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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
tency of presuming yourself capable of resisting 15 miles from its mouth or entrance into the sea,) an army which has conquered the Indian tribes, I lost no time in proposing to my Captain General too strong, agreeably to your own acknowledg- the measures which appeared to me proper, as ment, to be controlled by you. If the force well for securing the inhabitants of the country which you are now disposed wantonly to sacrifice under my command from the damage, loss, and had been wielded against the Seminoles, the injuries which they have suffered, and still suffer, American troops had never entered the Floridas. from this establishment, as to prevent the Amer
I applaud your feeling as a soldier in wishing ican citizens and the friendly Indians of the neighto defend your post; but when resistance is inef- borhood from continuing to experience them. I fectual, and the opposing force overwhelming, have hitherto received no answer, and, consethe sacrifice of a few brave men is an act of wan- quently, your excellency (who knows how limconness, for which the commanding officer must ited are the powers of a subordinate officer) canbe accountable to his God.
not be surprised that I should make known to ANDREW JACKSON,
you that, although my mode of thinking exactly Major Gen. com'g Division of the South. corresponds with yours as to the dislodging of Don Jose Mazot, Com'g Barancas.
the negroes from the fort, the occupying it with Spanish troops, or destroying it, and delivering
the negroes who may be collected to their lawful PENSACOLA, May 26, 1818. owners, I shall not be able to act until I receive Most EXCELLENT SIR: On the 24th of the pre- the orders of my Captain General, and the assistsent month, Captain Amelung, of the 1st United ance necessary to enable me to undertake the States regiment, put into my hands your excel- enterprise with a moral certainty of accomplishlency's letter, daied at Washington, Mississippi ing the end. I am persuaded that the determiTerritory, on the 23d of April last; in which, nation of the said chief cannot be long delayed, after apprizing me that your Government had and, should it authorize me to act, your excel given it in charge to you to inform me that the lency may rest assured and persuaded that I will fort of the Negroes, erected during the late war
not lose an instant in adopting, on my part, the with Great Britain, near the junction of the Cha- most efficacious measures for cutting up by the tahoochee and Flint rivers, had been reinforced, root an evil which is felt to the full extent stated and was now occupied by more than two hundred in your letter by the inhabitants of this province, and fifty negroes, many of whom were seduced who are subjects of my Sovereign, and whose from the service of their masters, (who are citi- prosperity and tranquilliiy it is my duty to prezens of the United States,) and that all of them serve and protect. are well armed, provisioned, and disciplined, you With this explanation, your before named letmake many wise reflections with respect to the ter may be considered fully answered, as it gives serious injuries which may result from tolerating you to understand that, thinking as your excelsuch an establishment, not only to those in the lency thinks with respect to the necessity of deimmediate neighborhood of it, by destroying the stroyiog the negroes, the fort of Appalachicola, peace of the nation, but likewise to the good un occupied by them, was not constructed by order derstanding which happily exists between our of the Spanish Government; and that ihe nerespective Governments. You enter into an in- groes, although in part belonging to inhabitants vestigation to show what the Spanish authorities of this province, and, as rational beings, may be ought to do to put an end to an evil of so serious subjects of the King, my master, are deemed by a nature, in a mode prescribed by those principles me insurgents or rebels against ihe authority not of good faith, which are the foundation of friend-only of His Catholic Majesty, but also of the proly neighborhood among nations. You distinctly prietors from whose service they have withdrawn state what this Government ought immediately themselves; some seduced by the English Colo. to do; in failure of which, your Government will nel Edward Nicholls, Major Woodbine, and their be obliged to do it, to iosure the safety of the in- agents; and others from their inclination to run habitants of the United States; and you conclude off. by requesting me lo state, in my answer to your But as your excellency manifests a particuletter, whether the said fort has been constructed lar desire that, in case the fort was not erected by by the Spanish Government, and whether the Spanish authority, I should state by whose order negroes who composed the garrison were deemed it was erected, I have no difficulty in satisfying .subjects of His Catholic Majesty; and if the fort your curiosity, by informing you that I have unwas not built by Spanish authority, lo state by derstood, ever since my arrival at this place, that what authority and by whose order it was built. the said fort, and another near the confluence of
In answer to your excellency I will state (with the Chatahoochee and Flint rivers, (which it apthe veracity which comports with the character pears no longer exists) were built by the orders of an honorable officer, in which class I rank my of the before named Colonel Nicholls. I will not self) that, having arrived at the place nearly at assure you he did it under authority from his the close of the month of March preceding, and Government; but I can say he proceeded to place being informed of what your excellency has com- artillery, munitions, and provisions in it, by the municated to me,(with this difference, that the fort, arrangement of Vice Admiral Malcolm, and that instead of being where you placed it, is to be found when Colonel Nicholls and the troops of his deon the eastern bank of the Appalachicola, at about tachment, after the conclusion of the expedition
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. against Louisiana, withdrew from that point, be enforce the treaties existing between the King of left orders with the negroes totally contrary to Spain and the United States; he replied to Hanthe incontestable right of sovereigoiy which the bly with some degree of warmth, observing that King, my master, exercises from the line of the it was not in his power to prevent it. On the thirty-first degree of north latitude to the south. Indians coming into the fort, at their request, we My predecessors in the Government have given were confined. The council was beld in the an account of all these actions to the authorities commandant's quarters, he, the commandant, was on whom they depended, that the satisfaction present, but strictly forbade the intrusion of any which the violation required might be demanded of the officers of the garrison. .by those on whom this duty devolves.
The Indians were in the habit of driving 10 I think I have answered your excellency's let. Fort St. Mark's, and disposing of cauile to the ter satisfactorily, and in terms which cannot leave commandant and other Spanish officers. While a doubt of the sincerity of my intentions in favor at that post three or four droves were brought in, of the common cause of the American and Span- acknowledged by the Indians to have been stolen ish inhabitants, and that my present inaction from the citizens of the United States, and purdoes not proceed from a want of inclination. chased by the Spanish officers.
I likewise flatter myself that, until my Captain We were present at most of these contracts, General decides, no steps will be taken by the and Hambly often referred to as an interpreter Government of the United States, or by your ex- between the purchaser and seller. cellency, which may be prejudicial to the sover Chenubby, a Fowliowo lodian, once applied eignty of the King, my master, in the district of 10 Hambly to mention to the commandant that Appalachicola, which is a dependency of this he was about visiting the frontiers of Georgia on Government. And, finally, I conclude, by assur- a plundering expedition, and wished to know ing your excellency that it will afford me partic- whether he would purchase the cattle brought in. ular satisfaction to have opportunities of evincing a contract was entered into, and Chenubby, some my desire not only to contribute, so far as depends lime after, brought in and disposed of eleven head on me, to the cementing of the good understand of catile to the Spanish commandant of Fort St. ing which subsists between our respective Gov- Mark's. These same cattle were those purchased ernments, but also to prove to your excellency by you from the commandant as his private the high opinion I entertain of your virtues and property. military talents.
WM. HAMBLY, God preserve your excellency many years.
EDM'D DOYLE. MAURICIO DE ZUNIGA. His Ex'cy A. JACKSON.
FORT GADSDEN, May 3, 1818.
Sır: In conversation with the commandant at FORT GADSDEN, May 2, 1818. Fort St. Mark's, on the subject of having that Sir: We beg leave to submit to you ibe fol- work occupied by an American garrison, I had lowing statement of facts: On the 13th Decem- occasion to notice the aid and comfort ihat the ber, 1817, we were violently torn from our settle- hostile party of Indians had received as reported ments on the Appalachicola river by a number from him; ihat they had free access within the of Indians headed by Chenubby, a chief from the walls of his fort, and it was known no small supFowltown tribe, carried to Mickasuky, and deplies of ammunition had been received from that livered to Kenhajah, King of the Mickasukians. quarter. Kenhajah carried us to the negro towns on Su In reply he stated that his conduct had been waney, and thence to the Spanish fort St. Marks, governed by policy, the defenceless state of bis to the commandant of which he delivered us as work and the weakness of his garrison compelled prisoners captured under the orders of a Mr. Ar- him to conciliate the friendship of the lodians, buthnot, reported to us as a British agent. At to supply their wants, 10 grant what he had not St. Mark's we were treated as prisoners, and not the power to deny, and to throw open, with appa: permitied 10 wander beyood ihe walls of the rent willingness, ihe gates of his fortress, lest garrison.
they should be forced by violence. Whilst at that port the ingress and egress of That he had been repeatedly threatened by the Indians, hostile to the United States, was un- Indians and negroes, and that his security derestrained, and several councils were held, at pended upon exhibiting an external friendship. one of which Kenhajah, King of the Mickasu. After Fort St. Mark's was occupied by the Amerkians, Francis or Hillis Hago, Hamathlemeco, can troops a black man and Spanish soldier was the chief of Autesses, and the chief of the Kole- reported to me as having been arrested clad in mies, all of the old Red Stick party; and Jack the American uniform, recognised as part of the Mealy, chief of the Ochewas, were present. When clothing of the fourth and seventh regiments, it was reported that the chiefs, and that warriors captured in the boat commanded by Lieutenant were entering Fort St. Mark's for the purpose of Scott, in ascending the Appalachicola river. holding a council, Hambly represented to the lo explanati the Spanish commandant obcommandant ibe impropriety of permitiing such served, ibat his soldiers and the Seminole loproceedings within the walls of a Spanish fortress, dians were in the habit of trading with each ihe officer of which was bound to preserve and other, and that this negro, with others of his gar
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
rison, had received his permission to purchase States, do hereby certify that we were at Fort some clothing reported to have been brought in St. Mark's, East Florida, at the time of its capby the Indians. Respectfully, &c.
ture by Major General A. Jackson, on the 7ih JAMES GADSDEN, Aid-de-camp. April, 1818, and saw some catile that were purMajor General A. JACKSON,
cbased on account of the United States, from the
Spanish authorities, which we were ready to Com'g Southern Division U. S. A.
swear to as the property of our friends and neigh
bors in Georgia. I certify that, on the 23d of May, being in the
ANDREW FRAZIER, Captain. Bayou which enters Pensacola Bay, one aud a
DANIEL F. SULLIVAN, G. M. S. half miles from the town, I saw at the ferry, on the Barancas, a number of Indians. I think about
FORT GADSDEN, May 3, 1818. seventeen, in company with four Spanish officers. Sir: After the occupancy of Fort St. Mark's The officers were carried over, and the boat re with the American troops, on the 7th of April turned to ferry over the Indians. I saw one last, it became my duty to take charge of some boat-load landed on the side next the Barancas. goods found in one of the public stores. The Indians concealed themselves in the bushes These goods were pointed out by the Spanish on discovering us.
commandant, who, through Mr. Hambly as inRICHARD BRICKHAM. terpreter, separated several of the articles claimed Witness: T. Cross, Lieut. of Infantry.
as his owa private property, and designated others
as the property of Francis or Hillis Hajo, and I certify that I was in the boat with Brickham | Arbuthnot, a British agent or trader: an invenat the place and time mentioned in the above tory of these were taken, and deposited with the certificate ; that I saw several lodians in com- American officer left in command at Fort St. pany with four Spanish officers. The officers Mark's. With respect, &c., were ferried over with one Indian. I did not see
D. E. TWIGGS, the Indians ferried over ; they concealed them.
Brevet Major 7th Infantry. selves on discovering us.
I certify that I acted as interpreter in the transJOHŇ BONNER, his X mark.
action above alluded to, and two separate parcels Witness: T. Cross, Lieut. of Infantry. of goods were designated by the Spanish comWitness to both certificates :
mandant of St. Mark's as belonging to Hillis Hajo W. S. Fulton, Secry to Com. Gen. and Arbuthnot.
WM. HAMBLY. We certify that, being in Fort St. Charles,
Fort MONTGOMERY, June 2, 1818. Barancas, on the 28th of May, 1818, in the after
I certify that between the 5th and 17th of May, noon, soon after the American troops took pos- 1818, whilst at Fort Gadsden on the Appalachisession of the work, and as the Spanish troops cola river, I was informed by a Mr. Larua and were marching out, we saw an Indian carried Benneto Gassea, both citizens of, and at that time out by some Spanish soldiers; he was laid on direct from, Pensacola, that, at the time of their his back to put on board a boat; he was wounded departure thence, there were five hundred Indians in the leg or thigh, and had every appearance of in and about Pensacola; and I further certify having been engaged in the defence of the fort.
that, on my arrival at Pensacola on the 23d of WM. RUSSELL, Captain of Spies. May, I was informed by Mr. Skeets, and other
JAMES L. BELL, Captain, fc. citizens of that place, thai, on the 22d, which was Witness: Wm. S. Fulton,
the day before my arrival, Holmes, a noted Red Sec'ry to Commanding General.
Slick, with his party, had left Pensacola to proWe, the undersigned, do hereby certify that, Iceed to the Choctawhatchy for safety, having at the capture of Fort St. Mark's East Florida, been for several days previous in town. by Major General Andrew Jackson, on the 7th
All which I certify on honor.
WM. HAMBLY. April, 1818, there were some catile purchased on account of the United States, and turned over Witness-WM. S. FULTON, to us, which we are of an opinion had been driven Private Secretary of the Com'g General. from the frontiers of Georgia, (a part of them at least) and we were strengthened in our opinion dence on the river Appalachicola, my koowledge
I do hereby certify ihat, during my long resiby a number of officers and men from Georgia of the Indian language, and my intimate acquaintoffering to swear to a number of them as the pro-ance with the different chiefs
, gave me many opperty of their neighbors and friends.
Given under our hands, at Fort Gadsden, this portunities of knowing, through them, the advices 3d of May, 1818.
given them from time to time by the Governors of JACOB R. BROOKS,
West Florida, hostile to the United States. In the Act. Cont. Agent. U. S. Army.
year 1812 or 1813, I saw a letter from the Governor PETER CONE,
of Pensacola to the late chief of the Seminoles, T. Assistant Commissary.
Perryman, advising him to collect his forces and
join his upper town brethren, whom he said had We, the undersigned officers and men of the come to a determination to rise in arms and Georgia militia, in the service of the United shake off the American yoke; he would supply
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. them in arms and ammunition, and he said he her arrival, the cominandant said to us that he was sure that in less than a month their fathers had no objection to our getting out of the power and protectors, the Spaniards, would have a suf- of the Indians, but that he should first demand ficient army in the field 10 aid and protect them. a written obligation that we should never return Not long after I saw this letter, a large party of to that country, por hold communication directly Indians went down to Pensacola, where they or indirectly with the United States Governreceived a large supply of ammunition and some ment, or any of her officers; this being setuled, arms; it was but shortly after this, when they we left St. Mark's in the night of the 28th Marcb, attacked and destroyed the garrison of Fort and joined Capain McKeever in his gunboats Mims; this was the commencement of the first in the Bay of Appalachicola; on the 30th re Indian war; on the 13th of December last, when turned with bim io St. Mark's, where we joined on my plantation on the Appalachicola, I was General Jackson on the 6th of April. made a prisoner of by a party of Seminole Indians, Given under my hand this 24ih of July. and was taken up to the Ochesee Bluff in com
WM. HAMBLY. pany with Mr. Doyle, who was made a prisoner of with me. They kept us there three days, dur PROVINCE OF West FLORIDA, ing which time they were busily engaged with
Town of Pensacola, Sept. 18, 1818. some transports, which were then ascending the In pursuance with an order to me directed by river to Fort Scott; from thence they took us to Colonel William King, civil and military Gor. the Mickasukey, where the Indians informed me ernor of said province, (a copy whereof is bereto that they had been told by the commandant of annexed,)! caused to appear before me, at the St. Mark's that war was declared between Spain quarters of Captain Hugh Young, of ihe army and the United States. From this place we were of the United States, in ihis town, the following carried to the Suwanee, when Kenhagee, princi, persons, viz: Manuel Gonzales, Dr. Brosnaham, pal chief of the Seminoles, told me that we had | William Cooper, J. Dauphin, Skeate, Felipbeen taken and robbed by order of Arbuthnot, pa Prieto, Joachim Barrelas, P. Alba, Jun., Jose and brought there to be tried by him. Shortly Bonefi, (Marian) and Charles Leseau, to answer, after we reached this, Arbuthnot arrived from on oath, such interrogatories, not tending 10 Providence, when we were tried and sentenced criminate themselves, as might be propounded to by said Arbuthnot to be tortured. This sentence them by Captain Young, relating to the interwas not put in execution by the friendly intercourse which took place between the late Spanference of Mr. Cook, clerk to Arbulboot, and the ish authorities of this province, and the hostile negro chief Nero. We were then conducted Indians, during the recent war with the United back to the Mickasukey, then Kenhagee went Slates. down to the fort of St. Mark's lo consult the Joachim Barrelas, being duly sworn, declares, commandant if he would take us as prisoners, to that he has frequently seen parties of lodians in keep at his order. They held a council among the town of Pensacola since the month of Nothe neighboring chiefs, and on the fifth day be vember, 1817; says that parties of Indians have returned and ordered us to be conducted down een provisioned by the late authorities at this pext morning. We arrived at St. Mark's on the place, on several occasions; has frequently heard, 12th of February at night. The Spanish officers and believed, that the Indians were in the habit received us kindly, but the commandant did not of bringing into this place, horses, cattle, &c., for forget to remind us that we were still prisoners, the purpose of selling them and other plunder; and marked out that night the limiis of our says he was at Barancas at the time that General prison they rigidly kept during the time of our Jackson came to Pensacola, in May last; depostay. Next morning the first thing that presented nent acted there as commissary, and knows that itself to my view, was my saddle horse, which several Indians went from town down to Baranhad been taken from me by the Indians; he was cas, with the Spanish forces, and took refuge in in the possession of the commissary. I mentioned the fort; that at the same time several small parit to the commandant, but he said he bought him ties were encamped about the Barancas; ibal, of an Indian, and he could do nothing in it. A upon the arrival of General Jackson before the few days after, in the course of a conversation, I Barancas, Tapaulca and family were also in the mentioned it to the Spanish Doctor; he assured fort; deponent has seen said chief several times me that two-thirds of the property taken from in Pensacola, and believes him to be either a us by the lodians had been bought by the com- Creek or Seminole lodiad ; that while deponent missary and others in the fort; the plundered pro- was at Barancas, and subsequently to the said perty iaken from Georgia, was every day luckily month of November, 1817, he saw an Indian bought by the commandant and others; I knew named Lunæ, an express from St. Marks, cross one instance of an Indian making an engagement over from Santa Rosa island, to Barancas, with with the commandant for cauile, that he was despatches for the Governor here; says that since then going to plunder, and in fourteen or fifteen the said month of November, 1817, Governor days brought them in and sold them. On our Mazot, being himself at Barancas, did order this first arrival at Si. Mark's we had, by help of a deponent to give rations to several parties of Infriendly, Indian, conveyed intelligence to our dians then there, of at least from thirty to forty friends' in Pensacola of our situation, and they strong, men, women, and children. sent us on a small vessel to effect our escape. Ai
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
George Skeate, being doly sworn, declares, Question. Have you seen in said town, or its that he has constantly resided in the town of vicinity, within or since that period, any lodians ? Pensacola since November, 1817, since which, he Answer. I have. has repeatedly seen at different times in said town,
Question. How many did you see at any parfrom ihirty to forty Indians; has not seen any ticular time? ammunition given to the Indians within the pe Answer. About the latter end of last Spring I riod above alluded to; has heard, and believes, saw in town from fifty to sixty Indians, but few that horses, cattle, &c., were brought into this of them were armed, because ihey were prohibplace by the Indians and sold, which deponent, ited from coming into town armed. I suppose however, did not see. Deponent believes that the their arms were left in their camps in the neighJate Governor Mazot was well acquainted with borhood. the several murders that were committed on the Question. How did these Indians subsist them. neighboring American frontier; knows of no sup- selves, and how did they procure ammunition ? plies furnished by order of the Spanish Govern. Answer. Probably from Government here; of ment, since about the month of March, 1817, this, however, I am not certain. when a supply of koives, a few blankets, and Question. Did you see any horses, caule, or some copper kettles, were furnished and delivered other plunder, brought into this place by the Into a party of Indians, for the purpose, as was dians ?--Answer. No. then said, of acting against the insurgents who Question. How many Indians were in Pensawere expected; that ihe said party of Indians cola, and its neighborhood, at the time that Major shortly after disappeared, and nothing more was Young attacked a party near this town? heard of them. Deponent saw, on the day that
Answer. Of all descriptions, viz: men, women, Major Young attacked a party of Indians in the and children, there must have been a consider neighborhood of this town, a number of Indians able number; not less probably than one hundred whom he believes were sent (or went themselves) and fifty, or sixty. across the bay in a boat belonging to Don Anto Question. When Major Young attacked the nio Modina, Captain of the port.
party near town, how did those in town find GEORGE SKEATE. means to escape across the bay ? Mr. Charles Le Jeune, being duly sworn, de
Answer. I have uoderstood, and believe, that clares, that he has resided'in Pensacola since No. they were set across by order of the Governor. vember, 1817, since 'which he has frequently seen
SANTIAGO PAUPHIN. in this town, or its vicinity, parties of upwards of
A true copy :
R. K. CALL, A. L. C. a hundred Indians encamped ; that these parties were armed with rifles, or with the arms that
Josepa Bonefi, being duly sworn, declares as
follows, viz: were furnished them by the English ; that al
Question. Have you lived in Pensacola since though he cannot state that those parties had re
November, 1817?–Answer. I have. ceived ammunition from the Spanish Government here, he nevertheless can, and does state, and the approach of the American forces, under
Question. Have you not between that period that the said parties were provisioned from the Major General Jackson, repeatedly seen divers King's stores, by Prieto, King's storekeeper ; that
parties of hostile Indians in this town or its previous to November, 1817, the Government was regularly in the habit of giving out ammunition
neighborhood ? to the Indians, from a store which was expressly month of November and the time that the hos
Aoswer. I bave. Indeed, between the said for that purpose here; that on the day that Ma- tile party surrendered to Major Young, there jor Young attacked the Indians near this town, ihere was a considerable number encamped near bers considerable, sometimes sewer.
were more or less in towa; sometimes in numthe water side in town, who, upon hearing the
Question. How, or by whoin, were those In. report of the fire-arms, crossed the bay in their dians subsisted, and from whom, or by what own boats, and in other larger boats belonging to others. CHARLES LE JEUNE.
means, did they procure ammunition and other
warlike stores or weapons ? William Cooper, being duly sworo, declares,
Answer. I have understood, and do believe, that he has resided in Pensacola since Novem-ihat they were fed by the Government here; as ber, 1817, during which period he has frequently to ammunition, &c., I cannot state how they proseen in town and its vicinity, several parties of cured supplies, except it might have been from Indians-saw one in particular with some sheet the stores about town. lead, and has heard that the Indians bad intro Question. Have you seen or been informed of duced some clothes into town that looked like any horses, cattle, or other plunder, having been American manufacture; states, also, that Tapaul- brought in here by the Indians within the time ca was Red Stick chief, and had been frequently above alluded to ?—Answer. No. about Pensacola, for several years past.
JOSEPH BONEFI. WILLIAM COOPER.
PENSACOLA, Sept. 19, 1818. JOHN Doffy, being duly sworn, declares as I certify that the foregoing depositions were follows:
sworn to and subscribed before me on this day. Question. Have you resided in and about Pen
M. McKENSEY, SEX, J.P. sacola since November, 1817 ?—Answer. I have.
A true copy:
R.K. CALL, A.L.C.