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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.

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aggregate, about four or five hundred. The bal- sundry outrages committed subsequent to the ance of the force under his command was not, date of your respondent's letter to the Secretary at that time, more than pine hundred effectives; of War; and it is also known that six men were and confidently affirms that, when he took up murdered in the interior, which it is believed

the line of march from Fort Gadsden, on the 25th was communicated by General Gaines to the War ute of March, 1818, his whole command, fit for duty, Department. The communications of General

consisted only of three hundred and sixty privates Gaines and Major Fanning, annexed to the re

of the regulars, about eight hundred Georgia mi- port, also give a very different aspect to this ques2.1 litia, and Major Lovet's detachment of friendly lion, and to which your respondent begs leave to

Creeks. _McIntosh and his warriors were organ. refer your honorable body.

ized at Fort Mitchell, after the arrival of your In ihe animadversions upon the motives of Y respondent at Fort Hawkins, and never united your respondent, he cannot with hold the opinion s with him until the 1st of April, about six miles ihat there has been exhibited an unusual share of 3 in the rear of Mickasuky. All these facts were asperity, as also a want of charity and forbearance, di accessible to your committee, had they been dis- which was not to have been anticipated from a posed to examine the letters of your respondent members of so august and enlightened a body as

on file in the Department of War. To this De- the Senate of the United States, deliberating upon * partment all his communications were made; a subject which they have represented to be of s and there they should have applied for correct great national magnitude. Leaving the motives information, if it had been wanted.

of the committee on this occasion to their own The next subject which has exposed your re- private review and examination, your respondspondent to bitter reproach from the committee, ent will barely observe that they have imperis the order which was directed to General Gaines, rectly recognised the maxim that innocence is alto occupy St. Augustine. A letter from Major ways presumed until the contrary appears by Twiggs bad conveyed the intelligence that our proof.' Why they should have inquired into the savage enemies had been fed and furnished from motives of your respondent at all he is at a loss that garrison; and it was rendered highly prob- to determine, as it was a matter entirely beyond able that, aided, abetted, and encouraged, by the their control and jurisdiction. The only subject commandant, they were recruiting and imbody- of investigation was the legality of his official ing at that place, with a view of renewing hostil- acts, as designated in the resolution of the Senities. ., A strong presumption was created, that ate of the 181h of December. this, like the other Spanish posts, had become a Your respondent has no objection to this course, depot and rallying point for negroes and Indians, except as a pernicious precedent, and a violation to which they had retreated for refuge and pro- of authority. He has no secrets, and will never tection, after being driven from Negro Fort, St. shrink from a rigid and impartial examination Mark's, and Pensacola.

into his official conduct. Had the committee ad-, The order given to General Gaines was entire- verted to the order to take possession of St. Auly conditional and prospective ; and had the facts gustine, as well as the communications of your reported been established, as directed, there would respondent to the Secretary of War upon the have existed the same incontrovertible reason for subject of his military operations, they must have the occupancy of St. Augustine as of the Span- been satisfied that his motives were to promote ish_fortresses. The orders of your respondent the public good; to obey his orders, by carrying had undergone no modification; and the measure on a vigorous and efficient war against the savo would have been indispensably necessary to their age enemies of the United States, by which the execution, as well as to the peace and security of blood and treasure of the nation was to be econour frontiers. Besides, he had transmitted to the omized ; to establish a peace that would be honWar Department regular information of his pro- orable and permanent, and to give repose and ceedings in Florida, with the reasons and motives security to our exposed and defenceless borders. by which he had been governed, from the 25th In this instance, as well as in some others, the of March to the 7th of August, without a sen- report of the committee is contradicted by the tence of dissatisfaction ever having been expressed evidence of its own documents. The depositions by the Government.

of Colonel Butler and Major Eaton (a member Your committee also report that," long before of the committee) conclusively prove that your this period, the commanding General had, by his respondent had no agency in speculating in Florletter to the Secretary of War, declared the Sem- ida lands, which is in direct opposition to the ininole war at an end; and, after which, not a ference drawn by your committee. No member single new act of hostility had been commit of that committee can, for a moment, seriously ted.” It is true, after the defeat of the negroes and candidly harbor the opinion that your resand Indians at Mickausky, the destruction of pondent would lead a gallant army into the field, Suwanee, and the asylum of St. Mark's had jeopardize the lives of valuable citizens, risk the been wrested out of their occupation, that your ruin of bealth and reputation, and “violate the respondent persuaded himself ihat the war was Constitution" of his country, for the purpose of ended. Bui subsequent information proved this speculating with security in Spanish lands. The opinion to be erroneous. The letter of Governor "motives of his own, unconnected with his miliBibb, appended to the report of the Senate, as tary functions," were, a desire to end speedily a well as the deposition of Charles Baron, details | savage war, and to save the blood and treasure of

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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, &c. the country; and not, as charged, to adventure tion, and every anxiety of his heart bas been enhis health and reputation, and ihe lives of brave listed to promote the glory and happiness of his men, in quest of titles to Florida lands. The country. How far he has been instrumental, uoimputation is unwarranted and unjust, and has der the guidance of Providence, in effecting those its refutation in the very testimony which the desirable objects, he submits to the decision of committee have published. The dignity of his his enlightened fellow-citizens. He does not preoffice, which, at every exposure, he has sought tend to be exempt from the errors common to to maintain, never has been prostituted to the human nature. Surrounded as he was by every purposes of speculation in any way, and it never privation and embarrassment, in all the hurry shall

. Strange, then, that honorable men should and bustle of war, it was next to impossible io make so foul an accusation without proof, pay, attend particularly to every minor consideration. without even circumstances to support it. But, upon the great errors charged a breach of

Your respondent would beg leave, in this place, his orders, a departure from the Constitution, and to remark upon the depositions annexed to the a violation of the rights of humanity-be openly report. He ventures the opinion that such docu- maintains his innocence, and denies that the ments never before have been published to the charges are correctly made. He calls upon the world as evidence upon which to predicate a re- Senate, by the high claims they prefer io mag. port. Eaton's and Mitchell's are the only de- nanimity, to protect his reputation from the uspositions presented in legal form. To those two merited censure cast by their committee. He gentlemen regular interrogatories were proposed, asks for justice, and nothing more; to extend it to which they deliberately responded and affixed is due to your respondent, to the Senate, and to their signatures, as required by law; Doctor the nation. Bronaugh's deposition is signed, but not given

ANDREW JACKSON, under oath ; Colonel Butler's, Colonel Gibson's,

Major General com. Southern Div. and Captain Call's, are neither sworn to nor signed. The depositions of the last four gentlemen were published without their knowledge, although they

WAR DEPARTMENT, March 24, 1814. had received a promise from the members of the

Sir: Since the date of my last letter it has committee who took down the testimony that it occurred to me that the proposed treaty with the should be copied, and again submitted to them Creeks should take a form altogether military, for correction and signature.

and be in the nature of a capitulation; in which Until depositions are fully examined, amended, case, the whole authority of making and conclud. and signed by the witnesses, they cannot be con ing the terms will be in you, exclusively, as comsidered good and complete evidence. This is a manding General. In this transaction, should it rule which, it is believed, is uniformly adhered take place, Colonel Hawkins, as agent, may be to in all judicial tribunals; it never should be usefully employed. departed from on any occasion, as it is essentially am, very respectfully, &c. necessary to an impartial administration of jus

JOHN ARMSTRONG. tice. Every opportunity should be given the wit Maj. Gen. PINCKNEY. nesses to make a fair and full disclosure of the facts;

True copy. to consider the force and effect of their expressions,

R. K. CALL, Aid-de camp. as well as the import of every sentence. By an opposite procedure, irreparable injustice may be done, and the rights of a public agent sacrificed

WAR DEPARTMENT, May 24, 1814. by those who should afford him security and pro

Sır: In the event of your acceptance of the tection.

appointment suggested by my letter of the 22d There are several minor points touched upon instant, I have to suggest the wish of the Presiby the committee, to which your respondent condent that you should proceed, without delay, to siders it unnecessary to give a particular reply, Fort Jackson, and consummate the arrangements as they are of inconsiderable importance, and committed to Major General Pinckney, in relacould not be noticed without swelling this memo- tion to the hostile Creeks. A copy of the inrial to an unwieldy size. He flatters himself they structions given to General Pinckney is enhave been satisfactorily answered in the discus-closed. sion of the other subjects out of which they have

JOHN ARMSTRONG. incidentally arisen. They will all, however, be Major Gen. JACKSON. more amply and minutely explained by an examination of the documents heretofore commu

R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp. nicated to Congress relative to the Seminole war, to others on file in the War Office, and to those accompanying this memorial; to all of which

WAR DEPARTMENT, March 17, 1814. your respondent respectfully refers your honor- The policy dictated, as well by the unprovoked able body.

and ungrateful conduct of the hostile Creeks, as To conclude: your respondent has devoted his by a due regard to the future safety of the Southbest services to the cause of his country, and to western frontier, may be brought under the folthe perpetuation of her liberties. Her Constitu- lowing heads, viz: tion and laws are objects of his sincere venera- 1st. An indemnification, (for expenses incurred

True copy.

Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. by the United States, in prosecuting the war,) by commissions in the militia of the State. His cirsuch cession, or cessions of land, as may be deem- cular to these men, and his letter to the Governor, ed an equivalent for said expenses.

notifying him of what he had done, have been 2d. A stipulation on their part that they will published. cease all intercourse with any Spanish post, gar- I was present at the meeting of field officers of rison, or town; and that they will not admit the volunteers at Nashville, and heard no remarks among them any agent or trader who does not of General Jackson calculated to control or influderive his authority or license from the United eoce them in the selection of their officers. The States.

only subject of anxiety with him appeared to be 3d. An acknowledgment of a right in the Uni- that the men should be raised by the first of Febted States to open roads through their territory ; ruary; He desired that the number should be and also to establish therein such military posts completed; that the men should be satisfied with and trading houses as may be deemed necessary their officers; that they should rendezvous at and proper; and

Fayetteville ; be mustered into service, and over41h. A surrender of the prophets, or other insti- take their General on the frontiers of Georgia. gators of the war, who will be held subject to the Colonel Hayne, inspector general, was instructed orders of the President.

to command the detachment on their march to With these outlines as your guide you are Fort Scott. He received authority to appoint no authorized, in conjunction with Colonel Haw- other officers than those attached to his personal kins, to open and conclude a treaty of peace staff; a privilege enjoyed alike by regular and with the hostile Creeks, as soon as they shall ex. militia commanders. The Nashville company press a desire to put an end to the war.

elected their own officers; and the Kentucky I am, sir, very respectfully, &c.

company was raised without even the knowledge JOHN ARMSTRONG. of General Jackson. Their own feelings led Major General PINCKNEY.

them into the field upon the mere knowledge of True copy.

the fact that the frontier was exposed to Indian R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp.


accompanied General Jackson through a part

of Tennessee, previous to his departure South. 1. James Gadsden, a captain in the army of the In every village we passed through, much inUnited States, on oath declare, that during the terest was taken in the approaching campaign; whole period in which the transactions below and the citizens were generally inquisitive as to detailed took place, I was an aid-de-camp to Ma- the nature of the appeal to their patriotism. I jor General Andrew Jackson, and that the follow-was directed by General Jackson to explain its ing narrative contains a true statement of facts character; and, in every instance, expressed but to my knowledge :

one opinion, as derived from him; that one thouEarly in January, 1818, General Jackson re- sand men were wanted to put a speedy close to ceived orders from the War Department to re- the Seminole war; that, in consequence of the pair to Fort Scott, assume the command of the confidence which the General had in his old army, and to bring the conflict with the Seminole comrades in arms, and the facility with which Indians 10 a speedy termination. The Secretary volunteers could be raised, he had made this apof War stated the enemy's force to be two thou- peal; that they must be satisfied with their comsand seven hundred, or iwo thousand eight hun-manders, and elect their own officers. On this dred strong, and gave authority to the General subject I found many individuals exceedingly to call, from the neighboring States, such a force scrupulous. They were assured that no intenas would insure the desired object. The regular tion was entertained to impose commanders on brigade under General Gaines, did not, according them; that the men were wanted, and the Geneto the last reports, exceed six hundred men. He ral was well aware that, to be efficient, they must had called upon Georgia for not more than one be contented with their officers. thousand two hundred militia ; and it was uncer- General Jackson left Nashville with one comtain at that period whether the friendly Creek pany of Tennesseeans. A company of Kenwarriors would accept the invitation tendered. iuckians overtook him in the Cherokee nation; Some additional force was therefore deemed ne- and the Tennessee brigade had orders to join cessary, and the speediest mode of raising it was him, as soon as organized, on the frontiers of a subject of solicitude to General Jackson. Gov- Georgia. From Hartford Gen. Jackson moved ernor McMion, of Tennessee, was engaged about with the Georgia brigade, and was reinforced, this period in carrying into effect a treaty with on his march to Fort Scoti, by about six hundred the Cherokee nation, and it was a maiter of friendly Creeks. great uncertainty whether a letter would find From Fort Gadsden, where the operations of him at his usual place of residence, near Knox- the campaiga may have been said to have comville, or not. He was not at the capital of the menced, the movement was made with a force State; and his friends in and about Nashville of regulars, Gergians, and Indians, not exceedwere generally under the impression that he was ing two thousand men. The strength of the enstill in the Cherokee nation. General Jackson emy was not koown, at this time, to be less than determined therefore to make an appeal to his that stated by the Secretary of War, two thouold companions in arms; many of whom held sand seven hundred. A detachment of TennesDefeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. seeans, and General McIntosh's warriors, over- received instructions, subsequently, from Fort took the army on the morning of the attack on Gadsden, to have the artillery, ammunition, prothe Mickasuky villages, and all the troops called visions, &c., transported to Fort Montgomery. into the service were not finally concentrated On the return of the army to Fort Gadsden, until the day after the movement from St. Mark's General Jackson received a reply from the Gor. towards the towns on Sahwannee river. The ernor of Pensacola, to his letter relative to proactual force of the enemy was never ascertained, visions ascending the Escambia river. At the until their final dispersion from the Sahwannee same time letters were received by indiriduals, river. Rumor often magnified their strength be- and further information from the captain of yond that stated by the Secretary of War. the schooner, that Pensacola was under the

The demand of the surrender of St. Mark's control of the Indians; that more than four was made in amity. General Jackson received hundred warriors were in the vicinity, preparing intimation that the lodians and negroes, com for the renewal of hostilities on the Alabama bined, wished to throw themselves into that work, frontier. Major Hogan, who had recently arrived as a dernier retreat; and the Governor of Pensa- from Fort Montgomery, reported some murders cola bad stated that the work and garrison were lately committed by Indians direct from Pensaboth 100 weak to resist their meditated attacks. cola, and who had returned with their plunder I was intrusted with the communication to the and scalps to that place. On the receipt of this Spanish commandant of St. Mark's, and directed information, General Jackson observed to me that to urge the propriety of an amicable permit for he must 'himself command the troops destined to the fort to be occupied by an American garrison, scour the country west of the Appalachicola. He until the close of the war, on the ground that the did not at that time intimate an intention of ocSeminole Indians were enemies to both nations; cupying Pensacola. To give security to the fron. and that every facility should be afforded the tiers of Alabama was his object; and that his American arms in closing a war so injurious to operations must be governed by circumstances both parties. In the course of the negotiation which might occur. facts disclosed themselves developing the real On ihe third or fourth day of March, an express character of the Spanish commandant, and, in a was sent to Colonel Gibson, at Fort Montgomemeasure, implicating him as a party in the war. ry, to endeavor to join the army with the artillery These facts were reported to the General; and, and provisions, ai or near Durand's Bluff, the not until then, was the order issued for entering lower crossing place on the Escambia. the fort by violence.

At this place a letter was received, by express, On the return of the army to Fort St. Mark's, from Governor Bibb, detailing the murders which from the towns on the Sahwannee river, General had been committed by hostile chiefs from PenJackson expressed to me his determination to re- sacola ; and the next day after the army had turn to Nashville, conceiving that the war was crossed the Escambia, the protest of the Governor closed. On the next day information was given, of Pensacola was received. The bearer was desby the captain of a small schooner from Pensa- patched with a note, promising a reply to the cola, that hostile Indians were lurking about that protest that night. The same day I was sent to town; that they had frequently sought refuge to Pensacola with a reply. The Governor bad left the west of the Appalachicola river, and were his capital. The next day the communication committing depredations on the road leading demanding the occupancy of Pensacola and its from Georgia to the Alabama. On this informa- dependencies, until Spain should control, by an tion General Jackson observed, that it would be adequate military force, the Indians within Flori. necessary to leave strong garrisons in St. Mark's, da, was delivered to the Governor at the BaranForts Gadsden, and Scout, and send a party to cas; and on his refusal to accede to the terms of scour the country west of the Appalachicola ; but that communication, the army took up its line of he still expressed his intention io return to Nash- march for that place. The result is known. ville. So well persuaded were the officers, gene- The plan of St. Augustine was sent to General rally, that all operations were over, that many of Jackson at my request, and is now in my possesthem sought leave of absence. An officer at- sion. As an engineer attached to the Seminole tached to General Jackson's staff

, as volunteer army, it was my duty to be prepared for any aid-de-camp, left him at this place for New Or events, by obtaining accurate knowledge of the leans. Previous to his departure, he was told by country which might be the scene of operations. General Jackson that his services would no longer I did not request the plan of the proprietor, from be necessary, as he was determined to return to any intimation from General Jackson thet he inNashville.

tended or wished to visit that fortress. Lieutenant Sands was not sent to Mobile to

JAMES GADSDEN. forward on a train of artillery to a given point. True copy :

R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp. This officer had commanded for many years in Mobile; and, being attached to the place, ex- State of Louisiana, pressed a wish to visit it, with a view of being City and Parish of New Orleans: reinstated in the command, if possible. His re- Be it known that, on this 30th day of June, quest was granted, and he received an order, at 1819, before me, John Lypd, notary public in and the same time, to have a few pieces of ordnance for said city and parish, duly commissioned, perin a condition for field service. Colonel Gibson Isonally appeared James Gadsden, who in my pre

A true copy :

Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. sence signed his name to the foregoing instrument made any inquiries respecting it. The deponent of writing, and, having been duly sworn, deposed further states, that, at several times in the presthat the contents thereof are true and correct. ent year, 1818, he saw parties of Indians furIn faith whereof I grant these presents, under my nished with provisions and ammunition, from signature and seal of office.

the King's stores; but he does not recollect the JOHN LYND, Notary Public. dates of these transactions.

The deponent further states, that he has freMr. Sebastiano Caro, a citizen of Pensacola, quently heard Spanish officers at Pensacola jusbeing sworn, states that, being in Mobile during ted States, manifesting, in their conversation, a

tify the conduct of the Indians towards the Uninothing of the Indians being at that time in Pen decided hostility towards the Americans.

CARLOS BARON. sacola ; that in the Spring of 1814, about two hundred Indians were in Pensacola, and it was generally understood by the citizens, and believed

R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp. by them, that those Indians procured ammuni- Sworn before me, at Pensacola, September 13, tion and provisions from the public stores, for 1818. the purpose of carrying on their depredations on

H. YOUNG, Capt. Top. Eng. the American frontier; and that this proceeding was much commented on by the citizens, and generally condemned. Mr. Caro did not himself

Pierre Senac, being solemnly sworn, declares see ammunition and provisions issued to the lo- as follows: That he has resided in the town of dians; but it was a thing of public notoriety.

Pensacola constantly since the month of NovemSEBASTIAN CARO.

ber last past; that, since that time, and until the A true copy:

arrival of Major Young near this town, there R. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp.

were always considerable numbers of hostile

Indians in or near the town ; that, on many occaSworn and subscribed to before me, at Pensa-sions within that period, he has seen from one cola, September 7, 1818.

hundred and fifty to two hundred Indians here; H. YOUNG, Capt. Top. Eng.

that their forces were regularly provisioned from

the King's store here; that he has seen large Jose S. Caro, a citizen of Pensacola, being quantities of sheet lead in possession of the Insworn, states that, early in the present year, 1818, dians, and considers it as greatly resembling the a party of hostile Indians were in Pensacola, their lead aprons of cannon; ihat the Government numbers not known, but probably fifty; that, on

must have furnished the lead in question, as there hearing of the approach of the American


were no other means here of getting such lead; under General Jackson, the Governor of Pensa- and that the said lead was run off into balls, cola furnished those Indians with provisions and which the deponent saw. ammunition, and sent them in public boats across That on the day that Major Young attacked a the bay. The deponent saw ihe rations issued, party of Indian near this town, there was then and the party embarked. The deponent further in town a considerable number more, who were states, that, subsequent to this, he saw three par- set across the bay, in boats provided for that purties of hostile Indians furnished with provisions, pose, by the Spanish Governor. the ostensible object of which was, to enable Deponent further states, that, about the 1st of those Indians to march to the interior, and give March last past, three considerable parties of hosthemselves up; but it was generally believed that tile Indians, one party under the command of those Indians had no such intention. The depo- Leon Lesassier, another under the command of nent saw those Indians set out, and states that Arnaud Gilmar, (both lieutenants in His Cathothey had their arms.

lic Majesty's service,) and the third commanded JOSEPH ESTEEVEN CARO. by an Indian chief, retired out of this town, and A true copy:

went down towards the neighborhood of BaranR. K. CALL, Aid-de-camp. cas, where provisions and ammunition were reg. Sworn and subscribed to before me, at Pensa- ment; that the said Indians were armed with

ularly supplied to them by the Spanish Governcola, September 10, 1818. H. YOUNG, Capt. Top. Eng.

guns, which they had received from the English during the late war; and that they remained en

camped within from one to three leagues from Charles Baron, a resident of Pensacola, being Barancas for the space of nearly a month; that sworn, states that, about the latter end of April these Indians, besides being armed with guns, or beginning of May, 1818, a party of Indians, bad also tomahawks, which deponent understood amounting to near one hundred, were in Pensa- and believes were furnished by John Inerarity; cola, with a quantity of plunder, which, it was and that, when the Government caused the said generally believed, was taken at the time Stokes's parties to be tbus assembled and equipped, they family were murdered on the Escambia. The were collected at Barancas, for the purpose, as Indians sold this plunder, openly, to the inbabi- deponent conceives, to elude the vigilance of tants of Pensacola; and the deponent could not such individuals in Pensacola as would pot conlearn that the Spanish authorities at Pensacola Icur in such measures.

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