. Buchanan. I declared myself as being in favor of acquiring the cession of the Department of Tamaulipas, if it should be found practicable. . .

November 9. -- Mr. Buchanan spoke to-day in an unsettled tone, and said I must take one of two courses in my next message : viz. to designate the part of Mexican territory which we intended to hold as an indemnity, or to occupy all Mexico by a largely increased force and subdue the country and promise protection to the inhabitants. He said he would express no opinion between these two plans; but after the despatches which were expected from the army were received he

I remarked that I thought our policy had been settled upon sometime since, but as the subject was now brought up as one that was still open, I would read what I had written on the subject, and

My views as thus reduced to writing were in substance that we would continue the prosecution of the war with an increased force, hold all the country we had conquered, or might conquer, and levy contributions

upon

the enemy to support the war, until a just peace was obtained, that we must have indemnity in territory, and that as a part indemnity, the Californias and New Mexico should under no circumstances be restored to Mexico, but that they should henceforward be considered a part of the United States and permanent territorial governments be established over them; and that if Mexico protracted the war additional territory must be acquired as further indemnity.

His change of opinion will not alter my views ; I am fixed in my course, and I think all the Cabinet except Mr. Buchanan still concur with me, and he may yet do so.

November 18. I requested Mr. Buchanan to prepare a paragraph for the message to the effect that failing to obtain a peace, we should continue to occupy Mexico with our troops, and encourage and protect the friends of peace in Mexico to establish and maintain a republican government, able and willing to make peace.

In Mr. Buchanan's draft, he stated in that event that we must fulfill that destiny which Providence may have in store for both countries.”

I thought this would be too indefinite and that it would be avoiding my constitutional responsibility. I preferred to state in substance that we should, in that event, take the measure of our indemnity into our own hands and dictate our own terms to Mexico,

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November 23.- Mr. Buchanan still preferred his own draft, and so did Mr. Walker, the latter avowing as a reason that he was for taking the whole of Mexico, if necessary, and he thought the construction placed upon Mr. Buchanan's draft by a large majority of the people would be that it looked to that object.

I replied that I was not prepared to go to that extent, and furthermore, that I did not desire that anything I said in the message should be so obscure as to give rise to doubt or discussion as to what my true meaning was ; that I had in my last message declared that I did not contemplate the conquest of Mexico, and that in another part of this paper I had said the same thing. ...

February 21 (1848]. - 1 announced to the Cabinet that under all the circumstances of the case I would submit it to the Senate for ratification, with a recommendation to strike out the tenth article. I assigned my reasons for this decision. They were, briefly, that the treaty conformed on the main question of limits and boundary to the instructions given Mr. Trist in April last, and that though if the treaty was now to be made I should demand more territory, perhaps, to make the Sierra Madre the line, yet it was doubtful whether this could be ever obtained by the consent of Mexico. I looked to the consequences of its rejection. A majority of one branch of Congress is opposed to my Administration ; they have falsely charged that the war was brought on and is continued by me with a view to the conquest of Mexico, and if I were now to reject a treaty made upon my own terms, as authorized in April last, with the unanimous approbation of the Cabinet, the probability is that Congress would not grant either men or money to prosecute the war. Should this be the result, the army now in Mexico would be constantly wasting and diminishing in numbers, and I might at last be compelled to withdraw them, and then lose the two provinces of New Mexico and Upper California, which were ceded to the U. S. by this treaty. Should the opponents of my Administration succeed in carrying the next Presidential election, the great probability is that the country would lose all the advantages secured by this treaty. I adverted to the immense value of Upper California, and concluded by saying that if I were now to reject my own terms as offered in April last I did not see how it was possible for my Administration to be sustained. ...

Transcript of Polk's Diary, prepared for George Bancroft, in the Lenox

Library, New York.

CHAPTER III - WILMOT PROVISO AND

COMPROMISE

15. The Doughface's Creed (1848)

BY JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL

The Mexican War opened the eyes of the North to southern intentions, and the opposition to the war found perhaps its most influential expression in Lowell's stinging satire under the name of " The Biglow Papers." Famous as poet, critic, and diplomatist

, Lowell did his greatest service for his country when he wrote these verses in the Yankee dialect. - For Lowell, see E. E. Hale, Jr., James Russell Lowell, 124– 128. - Bibliography as in No. 11 above.

I

November 23. -Mr. Buchanan still preferred his own draft, and 50

Mr. Walker, the latter avowing as a reason that he was for taking
e whole of Mexico, if necessary, and he thought the construction
aced upon Mr. Buchanan's draft by a large majority of the people
ould be that it looked to that object.

I replied that I was not prepared to go to that extent, and further-
ore, that I did not desire that anything I said in the message should
e so obscure as to give rise to doubt or discussion as to what my true
eaning was; that I had in my last message declared that I did not
ontemplate the conquest of Mexico, and that in another part of this
aper I had said the same thing.

February 21 (1848). -I announced to the Cabinet that under all the
ircumstances of the case I would submit it to the Senate for ratifica-
on, with a recommendation to strike out the tenth article. I assigned
y reasons for this decision.

They were, briefly, that the treaty con-
rmed on the main question of limits and boundary to the instructions
ven Mr. Trist in April last, and that though if the treaty was now to be
ade I should demand more territory, perhaps, to make the Sierra Madre
le line, yet it was doubtful whether this could be ever obtained by the
insent of Mexico. I looked to the consequences of its rejection. A
ajority of one branch of Congress is opposed to my Administration ;
ey have falsely charged that the war was brought on and is continued

me with a view to the conquest of Mexico, and if I were now to
ect a treaty made upon my own terms, as authorized in April last,
th the unanimous approbation of the Cabinet, the probability is that
ngress would not grant either men or money to prosecute the war.
ould this be the result, the army now in Mexico would be constantly
sting and diminishing in numbers, and I might at last be compelled
withdraw them, and then lose the two provinces of New Mexico and
per California, which were ceded to the U. S. by this treaty. Should

DU believe in Freedom's cause,

Ez fur away ez Paris is;
I love to see her stick her claws

In them infarnal Pharisees;
It's wal enough agin a king

To dror resolves an' triggers, -
But libbaty 's a kind o' thing

Thet don't agree with niggers.

I du believe the people want

A tax on teas an' coffees,
Thet nothin' aint extravygunt,

Purvidin' I'm in office;
Fer I hev loved my country sence

My eye-teeth filled their sockets,
An' Uncle Sam I reverence,

Partic'larly his pockets.

opponents of my Administration succeed in carrying the next Presi:
tial election, the great probability is that the country would lose all
advantages secured by this treaty. I adverted to the immense value
pper California, and concluded by saying that if I were now to
ct my own terms as offered in April last I did not see how it was
ble for my Administration to be sustained.

I du believe in any plan

O' levyin' the taxes,
Ez long ez, like a lumberman,
I git jest wut I axes :

35

of Polk's Diary, prepared for George Bancroft, in the Lepos

I go free-trade thru thick an' thin,

Because it kind o' rouses The folks to vote, - an' keeps us in

Our quiet custom-houses.

I du believe it's wise an' good

To sen' out furrin missions, Thet is, on sartin understood

An' orthydox conditions ; I mean nine thousan' dolls. per ann.,

Nine thousan' more fer outfit, An' me to recommend a man

The place 'ould jest about fit. I du believe in special ways

O' prayin' an' convartin';
The bread comes back in many days,

An' buttered, tu, fer sartin ;
I mean in preyin' till one busts

On wut the party chooses,
An' in convartin' public trusts

To very privit uses.

I du believe hard coin the stuff

Fer 'lectioneers to spout on; The people's ollers soft enough

To make hard money out on; Dear Uncle Sam pervides fer his,

An' gives a good-sized junk to all, I don't care how hard money is,

Ez long ez mine 's paid punctooal.

I du believe with all my soul

In the gret Press's freedom, To pint the people to the goal

An' in the traces lead 'em ; Palsied the arm thet forges yokes

At my fat contracts squintin', An' withered be the nose thet pokes

Inter the gov'ment printin' !

I du believe thet I should give

Wut's his'n unto Cæsar,
Fer it's by him I move an' live,

Frum him my bread an' cheese air ; I du believe thet all o' me

Doth bear his souperscription, Will, conscience, honor, honesty,

An' things o' thet description.

I du believe in prayer an' praise

To him thet hez the grantin'
O' jobs, - in every thin' thet pays,

But most of all in CANTIN';
This doth my cup with marcies fill,

This lays all thought o'sin to rest, I don't believe in princerple,

But, O, I du in interest.

I du believe in bein' this

Or thet, ez it may happen One way or t’ other hendiest is

To ketch the people nappin'; It aint by princerples nor men

My preudunt course is steadied, -I scent wich pays the best, an' then

Go into it bald headed.

I du believe thet holdin' slaves

Comes nat'ral tu a Presidunt, Let 'lone the rowdedow it saves

To hev a wal-broke precedunt; Fer any office, small or gret,

I could n't ax with no face, Without I'd ben, thru dry an' wet,

Th' unrizzest kind o' doughface.

I du believe wutever trash

'll keep the people in blindness, – Thet we the Mexicuns can thrash

Right inter brotherly kindness,

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