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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
charge, that, being at Suwany, in the towns, at the mouth of the river; and this morning the about the 6th or 7th of April, he was awakened American flag is seen flying on the largest. I am early in the morning by Mr. Ambrister's receiv- blocked here; no Indians will come with me; ing, by the hands of a negro, who got it from an and I am now suffering from the fatigue of com: Indian, a letter from St. Mark's, at that time ing here alone. stated by Ambrister to be from the prisoner.
The main drift of the Americans is to destroy Question by the prisoner. Did you see that the black population of Suwany. Tell
friend letter, or hear it read ?
Bowleck ihat it is throwing away his people to Answer. I did see the paper, but did not hear attempt to resist such a powerful force as will be it read.
down on Suwany; and as the troops advance Question by the prisoner. Did you state that by land, so will the vessels by sea. Endeavor to the letter was received by an Indian express ? get all the goods over the river to a place of secu.
Answer. So the black man that delivered it rity, as also the skins of all sorts; the corn must said.
be left to its fate. So soon as the Suwany is A question being raised by a member of the destroyed, I expect the Americans will be satis. court as to their jurisdiction on the third charge fied and retire; this is only my opinion; but I and its specifications, the doors were closed, and, think it is conformable to the demand made by after mature deliberation, they decided that this General Gaines of King Hatchy some month's court are incompetent to take cognizance of the since. In fact, do all you can to save all you can ; offences alleged in that charge and specifications. save the books particularly. It is probable the
PETER B. Cook, a former clerk to the pris- commandant will receive some communication oper, and a witness on the part of the prosecu- from the vessels to-day, when he will know more tion, being duly sworn, staied, that, about De certainly what are their motives in coming off cember or January last, the prisoner had a large the fort. I think it is only to shut the passage to quantity of powder and lead brought to Suwany the Indians. Twenty canoes went down the in his vessel, which be sold to the Indians and river yesterday, and were forced to return. The negroes; that, subsequent to that time, which he road between this and the Mickasukey is said to cannor recollect, Ambrister brought for the pris- be stopped. Hillis Hadjo and Himathlo Mico oner, in bis (the prisoner's) vessel, nine kegs of were here last night to hear what vessels; they powder and a large quantity of lead, which will remove all their cattle and effects across Si. were taken possession of by the negroes; the Mark's river this morning, and perhaps wait near wituess also identified the following letters re- thereto for the event. ferred to in the foregoing charges and specifica- I have been as brief as I can, to give you the subtions, marked A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H, as stance of what appears facts that cannoi be doubted. being the prisoners band writing; also the power To enter into details in the present moment is useof aitorney, No. 1, granted by the Indians to A. less. If the schooner is returned, get all the goods Arbutbnot.
on board of her, and let her start off for Moun
ater creek, in the bottom of Cedar Key bay. You A.
will there only have the skins to hide away. But From A. Arbuthnot to his son, John Arbuthnot.
no delay musi take place, as the vessels will no Fort St. Mark's, APRIL 2, 1818,
doubt follow the land army; and perhaps even 9 o'clock in the morning.
now some bave gone round. I pray your strictest
attention, for the more that is saved will be eventDear John: As I am ill able to write a long ually more to your interest. letter, it is necessary to be brief. Before my arri. Let the bearer have as much calico as will val bere, the commandant had received an express make him two shirts for his trouble. He has from the Governor of Pensacola, informing him promised to deliver this in three, but I give him of a large embarcation of troops, &c., under the four days. I am yours, affectionately, immediate command of General Jackson; and
A. ARBUTHNOT. the boat that brought the despatch reckoned eigh
B. teen sail of vessels off Appalachicola. By a deserter that was brought here by the Indians, the From A. Arbuthnot to Charles Cameron, Governor of commandant was informed that three thousand
Bahamas. men, under the orders of General Jackson; one Sir: Being empowered by the chiefs of the thousand foot and one thousand six hundred Lower Creek nation to represent the state of their horse, under General Gaines; five hundred under nation to your excellency, that you may be pleased another General; were at Prospect Bluff, where to forward the same for the information of His they are rebuilding the burat fori. That one thou- Majesty's Government, to whom alone they look sand Indians of different nations were at Spanish for protection against the aggressions and enBluff building another fort, under the direction of croachments of the Americans, I beg leave to Ainerican officers; that, as soon as these forts submit to your excellency the enclosed represen. were built, they intended to march-they have tations, humbly praying that your excellency will commenced. Yesterday morning advice was re- be pleased to take an early opportunity of forceived that they had appeared near and warding the same to Great Britain. two of the sons of McQueen and an Indian. Late I am also iostructed by Bowleck, chief of the in the afternoon three schooners came to anchor Suwany, to make the demand herein enclosed ;
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. he never having had any share of the presents excellency the contents as delivered me by the distributed at Prospect Bluff, though he rendered chief's head English interpreter, with King Hatequally
essential services as any of ihe other chiefs chy's reply thereto. to the British cause, while ai war with Ameri- This leiter appears to have been intended to ca; and was at New Orleans with a part of his sound the disposition of the chief, and ascertain warriors. His frontiers being more exposed to the sorce necessary to overrun the nation; for, the predatory incursions of the back Georgians, from then, until the actual attack was made on who enter his territory and drive off his cattle, Fowltown, the same General, with General Jackhe is obliged to have large parties out to watch son, seem to have been collecting troops and set. their motions and prevent their plundering; and, tling in various quarters. being deficient of ammunition, he prays your ex-. If your excellency desires to bave further incellency will grapt his small demand.
formation respecting the situation of this country Humbly submitting the same, I bave the honor and its inhabitants, I can, from time to time, to be, your excellency's most humble servant, inform your excellency of such facts and circum
A. A. stances as are stated to me by chiefs of koown
veracity, or which may come uoder my own obThe humble representations of the chiefs of the Creek servation ; and your excellency's order, addressed
nation to his excellency Governor Cameron. to me at New Providence, will either find me First. We beg leave to represent that Edmund there, or be forwarded me to this country. Doyle and William Hambly, lately clerks at With great respect, I have the honor to be, Prospect Bluff to Messrs. Forbes, &c., and who your excellency's most obedient servant, still reside on the Appalachicola river, we con
A. A. sider as the principal cause of our preseni troubles and uneasiness. Hambly was the instrumental
The following memorandum was on the back cause of the fort at Prospect Bluff being destroyed
of the foregoing letter : by the Americans, by which we lost the supplies Choctawhachy, 500; 'Himashy Miso Chattchi
King Hatcby, 1.000 ; Boleck, 1,500 ; Oso Hatjo intended for our future wars. Since then both these men have kept emissaries among us, tend-chy, 500; at present with Hillisajo —; at presing to harass and disturb our repose, and that of ent under arms, 1,000 and more; attacking those our brethren of the Middle and Upper pation;
Americans who have made inroads on their ter. they spread among us reports that the Cowetas,
ritory. aided by the Americans, are descending to drive
A quantity of gunpowder, lead. muskets, and us off our lands; they equally propagate false.
flints, sufficient to arm one thousand or two thou
sand men. C.
Muskets, 1,000; arms smaller, if posssible.
10,000 flints, a proportion of rife put up sepFrom A. Arbuthnot to Benjamin Moodie, enclosing arate.
letters to Charles Bagot, Esquire, British Minisler 50 casks gunpowder, a proportion for rifle. at Washington.
2,000 knives, six to nine inch blade, good SHAWNEE, CREEK Nation, quality.
January 27, 1818. 1,000 tomahawks. Sir: The enclosed, containing matter of seri.
100 pounds vermillion. ous moment, and demanding the immediate at- 2,000 pounds lead, iodependent of ball for mustention of his excellency the British Ambassador,
KING HATCHY, I trust he will, for this time, forgive the trifling
BOLECK. expense of postage, which I have endeavored to
From General Gaines to the Seminole Chief prevent as much as possible by compressing much matter in one sheet of paper. Should you, sir,
Your Seminoles are very bad people; I don't say be put to any trouble or expense, by this trou. whom. You have murdered many of my people, ble I give you, by being made acquainted with and stolen my cattle and many good borses, that the same, I will instruct Bam, Dunshee, & Co., cost me money; and many good houses thai cost to order payment of the same.
me money you have burnt for me, and now, that I have the honor to be, &c.
you see my writing, you'll think I have spoken A. ARBUTHNOT.
right. I koow it is so; you know it is so ; for
now you may say I will go upon you at random; From A. Arbuthnot to the Honorable Charles Bagot. but just give me the murderers, and I will show
Sir: It is with pain I agaio obtrude myself tbem my law; and, when that is finished and upon your excellency's notice; but the pressing past, if you will come about any of my people, solicitations of the chiefs of the Creek nation, and you will see your friends; and, if you see me, the deplorable situation in which they are placed you will see your friend. But there is something by the wanton aggressions of the Americans, Iout in the sea-a bird with a forked toogue trust your excellency will take as a sufficient whip bim back before he lands, for he will be apology for the present intrusion.
the ruin of you yet. Perhaps you do not underIn August last, the head chief of the Seminole stand who or what I mean I mean the name of lodians received a letter from General Gaines, of Englishman. which I have taken the liberty of annexing your I tell you this, that if you do not give me up Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
the murderers who murdered my people, I say I and oppression to obtain their ends. Against have got good strong warriors, with scalping- such oppressions the American Government must koives and tomahawks. You harbor a great many use not only all their influence, but, if necessary, of my black people among you at Sabwahnee. force, or their names will be handed down to pos. If you give me leave to go by you agaiost them, terity as a nation more cruel and savage to the I shall not hurt anything belonging to you. unfortunate aborigines of this country, than ever
GENERAL GAINES. were the Spaniards in more dark ages to the naTo the SeminoLE CHIEF.
tions of South America.
The English Government, as the special proFrom King Hatchy to General Gaines, in answer to tectors of the Indian nations, and on whom alone the foregoing
they rely for assistance, ought to step forward You charge me with killing your people, steal and save those unfortunate people from ruin. ing your cauile, and burning your houses ; it is I And as you, sir, are appointed to watch over their that have cause to complain of the Americans. interests, it'is my duty as an Englishman, and While one American has been justly killed, while the only one in this part of the lodian nation, to in the act of stealing cattle, more than four la- instruci you of the talks the chiefs bring me for dians while bunting have been murdered by these your information; and I sincerely trust, sir, you lawless freebooters. I harbor po negroes. When will use the powers you are vested with for the the Englishmen were at war with America, some service and protection of those unfortunate people, took shelter among them; and it is for you white who look up to you as their saviour. I have people to settle those things among yourselves, written General Mitchell, who I hear is an exand not trouble us with what we koow pothing cellent man, and, as he acts as Indian agent, I about. I shall use force to stop any armed Amer- hope his influence will stop the torrent of innoicans from passing my towns or my lands. valors, and give peace and quietness to the Creek
nation. To General E. P. GAINES.
I pray your excellency will pardon this intru
sion, which nothing bui the urgency of the case D.
would have induced me to make. Note of Indian Talks.
I have the honor to be, yours, &c. In August, Capp had a letter from General
Α. Α. Gaines, in substance as annexed, No. 1; and returned the answer, as by No. 2: nothing further from Cappichimicco and Bowleck to Governor Camwas said on either side. The end of October, a
eron. party of Americans from a fort on Flint river surrounded Fowltown during the night, and be. It is with pain we are again obliged to obtrude gan burning it. The lodians then in it fled to ourselves on your excellency's notice, in consethe swamp, and in their fight had three persons quence of the cruel war we have been forced into killed by fire from the Americans ;, they rallied by the irruptions of the Americans into the heart their people, and forced the Americans to retire of our lands. It will be first necessary to state to some distance, but not before they had two more your excellency, that one head chief, Kinhijah, persons killed. The Americans built a block- received a letter from General Gaines in August house or fort where they had fallen back to, and last; a copy of which is enclosed, with the animmediately sent to the fort up the country for swer returned thereto. This letter only appears assistance, stating the Indians were the aggres- to have been a prelude to plans determined on by sors; and also sellled with Inhemocklo, for the the said General and General Jackson, to bring loss bis people had suffered ; at the same time on troops and settlers to drive us from our lands, sending a talk to King Hatchy, by a head man, and take possession of them; for, in the end of OcApiny, that he would put things in such a train tober, a party of Americans surrounded Fowltown as to prevent further encroachments, and get during the night, and in the morning began setthose Americans to leave the fort. But no sooner ting fire to it, making the unfortunate inhabitants was the good talk given, and before the bearer of Ay to the swamp, and who in their flight had three it returned home, than hundreds of Americans persons killed by the fire of the Americans. Our came pouring down on the Indians, roused them Indians rallying, drove the Americans from the to a sense of their own danger, they flew to arms, town, but in their exertions bad two more of their and have been compelled to support them ever people killed. The Americans retired some dissince. It is not alone from the country, but by iance, and built a fort or blockhouse to protect vessels entering Appalachicola river with troops, themselves, until the assistance they had sent for and settlers are pouring into the Indian territory, to the fort up the country should arrive. A letand, if permitted to continue, will soon overrun ter falling into the bands of General Mitchell, the whole of the Indian lands. From the talk the lodian agent, which states the Indians to sent King Hatchy, by Governor Mitchell, I am have been ihe aggressors, he suspected its truth, in hopes that those aggressions of the Americans and, on inquiry, found it was the reverse; in conon the Indian territory are not countenanced by sequence, he made satisfaction to Inhinoothila, the American Government, but originate with the chief of Fowltown, and his people, for the men devoid of principle, who set laws and in- injuries they had sustained : at the same time, he structions at defiance, and stick at no cruelly | desired a talk to be sent to our head chief, stating
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. his wish to see all the Indians friends, and that stance of the encroachments of the Americans. in twenty days he would send and get the Amer. This town is situated under the guns of Fort icans to retire from the forts. But this has had Gaines ; and Micco was desired to submit to the no effect on the lawless invaders of our soil; for Americans or his town would be blown to atoms. before the bearer of our talks could return home, Rather than do so, he retired, and is now living he met hundreds of Americans descending on us. in the lower nation, and his fields, and even where They have also settlers and troops which come the town stood, is ploughed up by the Americans. from Mobile, and go up the Appalachicola river. They complain of the English Goveroment de Thus, seeing no end to those inroads, necessity glecting them, after having drawn them into a compels us to have recourse to arms; and our war with America; that you, sir, have not kept brethren are now fighting for the lands they in your promise of sending people to reside among herited from their fathers, for their families and ihem; and that if they have not some person or friends.
persons resident in the nation to watch over their But what will our exertions do without assist interest, they will soon be driven to the extremance ? Our sinews of war are almost spent; ity of the peninsula. You left Mr. Hambly to and harassed as we have been for years, we have watch over the interest of the Creek nation, but not been able to lay by the means for our extra- you had hardly left the nation when he turned ordinary wants; and to whom can we look up traitor, and was led by Forbes to take the part of to for protection and support, but to those friends the Americans. His letter to me, of which I an. who have at all former times held forth their nex you a copy, will show you what length he bands to uphold us, and who have sworn in their could go if he had the means. It is Hambly and late treaty with the Americans to see our just Doyle who give the Indians all the trouble they rights and privileges respected and protected from experience. They send their emissaries among insult and aggression ? We now call on your the Lower Creeks, and make them believe the excellency, as the representative of our good Çowetas, aided by the Americans, are coming to father King George, to send us such aid in am- destroy them. Thus both are put in fear, and munition as we are absolutely in want of; and, their fields are neglected, and hunting is not as our brother chief, Hillisajo, was informed, thought of. I have endeavored to do away this when in England, that when ammunition was fear, by writing the chief of the Coweta iowos wanted to enable us to protect our just rights, that they ought to live on friendly terms with that your excellency would supply us with whai their brethren of the lower nation, whose wishes was necessary. We have applied to the Spanish were to be on good terms with them, and not to officer at the fort of St. Mark's, but his small sup-listen to any bad talks, but to chase those that ply prevented his being able to assist us, and we give them from among them. My letter was anhave only on your excellency to depend. We swered from them rather favorably; and I hope likewise pray your excellency would be pleased the talk that was sent to the Big Warrior last to send an officer or person to lead us right, and June will heal the difference between them. Hila 10 apportion the supply you may be pleased 10 lisajo arrived in my schooner at the Ocklocknee send us agreeably to our proper wants.
Sound last June, and was well received by all the In praying your excellency will lend an ear to chiess and others who came to welcome him our demand, and despatch it without delay, we home. In consequence of his arrival a talk was remain your excellency's faithful and most obe held, the substance of which was put on paper for diept friends and servants,
them; and it was sent, with a pipe of peace, to CAPPICHIMICCO, the other nations. Hillisajo wished to return to BOLECK,
Nassau with me, but I prevailed on him to stay For ourselves and all the other in the nation, and keep ihem at peace. I regret, chiefs of the Lower Creek nation. sir, to notice this poor man's affairs, though, by
his desire, it appeared that he arrived at Nassau F.
a short time after I had left it in January, and Letter from A. Arbuthnot to Colonel Edwards Nicholls. Captain W. being here took charge of him, his
goods, and money, prevailing on the Governor to Nassau, N. P. August 26, 1817. let him stay with him until he went down to the Sir: Especially authorized by the chiefs of the nation, which it was his intention to do. Of the Creek nation, whose names I affix to the present, money received of Governor Cameron, he had I am desired to address you, that you may lay only given him eighty dollars, by Captain W. a their complaint before His Majesty's Goveromeni. barrel of sugar, a bag of coffee, and a small keg They desire it to be made known that they have of rum. And the interpreter, Thugart, informed implicitly followed your advice in living friendly that when Hillisajo asked for an account, Capwith the Americans who were their neighbors, tain W. refused it, saying it would be useless io and nowise attempted to molest them, ihough, a man who could not read. He also misses two they have seen the Americans encroach on their cases; one of which contains, he thinks, crockterritory, burning their towns, and making fields ery. I have made inquiry of His Majesty's ordwhere their houses stood. Rather than make nance storekeeper, and he informs me ihe wbole resistance they have retired lower in the penin- were delivered to Captain W.; they are, theresula. The town of Eahallaway, on the Chata- fore, lost to Hillisajo. hoochee, where Olismicco was chief, is one in- I am desired to return Hillisajo's warmest ac
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
knowledgments for the very handsome manner uoruly Seminoles. Thus the person appointed you treated him in England, and he begs bis to watch over the interest of the Indians having prayer may be laid at the foot of His Royal High- no other means of information than from the ness the Prince Regent. I left him and all his parties ioterested in their destruction, and seeing, family well on the 20th June. Old Cappichimicco from time to time, in the American gazettes, ac. desires me to send his best respects, and requests counts of cruel murders, &c., committed by the that you will send out some people to live among Indians on the frontier selilements of the United them, and all the land they took from Forbes shall Stales, he appreheads the Indians merit all the be theirs; at all events, they must have an agent Americans do to them. among them to see that the Americans adhere to But let His Majesty's Goveroment appoint an the treaty, and permit them to live unmolested agent, with full powers io correspond with His on their own lands. This agent should be au. Majesty's Ambassador at Washington, and his thorized by His Majesty's Government, or he will eyes will then be opened as to the the motives of not be atiended to by the Americans. In the that influence, American individuals as well as gazettes of Georgia the Americaos report the Sem- the Government, in vilifying the Indians. inole Indians are continually committing mur- The power given me, and the instructions, ders on their borders, and making incursions into were to memorialize His Majesty's Government, the State. These are fabrications, tending 10 as well as the Governor General at Havana; but irritate the American Government against ihe if you will be pleased to lay this letter before His poor Indians; for, during the time I was in the Majesty's Secretary of State, it will save the nenation, there was only one American killed, and cessity of the first ; and I fear that a memorial to be with two others were in the act of driving off the Governor General would be of no use. catile belonging to Bowlegs, chief of Suwanee; Referring you to the answer, I am. &c. whereas, three men and a boy were killed last
A. ARBUTHNOT. Juge by a party of American cattle stealers, while To Lieut. Col. EDWARD NICHOLLS. in their hunting camps; the boy they scalped,
G. and one of Bowlegs' head men was killed in si.
From A. Arbuthnot John's river, in July. The backwood Georgians,
William Hambly. and those resident on the borders of the Indian
OCKLOCKNEE SOUND, May 3, 1817. nation, are continually entering it, and driving Sır: On iny return home, this day, I received off caitle. They have, in some instances, made a letter signed by you, and dated 238 March. As selilements, and particularly on the Choctahatchy you therein take ihe liberty of advising me, as you river, where a considerable number have de- say, by order of the chiefs of the Creek nation, I scended.
am glad of, and shall embrace this opening you By the treaty with Great Britain, the Ameri- gave me, and reply to you at some length;
and, cans were to give up to the Indians all the lands sir, let me premise that, when you lived at Prosthat may have been taken from them during the pect Bluff, a clerk to Messrs. Forbes & Co., you war, and place them on the same fooling they did not consider Cappichimicco, McQueen, or were in 1811. It appears they have not done so; any other of the chiefs of the lower nation, as that Fort Gaines, on the Chatahoochee, and outlaws. nor have they ever been considered as Camp Crawford, on the Flint river, are both on such by the English Government, who are the Indian territory, that was not in possession of especial protectors of the Indian nation ; and it America in 1811. They are fearful that, before ill
' becomes Mr. Hambly to call Cappichimicco any aid is given by the Eoglish Government, they an outlaw, that man who has ever been his friend, will no longer be in possession of any territory. and by his authority has prolonged bis life. Yet, I wrote last January to his excellency the honor- sir, the young chiefs and warriors of the Creek able Charles Bagot, respecting the encroachments nation, considering you as the chief cause of their of the Americans, as I was informed, by the troubles, would have long ere this had possession copy of a letter from the right honorable Earl of you, and perhaps with your life made you pay Bathurst, handed me by his excellency Governor the forseit for the injuries heaped on thém, had Cameron, that His Majesty's Ambassador had not that man, who has been your friend from your received orders 10 watch over the interests of the early youth, stepped in as your protector. Yes, Indians. Since my relurn here I have received this is the man who Mr. Hambly presumes to call of Mr. Moodie, of Charleston, an extract of a let- an outlaw. A pardoned villain, when going to ter from the honorable Charles Bagot, that the the gallows, would bless the hand that saved his expense of postage is so considerable, any further life; but Mr Hambly blasphemes his saviour. communications of the same nature must be sent As Mr. Hambly's generous friend is the prinhim by private hands. Now, sir, as no person cipal cause of my being in this country, as an goes from this direct to Washington, how am I honest man I shall endeavor to fulfil my promise to be able to comply with his desire ? Thus he to him and the other chiefs. The guilty alone have will be kept ignorant of the situation of the poor fear; an honest and upright man dreads no danIndians, and the encroachments daily made on ger, fears no evil, as he commits no ill; and your their lands by the American settlers, while he arm of justice ought to be applied where it would may be told by the American Government that rightly fall on the heads of the really guilty. Your no encroachments have been made, and that the mean and vile insinuations, that have been the forts they still hold are necessary to check the cause of thefts and murders, come ill from him