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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, &c.

without the means of affording the protection ne- Two Lieutenant Colonels. cessary to keep the inhabitants at their homes. Two Majors. The regular force in this quarter has been insuf- One Assistant Adjutant General. ficient for the defence of the country; the militia Four Assistant Commissaries. I have not had time to organize; and, above all, Twenty-eight Captains. not a dollar in the treasory. My views of the Twenty-eight First Lieutenants. necessity of forwarding men and money to this Twenty-eight Second Lieutenants. section of the country have been repeatedly stated One thousand five hundred and seventeen rank to Colonel Trimble, but I apprehend it has not and file, (or other warriors.) been in his power to meet them.

2d. That “the number and grades of the offiHaving endeavored in vain, with my limited cers, who commanded the Tennessee and Kenresources, to arrest the enemy after their succes- tucky volunteers," appear, from the rolls which sive murders; and being satisfied that they sought mustered them into service, to have beenrefuge in Florida, I determined to raise a volun- One Assistant Adjutant General. teer force, and order them to attack the hostile One Assistant Inspector General. Indians without regard to our boundary. A part One Assistant Deputy Quartermaster General. of the furce is now under the command of Major One Chaplain. Young, and Captain Stull is in possession of my One Foragemaster. order. Had I been furnished with funds, the One Assistant Foragemaster, enemy would have been driven from that retreat One Judge Advocate. long before this time-persuaded as I am that it Two Colonels. is the only effectual method of affording secu. Four Lieutenant Colonels. rity to this territory.

Four Majors. I have this moment received intelligence which Four Adjutants, (regimental.) leaves no doubt of your approach to this quarter ; Two Quartermasters, (regimental.) and I shall now leave ihe Territory, perfectly Two Surgeons, (regimental.) satisfied that the people will not suffer by my ab- Four Surgeon's mates, (regimental.) sence. Mr. Heory Hitchcock is appointed Ter- Four Sergeant majors, (regimental.) ritorial Secretary, and will act as Governor after Four Quartermaster sergeants. I set out from Fort Jackson, which will be on the Twenty Captains. 26th or 27th of this month. I may however be Twenty First Lieutenants. detained a few days longer in arranging with the Eighteen Second Lieutenants. Big Warrior the reception of a party of Indians Eleven Third Lieutenants. who have sued for peace, and delivered them- Seventeen Cornets. selves to Major Young. This they did so soon Of whom one Caplain and one First Lieutenas the Major convinced them, by a well-timed ant appear to have belonged to Kentucky; the and well-executed expedition, that they would no others to Tennessee. longer be permitted io murder our citizens, and 3d. That "the number and grades of the offifind refuge in the Spanish territory.

cers who commanded (or served with the two There are at this place forty volunteers, and companies of rangers," under Captains Boyle and the same number of militia at Camp Montgom- McGirt, appear, from a communication of the ery. Should you need any additional aid from the paymaster of the 4th regiment of infantry, dated Territory it would be promptly furnished, should the 23d of September, 1818, to have been you notify me at Fort Jackson before 'my de

Two Captains. parture.

Two First Lieutenants. I enclose to you letters I have received from Two Second Lieutenants. the commanding officer of the militia near Pop- One Surgeon's mate. lar Spriog, which will present to you the state of I am, very respectfully, &c. things in that quarter.

NATH'L FRYE, JR., Excuse this hasty scrawl, and accept the assu

Chief Clerk. rances of my regard and esteem.

Hon. ABNER LACOCK,
WILLIAM W. BIBB.

Chairman of Committee, fc.
No. 10.

No. 11.
PAYMASTER GENERAL'S OFFICE,

PAYMÁSTER GENERAL'S OFFICE,
City of Washington, Feb. 20, 1819.

City of Washington, Feb. 23, 1819. Sir: In answer to your letter of the 17th of the Sir: Your letter of yesterday's date is now present month I have the honor lo state:

before me; and, with reference to my note of the 1st. That" the numbers and grades of the offi- 20th instant, l' have to state that the whole cers who commanded the detachment of Indians number of men (rank and file) employed as volemployed under McIntosh, and the whole num- unteers from Tennessee and Kentucky," appears, ber of Indians," appear, from the accounts of the from the muster-rolls, to have been one thousand agent who paid them, to have been

one hundred and sixty-three; the number emOne Brigadier General.

ployed in Captain Boyle's and Captain McGirt's Two Colonels.

companies of rangers one hundred and forty.

"

a

Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. With sentiments of much respect, I am, sir, a letter (confidentially written) from a person of your most obedient,

high respectability in Pensacola, detailing the NATH'L FRYE, JR., facts as stated by the captain of the schooner at

Chief Clerk. St. Mark's. Hop. ABNER LACOCK,

This information, corroborated by so many perChairman of Committee, fc.

sons, determined me to go in person to Pensacola;

and I ordered Colonel Gibson forth with to MoNo. 12.

bile, with instructions to give every facility to WASHINGTON City, Feb. 5. 1819. Captain Sands in having the artillery secretly Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the removed to Fort Montgomery, there to await my ceipt of your letter of the present date, enclosing orders; and immediately organized a force suita communication from the chairman of the com cient for the execution of my orders, under date mittee of the Senate, requesting of you a copy of of 26th December, 1817. the letter addressed by Major White Young to After crossing the Choctawhatchy, I despatebed Governor Mazot, on the 27th April, 1818. Not an Indian guide with a soldier express to Fort having received a report from Major Young rel. Crawford, with orders to Colonel Gibson and ative to the correspondence with Governor Ma- Captain Sands, at Fort Montgomery, to move on zot, or his attack on the hostile lodians in the the artillery, and form a junction with me after vicinity of Pensacola, the only information II crossed the Escambia river; which order was possess on the subject is contained in the letter promptly executed. On my reaching the Escamof Governor Bibb, dated on the 19th of May, bia I was met by Captain Boyle, express from 1818, to which I beg leave to refer to you. Governor Bibb, with the letter of the 19th of

On my return from Suwanee 10 St. Mark's, I May above mentioned, and, on reaching the west was informed (through the medium of Mr. Ham. baok, received information that Holmes and his bly) by the captain of a vessel direct from Pen- warriors were then in Pensacola, for which place sacola, that a number of hostile Indians had as- I immediately marched. For my proceedings sembled at that place. On interrogating the thereafter I refer you to my detailed report. captain, he reluctanıly stated that, at ihe time of Should you wish information on any other his sailing, there were in Pensacola four hundred points growing out of my military operations and fifty or five hundred Indians; that they had during that campaign, it will afford me much been fed and furnished with munitions of war, pleasure to give it to you. and were committing depredations on the per- I am sir, yours, &c. sons and property of the citizens on the frontiers

ANDREW JACKSON, of Alabama, and also on the subjects of Spain.

Major General commanding. After receiving this information I informed you, The Hon. J. C. Calhoun. in my letter dated at St. Mark's, on the 26th April

, that I should leave that place for Fort Gadsden

No. 13. in two or three days, and, after making all necessary arrangements for the security of the posi- Fort Covington, NEAR BALTIMORE, tion occupied, and detaching a force to scour the

February 5, 1819. country west of the Appalachicola, I should pro- Sir: Yesterday I had the honor to receive ceed direct to Nashville. I then ordered Capiain your letter of the 3d instant, on the subject of the Sands to Mobile, to prepare and hold in readiness late war with the Seminole lodians, and, in a train of artillery, should circumstances arising answer to your interrogatories, on all of which I out of facts disclosed render its use in the field am unable to give you the information required. necessary. On this occasion, as on all others, 1 I was however, with the troops at Fort Scott

, thought it my duty to be prepared fully to exe- under the command of General Gaines, at the cute my orders in putting an end to the conflict. commencement of hostilities. I was never ordered

On my arrival at Fort Gadsden my quarter- with any detachment to remove the Indians from master general, Colonel George Gibson, who was the lands of the United States. Brevet Major charged with the defence of that post, handed Twiggs, of the 7th regiment United States' inme several letters, brought from Fort Montgom- fantry, commanded the first detachment that ery by Major Hogan, from respectable citizens, visited the Indian village called Fowllown, situconfirming the report made by the captain of the ated on the east side of Flint river, by the order schooner while ai St. Mark's, and detailing the of the General; the nature of his orders I know murder of eighteen of our citizens on the Sepul- not, neither can I say who fired the first gun. I ger, and the destruction of a family near Fort understood at the time, that, on the approach of Claiborne. Major Hogan also confirmed this our troops, the Indians fled from their houses to information, and added that the citizens at Mont- an adjacent swamp; they were fired on, and two gomery were fortifying themselves. Similar in- warriors and, unfortunately, one woman were formation was received from two gentlemen who killed; there was one prisoner taken by the de. arrived in a vessel laden with sutler's stores for tachment, on its march to Fowltown, and who the troops at Fort Gadsden, but whose names are was afterwards confined as a prisoner at Fort not now recollected, and by the captains of the Scott. This detachment broughi, on their return, sloop. Hector and barge Peacock, direct from three or four Indian horses. Mobile. In addition to the foregoing I was shown The second detachment that visited the village

Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.

of Fowltown, was placed under the command of Georgia is left without defence, but the restless Lieutenant Colonel Arbuckle, of the 7th infantry, and dissatisfied part of the Creeks, who are conwho, on a near approach, detached me with a centrated within the Spapish line, and at no command to advance on the village by a different great distance from the post (Camp Crawford) route from that which he took; my orders from lately occupied by the 4th regiment, under Lieuhim were to take prisoners, if possible, but if an tenant Colonel Clinch, will be without any check, attempt to escape was made, to fire; and to ex- and I have no doubt will indulge their propensity amine all the buildings for corn. We were, for mischief, by acts of murder or rapine, upon however, discovered when within two hundred defenceless travellers and frontier settlers.' li is yards, and the Indians took to flight, giving the a fact well known to Lieutenant Colonel Clinch, war whoop, and firing alarm guns. Corn, catile, and to every officer with him at Camp Crawford, and other provisions, I have no hesitation in say: that nothing has kept those Seminole Indians, ing, was the object of this visit. We had one or who have been joined by the most inveterate of two wagons with the detachment, which were the hostile fellows from the upper towns in check, loading with corn from the cribs of the Indians, but the presence of the troops; and, if they are when an attack was commenced by them, in removed, some serious consequences are to be apwhich we had one man killed; as the Indians prehended. Besides, it is very evident that, by fought in the edge of the swamp, their loss was ihe removal of the troops from Camp Crawford not ascertained, otherwise than by their own and the neighboring country, that portion of the ackpowledgment, which was afterwards said to territory acquired by Jackson's treaty, as it is be five or six warriors killed. We brought off usually called, lying east of the Chatahoochee, all the corn which we conveniently could, and, and which, of course, falls to Georgia, will be perhaps, fifteen or eighteen head of cattle, and a abandoned to the Indians. few horses. Previous to our return to Fort Scott, Against measures which, in my judgment, will the detachment was halted on the Flint river

, produce these results, it is my duty, as chief mathree miles from Fowltown, and twelve from Fori gistrate of Georgia, to protest. I am very far, Scott, where they remained four or five days in however, from believing that it is the intention building a small picket work, called Fort Hughes. of the President, with knowledge of the fact, to The provisions thus taken was just sufficient for leave Georgia, as a frontier State, on the ladians the support of the troops during their absence and the Spanish provinces of Florida, uopro. from Fort Scott.

tected; and that if the removal of the troops, un. The third and last visit paid the village by our der Lieutenant Colonel Clinch has been by bim troops, was during the absence of General Gaines, deemed indispensable, he will order their place who was at Amelia Island. This detachment to be supplied by a competent force. was also commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Ar- I have to request that the substance of this letbuckle, and, on our arrival, finding the place ter may be communicated to the President, and entirely abandoned by the Indians, it was destroyed that his determination thereon may be transmit

ted to the Executive of Georgia, with as little deThe horses taken by the detachment under lay as possible. I am, sir, &c. Major Twiggs, as well as those taken by that

D. B. MITCHELL. under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Ar- Hon. the SECRETARY OF WAR. buckle, were considered of no value, but were ordered by the General to be turned into the quar

No. 15. termaster's hands. I afterwards saw some of

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, GEORGIA, them in his possession ; others were claimed by the friendly Indians as their property, which were

Milledgeville, Feb. 5, 1817. given up to them by the General's order. I be- SIR: Understanding that you are thus far on lieve, sir, that this is all the information which your way to Fort Montgomery, I avail myself of it is in my power to give on the subject that you the present opportunity to communicate some have requested. I am, sir, &c.

facts, in the expectation that you will have it in JOHN' N. MCINTOSH,

your power, if your judgment approve, to adopt Captain 4th regt. U. S. Inf. the measures I am about to propose. The Hon. A. LACOCK.

You, no doubt, have already been informed

that the notorious Woodbine has recently made No. 14.

his appearance again at the mouth of the Appa

lachicola, and that he has an agent now among Executive DEPARTMENT,

the Seminole Indians and negroes in that quarter, Milledgeville, Ga. Feb. 6, 1817.

stirring them up to acts of hostility against this Sir: I understand tbat the 4th regiment of the country; and that Woodbine himself has gone in United States' infantry, which, for some time an armed vessel to some part of the West Indies past, has been stationed on the frontier of this for supplies. Connected with this fact is another, State, near the junction of the Flint and Chata which may serve as an intimation of the future hoochee rivers, is ordered to Fort Montgomery, on conduct of these people, when once in possession the waters of Mobile, and I have not heard of any of the supplies, which it is said they expect on other troops being ordered to supply their place. the return of Woodbine. About ten or twelve By this movement, not only the frontier of days ago, a small party of those Indians entered

by fire.

Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. the frontier of Wayne county, and stole iwo tablished and occupied on the Appalachicola by horses and some caiile. They were pursued by British officers and agents, and a considerable some of the inhabitants, who peaceably demanded force there organized for the purpose of annoying a restoration of the stolen property, and, instead the Southern frontier of the United States. 'It is of a compliance on the part of the Indians, they also known that the hostile lodians of the Creek immediately fired upon the whites, who retired war, who had not embraced the terms of peace without firing a shot; one of ihe whites was mor-proposed by General Pinckney, and finally setuled tally wounded.

by ihe treaty of Fort Jackson, had taken shelter Before this last circumstance came to my knowls in the Floridas. From their resentment, and the edge, I had addressed the acting Secretary of motley crew collected by Nicholls, mucb mischief War, and desired the contents of my letter to be was to be apprehended by the inhabitants on the communicated to the President, in which I rep- frontier of Georgia; and the post of Fort Seout, resented the evil consequences that were likely to situate in the fork of the Flint and Chatahoochee result to Georgia, in particular, by the removal of rivers, and near their junction, was established the 4th regiment from Camp Crawford, without and occupied by a considerable force of United their place was supplied by an adequate force States troops, for the protection of that frontier; from some other quarter; and requested the order and the same troops, with the aid of some naval for the removal of that regiment might be coun- force which ascended the Appalachicola, determanded, or their place supplied. To this stroyed a fort about sixty miles below, built by communication there has not yet been time lo Colonel Nicholls, occupied and defended by receive an answer. One object of my present negroes. The blowiog up of this fort, with its address is to know if you cannot suspend the negro garrison, (for, except a few Choctaw lamarch of the 4th regiment until I can hear from dians, who were taken, it is believed that no other the War Department, if you do not feel author- Indians were in the fort,) had a salutary influence ized or disposed to order them back to their former in restraining the fugitives from the Creek war, station at Camp Crawford. Another object of and those under the influence of Nicholls and his the present address grows out of the following partisans. I say the fugitives from the Creek faci: some of our people have gone over the war and the partisans of Nicholls, because it is Ockmulgee, and settled between that river and well understood that the Seminoles took no part the line run under the late treaty with the Creeks, in the Creek war, unless the receipt of goods, &c. on or near Goose creek, of which the Indians from Nicholls or his sub-agents be considered as complain. I have appointed an agent to go and proof of this fact; but the truth is, they will order them off, and bring me the names of all receive presents from any party, without any such as refuse to move from the Indian land. I intention of adopting his projects; and such, 1 am doubtful, from the character of those intruders, have no doubt, was the case with the Seminoles that they will not remove without force is used upon this occasion. The troops occupying Fort to compel them; and it is doubtful whether I Scott were, however, soon after removed, and the can legally apply that force, and the United post abandoned, or so nearly so, that it was in the States can.

I have to request, if consistent with power of the Indians at any time, to have destroyyour duty, or the orders of the General Govern- ed it. Filling, at that time, the Executive chair ment, that you will order a detachment of troops of Georgia, I addressed the then Secretary of War to proceed to the spot, and remove those intruders on the subject of the removal of the troops, pointI am unwilling to give the Indians any just cause ing out some of the evils which were likely to of complaint against us, and the more so, because result, and urging the necessity of the re-occupa. I am determined, as long as I hold the station Ition of the post by a respectable force. To ibis now occupy, never to permit any aggression on communication an answer was received, by which their part to pass with impunity. 'I hold it a good I was informed that, although it was the intention rule, however, " to do as I would be done by," of the Government to concentrate a respectable and am desirous of conforming to this rule in the force further to the west, yet it never was conpresent instance. I am, sir, yours, &c.

templated to leave the frontier of Georgia ex. D. B. MITCHELL.

posed. Major Gen. Edmund P. Gaines.

The peace of the frontier of Georgia has always

been exposed and disturbed, more or less, by acts No. 16.

of violence, committed as well by the whites Having been summoned to attend a committee as the Indians; and a spirit of retaliation has of the honorable the Senate of the United States, mutually prevailed. These petty acts of aggres. to give evidence touching the Seminole war, Ísion were increased and multiplied by a set of did attend accordingly, and, after a verbal state-lawless and abandoned characters, who had taken ment to, and examination by, the committee, the refuge on both sides of the St. Mary's river, liv. following questions were asked me, with a re- ing principally by, plunder. I believe the first quest that I would answer in writing :

outrage committed on the frontier of Georgia, First, as to "the origin of the Seminole war, after the treaty of Fort Jackson, was by these and the Fowltown affair."

banditii, who plundered a party of the Seminole It is, no doubt, within the knowledge of the Indians, on their way to Georgia for the purpose of honorable the committee, tbat, during the late trade, and killed one of them. This produced war with the British and Creeks, posts were es retaliation on the part of the Indians, and hence

Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.

a

the killing of Mrs. Garret and her child. The "the organization of Mclatosh's brigade, how evidence of these pluoderings and murders is on and by whom done, with a roster of the field and the files of the Executive of Georgia.

other officers; with the notice thereof given to Early in March, 1817, I resigned the Govern the War Department; what answer, if any, was ment of Georgia, and accepted my present ap: received ?" pointment; and, in July, of the same year, called At the meeting at Fort Hawkins, in July, 1817, a general meeting of the Creek nation, at Fort Colonel Brearly, of the 7th infantry, attended, Hawkins. At this meeting I endeavored to im- and stated to me that he was directed by General press upon the minds of the Indians the necessity, Gaines to apply for the assista ace or services of on their part, of preserving peace; that many of General Mclatosh and five or six hundred of his the people of the lower towns had been led astray friendly warriors, in case he should go against by evil counsel, had received presents from the the Seminoles. I immediately communicated the British agent, Colonel Nicholls; and although it application to the chiefs in council, and received was acknowledged that they had not taken an for answer that they would leave that business active part with the Red Sticks in the Creek to Mclotosh and myself. I then told McIntosh war, yet their conduct had made the in some that he must hold himself and bis warriors in measure, obnoxious to the friendly part of their readiness to joio the United States' troops whenown nation, and to the United States; and that ever ordered. This he readily agreed to. Whether it was the duty of the friendly chiefs to reclaim I received a written communication from General those people, and restrain the restless spirits Gaines upon this subject or not, I do not recollect; among them, whose conduct might eventually, but I was told by some one that he had written if not checked in time, bring them into much to McIntosh for his assistance. However, before trouble, if not utter ruin; assuring them, at the a call was made on the warriors 10 take the field, same time, that the United States would punc- I received a letter from the then acting Secretary tually fulfill all their engagements with them, of of War, communicating the fact to me that Gen. which I had then given them substantial proof; eral Gaines was prohibited from crossing the and that all, except murderers, who should return Spanish line, without a special order from that to their duty, aud renew their friendly relations Department. This I considered as notice, or with the nation, should receive protection and rather as an order, to me not to permit the forgiveness.

friendly warriors to cross the line under sanction I state these particulars on account of their con- of, or in the service of, the United States. This nexion with what immediately follows: About | letter, I think I received some time in November; the last of August of the same year, say some and a meeting of the chiefs having been called thing more than one month after the meeting at by the Little Prince, to take into consideration Fort Hawkins, I received a letter from Major the affair of Fowltown, I informed them of the Twiggs, then at Fort Scott, dated the 4th of that determination of the Government in this particumonth, written, as he says, at the request of the lar, and desired them to remain quiet votil they chiefs of three towns near that place, expressive heard from me again. This meeting was held of their willingness to agree to the talk delivered in December, at the Broken Arrow, on the Chatby me, in July, at Fort Hawkins. A copy of ahoochee; and, on my return to the Agency, Major Twigg's letter, and the memorandum en- I fell in with General Gaines to whom I comclosed therein, is here with exhibited. Of the municated the contents of the Acting Secretary's three towns referred 10, the Fowltown was one ; letter and the course I had taken with the Inbut, before I had an opportunity of sending for dians. The General then informed me that he those chiefs, or 'of taking any measures for meet: had received the order spoken of, but that, from ing their proposition, General Gaines arrived the representations he had made, he did not doubt with a detachment of troops from the West, seat but that the prohibition to crossing the Spanish for the chief of Fowltown, and for bis contumacy line would be removed. I had appointed another in not immediately appearing before him, the meeting with the Indians, to take place at the town was attacked and destroyed by the troops Agency, at the end of twenty-five days, expectof the United States, by order General Gaines. ing to hear from the War Department in the This fact was. I conceive, the immediate cause meantime; but, upon the subject of crossing the of the Seminole war. The reasons assigned for Spanish line, I received no immediate answer. the destruction of Fowltown, in addition to the A meeting was accordingly held at the Agency, contumacy of the chief, were, the resusal of the which commenced on the 9th of January, 1819, at chiefs of the Seminoles to give up some murder- which Colonel Brearly attended; and, although ers, and the hostile aspect which they had as- he brought no communication in writing from sumed. Of this demand and refusal I know noth- General Gaines, yet he informed me that he knew ing more than what has been published; but truth the prohibition to crossing the Spanish line had compels me to say, that, before the attack on been withdrawn, and that General Gaines had Fowltown, aggressions of this kind were as fre-ordered him to muster as many of the friendly quent on the part of the whites as on the part of Indians into service as were willing to engage. the Indians, ihe evidence of which can be fur- Arrangements were immediately made, and a day nished from the files of the Executive of Georgia, assigned, for enrolling the friendly warriors, and to which I have before referred.

Colonel Brearly attended at Fort Mitchell, for The second question put by the committee is, that purpose, and there mustered the greater part

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