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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.

HEADQ'RS, SOUTHERN DIVISION, the platoon officers of the regiment. The offi

Nashville, Jan. 11, 1819. cers raising companies to command them. Upon Sir: I have just received orders from the Pre- further reflection, it is requested that those offisident of the United States to repair to Fort cers named above, and all such as can raise a Scott, Georgia, with instructions to call on the company, will meet me at this place on the 19th Governors of the neighboring States for such ad- of the present month. Punctuality in this is ditional militia force as may be deemed pecessary much desired; and it is further requested, that to co-operate with the disposable regular troops all those officers, who have served in the late war of the southern division, against the Seminoles. will be confidentially notified of the foregoing.

I have this night addressed circulars to several I have the honor to be, &c. of those brave officers who served with me dur

ANDREW JACKSON, ing the Creek campaign, under a hope that a

Major General commanding. timely address to the patriotism of our citizens

A true copy

R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp. will enable me to effect, by voluntary, enlistment, what would otherwise have to be done by draughts.

Nashville, January 19, 1818. I have called for one thousand mounted men;

Sir: In my last I informed you of the late and, should the appeal prove inefficacious, will order received from the President of the United embrace the earliest opportunity of making a re- States, and the appeal I had made to the patriotism quisition on you for a like number of draughted of West Tennessee. This day the officers who militia.

heretofore commanded the volunteers met me, I have received your letter of the 4th instant, and report, that two regiments of mounted gunand am happy to hear of the ratification of the men will rendezvous, on the 31st instant, at Faytrealy with the Cherokee Indians.

ettesville, prepared and equipped for a tour of six Respectfully yours, &c.

months. Thus you see, that my best hopes of ANDŘEW JACKSON,

Tennessee are realized. Had circumstances perMajor General commanding. milted, and lime allowed, and the emergency deGovernor McMinn.

manded an appeal to the whole State, I have no A true copy:

doubt but five thousand men could have been R. K. CALL, Aid.de camp. raised. There appears no difficulty but the want

of arms. With those iwo regiments, and the [CIRCULAR.]

regulars, should the time of the Georgia troops

have expired, I will be able to act promptly, and, HEADQ'RS, Division of the South,

I hope, with effect.
Nashville, January 11, 1818.

The last account from Fort Scott, on the 19th Sir: The Seminole Indians have raised the ultimo, left the regular force in an unpleasant war hatchet. They have stained our land with situation. I set oui on the 22d, in the morning. the blood of our citizens; their war spirit must I have the honor to be, yours, &c. be put down, and they taught to know that their

ANDREW JACKSON. safety depends upon the friendship and protection

His Excellency Governor McMinn. of the United States. To accomplish this, the aid of one regiment of mounted gun-men, of one

R. K. CALL, Aid.de camp. thousand strong, completely armed and equipped, and to serve during the campaigo, is asked from West Tennessee. Can you raise them, and be Act of the Legislature of Tennessee. (See chap

cxviii, sec. 112.] ready for the field, in ten days ? If you can, your General, who led you to victory on the plains of Be it enacted, That, when it may be conceived Talledega, Emuckfau, and Tohopeka, asks you to that the public good eminently requires it, the accompany him to the heart of the Seminole Governor is hereby authorized to call out such towns, and there aid in giving peace and safety parts of the cavalry of this State as he thinks to the southern frontier. An answer is expected proper; and, when so called out, they shall be in five days, and it is anticipated that the number considered, ruled, and regulated, as mounted guarequired is now ready. This is a private appeal men, for the time he may so order them. to ihe patriotism of West Tennessee, and is not 10 appear in a newspaper. If the regiment is

R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp. raised and marched, all expenses for expresses shall be paid. By the retura of the express you are expected to give your opinion of the proba

Extract of a letter from Governor Mc Minn, dated bility of the result, thai preparations may be made

JUNE 20, 1818. accordingly. Colonel R. H. Dyer, Colonel Gib- Dear Sir: I am happy to hear of your return, Son,

Colonel Williamson, Colonel George Elliott, as also those brave men who volunteered their Major William Mitchell, Major John Smith, of services with you. Montgomery county, Colonel Martin, of William- I have never heard from you since you left the son, and Captain F. Ellis, of Dixon county, have Lookout Mountain; but hope, from what I have alone been addressed on this subject. The grade learned from others, that you have silenced the of the officers to be determined by themselves or disturbers of our peace. I am prodigiously pleased

True copy :

True copy:

True copy:

11

Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. to hear of your leaving the posts of St. Mark's, January 1818, Major General Andrew Jackson, of and Pensacola in possession of the Americans the United States Army, addressed circular letout of which I trust in God they will never be ters to Colonels Dyer, Williamson, Elliott, Mittaken.

chell, Philips, and others; and stated to them

JOS. McMINN. that ihe south western frontier was in danger, and General JACKSON.

that he had determined to make an appeal to the R. K. CALL, Aid-decamp. patriotism of the people of Wes: Tennessee; that

it was his wish to raise iwo regiments for tbat

object. And deponent further testifies, that, on Extracts of two letters from the Governor of Ten the arrival of the field officers at Nashville, they, nessee to Major General Andrew Jackson, dated

the said field officers, settled amoog themselves MURFREESBOROUGH, April 6, 1819. their own rapk; and the deponent further declares Your favor of the 3d instant is now before me, that the said field officers were not, in any way and with pleasure I make the following reply: or manner, either directly or indirectly, mediately

Your letter, dated Nashville, 11th January, or immediately, controlled, governed, or infiu1818, reached me at Knoxville, seat of Govern- enced by the said Major General A. Jackson; ment.

and the deponent further testifies, that the field Your letters of the 11th and 191h January both officers determined, at their first meeting at Nashreached me by due course of mail; the former ville, that individuals who first succeeded in advising of your having received instructions from bringing to the rendezvous full companies should the President of the United States to call on the rank as captains, and command their own men; Governors of the neighboring States for such mil. and that the same principle should gorera the itia force as you might deem necessary, to co-oper- election of subalterns. And the deponent further ate with the regular troops of the southern division testifies, that he never received any authority agaiost the Seminole Indians; but that you had from Major General Andrew Jackson, nor was made an appeal to the officers who had served with he concerned himself, any way or manner whatyou in the Creek campaign, by which you expected ever, either directly or indirectly, mediately or ihat the necessity of calling on the State of Ten- immediately, in any of the appointments of the nessee for one thousand draughted men would be officers of the Tennessee brigade, with the excepsuperseded; which expectation must have been tion of those of his immediate staff, a privilege realized, by the advice contained in your letter of allowed to all commanding officers, either in regthe 19th above referred to; in which you state ular or militia service. The deponent further ibat the officers have given you assurances that testifies, that the muster-rolls of the Tennessee they would furnish two regiments at the earliest brigade were forwarded on to the Adjutant and notice. Your mode of raising those regiments Inspector General's Office, at Washington City, met 'my entire approbation; and I gave it my on ihe 13th of February, 1818, from Ditto's land. support in aiding Captain Dunlap in raising a ing, on the Tennessee river; that the said rolls company of mounted volunteers, at Southwest reached Washington in safety, and in the ordiPoint, which I have sioce learned joined your pary course of mail. army at Fort Gadsden

A. P. HAYNE. True extract: R. K. CALL, Aid de camp.

True copy : R. K. CALL, Aid-de camp.

Sworn to and subscribed before the undersigned, DEPARTMENT OF WAR, Feb. 5, 1819. judge of the first judicial district of the State of Sir: The enclosed is a copy of a letter from Louisiana, ibis 12th of June, 1819. the chairman of the committee of the Senate, on

JOSHUA LEWIS. the subject of the Seminole war.

Certified : R. I. EASTER, Aid-de-camp. Governor Bibb's letter to you of the 19ıh of May last is all the information now in the possession of this Department relative to the ioquiry

ELM GROVE, May 21, 1819. of the committee.

DEAR GENERAL: I have just returned home I will thank you to communicate, as early as from the western district, and have recently seen practicable, whatever information you may pos- the report of the Senate of the United States relo sess on all the points of inquiry contained in the ative to the Seminole war, wherein I find you letter of the chairman, and not comprehended in charged, by a committee of that honorable body, the letter referred to.

of organizing and appointing the officers to take I have, &c. J. C. CALHOUN.

the command of the volunteers from this State Major Gen. ANDREW Jackson,

engaged in tbat war. Certainly that committee Washington City.

could not have received the proper information A true copy: R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp.

respecting the particular subject; and, believing that you, sir, have a wish that the facts should

be stated in all questions wherein you are conArthur P. Hayne, inspector general of the south cerned, I have thought proper to make the followern division of the Army of the United States, and ing statement, which every field officer belonging late commandant of the Tennessee volunteers, to the two regiments, I have no doubt, will recol. being duly sworn ,testifies: That, in the month of lect to be facis.

Seminole. War-Strictures on Mr. Lacock's Report.

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lo the month of January, 1818, you made an This volunteer corps was raised under the inappeal to a number of those officers who had fluence of Colonel Williams, organized by him, accompanied you in the Creek war, and to Mo- and the officers commissioned by him. We

bile, Pensacola, and New Orleans, and named to marched into East Florida, and had an engage* them that there were one thousand men want- ment with the Indians and negroes. This cam

ing, and that volunteer mounted men would be paign was approved by the General Government, received ; and requested that those officers would and the officers aod men paid for their services. meet at Nashville, on the 19ih January, 1818; I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, at wbich time and place a number of officers

SAMUEL BUNCH. met. After assuring you that the men could be Major General Jackson. raised wiih ease, it was proposed by myself, and

A true copy : some other officers then present, for you to name

R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp. t the officers to command ihose iroops. This you

refused, and said, “Agree among yourselves on
your officers;" and then stated to the officers Major General Andrew Jackson:

present that you would appoiot Colonel A. P. In answer to the interrogatories this day pro# Hayne to lead us on to Fort Scott, and, on our posed by you to me, I declare I held no office or

arrival at that point, you would then iake the appointment whatever under Colonel John Wilcommand yourself. We then left you, and with liams, or any other person, in the Florida or drew. 10 a room, where it was agreed that I Seminole compaign, commonly so called, set on should take the command of the first regiment, foot and commanded by Colonel John Williams, and Colonel Thomas Williamson should take in 1812. the command of the second regiment, and that I was one of the privates composing that serwe should officer and organize them in the same i vice, and my services were wholly voluntary. I way that the volunteer mounted gun-men were did not know that any commissions were made organized in 1814, when we marched to Mobile, out in form for the oficers; but I know that the Pensacola, and New Orleans; the other field officers were selected or named by Colonel John officers were then agreed on, and our names re. Williams, and I know those selected by him

ported to you, in writing, who would command served in the capacity for which they were se. & ihe two regiments. You then named to the offi. lected. I know it, because I was consulted on

cers the law regulating the Peace Establisbment, that occasion; the selection having been made, and how the regiments were officered under thai as I believe, with a view, in part, to the feelings law. It was then named to you by myself, to and interest of the individuals composing the gether with several other officers, that, by expe- command. We had an engagemeni with lorience, we had found that horsemen requireddians, and perhaps negroes; but I do not know more officers than foolmen, on account of horse that ihere were any negroes in the engagement. men covering a much larger space. You then I received my pay from the General Governsaid, “ Organize yourselves in a way that you ment, and I believe all others did. I know of may think proper; it will rest with ihe Govern-no authority given by the General Government ment." A number of those officers you made to raise such company, nor have I ever underthe appeal to were commissioned by James Mad. stood that there was any; and I believe the same ison, Esq., then President of the Únited States, to have been wholly, voluntary, in 1812; and a part of them, under all priva- Given under my hand, this

22d of September, #tions, stuck to the service with you, without a 1819.

P. M. MILLER. murmur, during the war with Great Britain and

A true copy : 10 the hostile Creek Indians.

R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp. I am, sir, with great respect, yours, &c.

R. H. DYER,
Late Colonel 1st reg‘t Tenn. volunteers.

From the National Intelligencer of March 8, 1819. The facts stated in the above letter are known by the undersigned, who was present at the time

[Communicated for publication.] alluded to, to be correct. THOMAS WILLIAMSON,

STRICTURES ON MR. LACOCK'S REPORT Lale Colonel ad reg't Tenn. Volunteers.

ON THE SEMINOLE WAR.

The author of this article has had access to MURFREESBOROUGH, Sept. 23, 1819. documents, the perusal of which convinced him SIR: In answer to your note of this date, just that the report of the select committee of the received, I have to reply that I was of the volun- Senate, on the Seminole War, is alike unjustifiateer corps raised in Easi Tennessee, in the latter ble in temper, argument, and statements. Its part of ihe year 1812, by Colonel John Williams, temper is harsh and vindictive, its arguments are and marched into East Florida in the same year, childishly weak, and its statements are, in many or in Japuary in the year 1813, as well as I recol-instances, grossly and unaccountably erroneous. lect. I was an officer in the said corps, and held The report has been read with astonishment a commission signed by Colonel John Williams. and regret; regret ihat such a document should

1

Seminole War-Strictures on Mr. Lacock's Report.

go before the world unanswered in Senatorial dis- a full and impartial hearing, and an opportunity cussion; and astonishment, as well at the insti- of advancing all accessible testimony for the tution of such an inquiry into the conduct of elucidation of their acts and the uprightness and General Jackson as at the anomalous and unfair innocency of their intentions. This justice has manner in which the investigation has been been denied to General Jackson. His public acts conducted.

and private character have both been made the But independently of the peculiar hue of this subjects of systematic investigation; and, with. instrument, it is also objectionable-1st. Because out a bearing, he bas been pronounced guilty of it is designed to impute the cause of the war to the awful crime of striking at the liberties of his our own officers and Executive, laying aside all country, by an infraction of its Constitution; provocation and aggression on the part of the and has received, in a sentence of censure, the Indians; 2d. Because it directly implicates the cruellest punishment that can pierce the bosom President and Secretary of War; for, although of a soldier. they were not, in the first instance, guilty of And what is the motive to which all the Genwhat the committee calls "a gross violation of eral's acts in Florida have been attributed ? His the Constitution," yet they made the act theirs operations, say the committee, were conducted by adoption; and, if this implied accusation is "on reasons of his own, unconnected with his just, those officers ought to be impeacbed; and, military functions"-and these “reasons" were 31. Because the Senate should not prejudge a mercenary views and speculations, which the occase which they may be required to examine cupancy of the Spanish territory would facilitate judicially; and on which this anticipation of and mature! It is to be hoped that General Jackcensure would disqualify them to act

son will never degrade himself by aoswering a This subject was, on the 18th November, re- charge as foul as it is ridiculous-a charge toferred, by the House of Representatives, to iwo tally unsupported by any of the documents, and committees, the military and foreigu ; and, one abundantly refuted both by them and by his month after, on the 18th December, Mr. Lacock character. No man in public life, who marches moved, in the Senate, for a committee on the steady and erect along the path of duty, can fail same subject. He appears to have been the to awaken enmity among those who en ry his moving principle throughout the whole investi- reputation, without ability to emulate his virtues. gation in the Senate. To his exertions are the But, surely, the deadliest foe of General Jackson public indebted for the commencement of the cannot, for a moment, credit such a charge as business, its peculiar character of virulence, and this. I dare venture to assert, that not a single the singular document by which it is termi- member of the select committee, malignant as Dated.*

appears to be the hostility of some of them to the The Seminole war was discussed in the lower General, believes that he led an army to the field, House for more than three weeks, and yet not a and jeopardized the lives of valuable citizens, in single member suggested the slightest' censure order to speculate with security in Spanish lands; either on General Jackson, for the employment or that he risked the ruin both of health and repuof volunteers, or on General Gaines, for the un- tation, and prostrated the Constitution, to secure authorized call on the Creek nation. It was re- the paltry advantage of buying a few acres in served for Mr. Lacock to make the discovery of Florida. We read of men whose dangerous poa violation of the Constitution in these acts; and litical ambition prompted to the commission of the honesty of his views, in advancing such a

awful crimes towards their country; but the mon. charge, is to be found in the time at which he strous act of overturning a free constitution and made his report-when the Senate had but six making unauthorized war, with the despicable days to sit, and it could not be discussed; and in view of trilling pecuniary emolument, is yet, and declining to annex the customary resolution, so may it long be, unheard of and unrecorded. If as to admit of discussion and afford the friends that committee do not believe the charge they of General Jackson an opportunity for defence. have advanced, what can be their views, and how In fine, it was obviously intended to counteract will they explain their motives to their country? the effects apprehended from the vote of the It would be both indecorous and useless to indulge House and the force of public opinion; and was, in the language of resentment and recrimination; incontestably, designed to inflici a wanton blow but it would be injustice to the country to with. on the feelings and character of General Jack bold the expression of a deep conviction, that this son, under the imposing sanction of a regard for most unjust and illegal trial originated in dispublic duty:

honest motives-from feelings of personal hos. It is needless to consume time in an exposition tility in one of the members, and, in others, of a of reasons for thinking such a trial of any man's disposition to gratify a junta. It is right to state, motives and conduct unfair and unconstitutional. that two members of the committee were opposed It is enough to remark, that justice consists, not to the report. One of those, who was not permerely in awarding punishment for crime, but sobally, acquainted with the General, and who in giving to individuals accused of misconduct sat in the convention which framed the Consti

tutiod, was too well acquainted with the princi. Mr. Lacock's son was contractor's agent, and ples of that sacred instrument, to sanction any failed in supplying Fort Scott. It has been intimated proceeding calculated to do it vital injury; and that the father was interested in the contract. the other had too long known Gen. Jackson to en.

Seminole War-Strictures on Mr. Lacock's Report. tertain any doubt of his purity. When the course were called life-guards, with the utmost alacrity of these gentlemen is contrasted with that of the volunteered their services, from the States of Ten. majority in the committee, the people will have nessee and Kentucky, and repaired to his standno difficulty in conceiving the impure motives ard. Officers were appointed to command this by which that majority were governed.

corps by the General himself, or other persons The principles which guided the Commander- acting under his authority. Thus organized, they in-Chief, in the movements of the Seminole cam- were mustered into the service of the United paign, have been so ably developed and supported States." by men of integrity and talents, that it is deemed At the time this order was received, the Gov. unnecessary now to review them. The orders ernor of Tennessee was either in Knoxville or which governed him are before the world. The the Cherokee nation; and to have waited the selection and use of the means for their complete result of the usual process of draughting would execution are well known. If he left anything have produced the two evils, of much loss of val. undone which was necessary " to give peace and uable time and the raising of a force reluctant security to the Southern frontier ; or if he unne-in disposition and inefficient in character and cessarily superadded to the sufficient means of equipment. General Jackson immediately des. effecting this object any

act injurious to the patched a letter to Governor McMinn, apprizing country and destructive of the Constitution, the him of the call for volunteers, and informing him grounds for a fair judgment are with the nation, that in case the call should not be promptly and and its award, either of blame or approbation, effectually answered, he should require of him will doubtless be just. This article shall be con- one thousand draughted militia.* The Governor fined to the elucidation of some obscurities, and warmly approved the step the General had taken, the correction of several misstatements of facts and added io his force one company of mounted in the narrative of the report. The argumenta- volunteers, who joined the army at Fort Gadstive part shall only be touched incidentally.

den. General Jackson's letter of the 12th JanuaIt is stated in the first page of the report "ihat, in ry, apprized the Department of the measure, and the Spring or Summer of 1817, the regular troops the Secretary approved and sanctioned it. were withdrawn from the posts on the Georgia Corps of the same character with the Tennesfrontier, and concentrated at Fort Montgomery, see volunteers were raised in other parts of the on the Alabama river, a considerable distance country, and under different officers, during the west of the Georgia line." This is calculared to late war with Great Britain. In the Northwestcreate an impression that General Jackson issued ern campaign, General Harrison was joined by a the order for evacuating the posts south of Geor- body of volunteers, led by Colonel Johnson ; and gia, and thereby jeopardized that frontier, by Governor Shelby authorized the General to form opening the way for savage incursions. But, in them into corps, and appoint such officers as the the commission of this military error be was no men might elect. Another body of men, from way instrumental. The order for the movement Ohio, joined the army on the march of General of ibe troops to the Alabama was issued from the Harrison for the relief of Fort Wayne, without War Department, by Mr. Crawford, contrary to any authority, and uncommissioned by ihe State the General's opinion, who considered the move

Executive. These organized themselves and apment both dangerous aud im politic.

pointed their officers. Their services were acIn page 2 it is stated that General Gaines or- cepted for ten days, and they received pay for dered Major Twiggs " to surround and take an In- that period. dian village, called Fowl Town, about fourteen It is well known that exactly the same kind of miles from Fort Scott, and near ihe Florida line." troops followed General Jackson into the Creek The order to Major Twiggs was, to bring to Fort nation, and achieved the victories of Taledega, Scott the chief of Fowl Town, who had repeat- Emuckfaw, and the Horse-Shoe. The same men edly been called to an interview, and as often who penetrated the swamps of Florida, covered contumaciously refused to appear. The object Mobile from British visitation; and the same of General Gaines was to have a definitive un troops, officers, and men, I defeated Wellington's derstanding with the Chief, respecting his hos veterans on the shore of the Mississippi, and saved tile or friendly intentions; and the importance New Orleans from incendiary pollution. Did of such an understanding induced the General 10 Congress, then, adjudge the act of raising them order his forcible capture, if gentle means proved

unconstitutional," or did they approve the meainefficient.

In the same page is this remarkable paragraph: * See Doc. B. + See Docs. C. D. L. K. I. “On the receipt of this order," (the order under which General Jackson proceeded on the Semir similarly officered, and nearly the same men who were

# It is worthy of remark, that the same regiments, nole campaign,). "General Jackson, instead of at New Orleans, were in the Seminole campaign. observing the orders of the Department of War, They assembled in 1814, at the call for volunteers, by calling on the Governor of Tennessee, then in chose their officers, and cheerfully obeyed them, alNashville, near the place of his residence, chose though none were commissioned. They followed the to appeal (to use his own expressions) to the pa- same course exactly in 1817–18, and, in both cases, triotism of the West Tennesseans, who had serv. victory followed their march. ed under him in the last war. One thousand The muster rolls of the volunteers, in 1814 and 1818, mounted gunmen and two companies of what now on file in the War Office, establish this fact.

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