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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
with the intelligence of our movements, and pur- a full confidence in your favorable sentiments, I chasing the property depredated of us. America, beg leave to offer you my respectful salutations. just to her treaties, and anxious to maintain peace God preserve you many years. with the world, cannot and will not permit such
JOSE MAZOT. a savage war to be carried on in disguise any To Major W. Young, longer. Asylums have been granted to the per
Com'g Am. troops on the Escambia sons and property of an Indian foe, (fugitives from the territory of the United States;) facili. ties, deemed by me necessary to terminate a war Copy of a note from Jose Mazot to Major W. Young. wbich, under existing treaties, should have been
PENSACOLA, April 30, 1818. maintained by Spain; for feeding my troops; and Sir: In consequence of the request expressed in liberating the subjects of Spain imprisoned by the your letter of the 27th instant, I assembled the Indians; have all been denied by the officers of chiefs of the Upper Creeks at the villages of His Catholic Majesty. All these facts prove the Colome, Canaan, Cowale, and Forsatche, and unjust conduct of Spanish agents in Florida. It communicated to them the contents of your letcannot be longer tolerated, and although a Re- ter. They all replied that they had for a long public fond of peace, the United States know time been very miserable and. wretched, without iheir rights and at the expense of war will main- shelter or home, that by the counsel of a good tain them.
friend they had at length found one, that they Your obedient servant,
had listened attentively
to it, and accepted with ANDREW JACKSON, Major General commanding.
gratitude the offers you had made them. These
Indians are about eighty-seven in number, includDon Jose Mazot,
ing women and children. They agreed to divide Governor of Pensacola.
themselves into three parties, and set out on
their marcb, as soon as I received your answer, No. 2.
which they thought it would be prudent for them Copy of a note of the Commandant of West Florida to keep; and that when you were informed of to Major Young, at the encampment, banks of the their resolution, you would give the necessary
orders for their safe progress, and avoiding any Escambia. PENSACOLA, April 27, 1818.
rencounter with the Choctaws, who, if not season
ably apprized of the circumstances, might attack Sir: Your note of the 27th, dated encampment them, in which case the pacific arrangements, on the Escambia and Fort Crawford, accompany in which we both take so strong an interest, ing the proclamation which you were pleased to would be entirely defeated. Opabi-hola, an Alienclose, were delivered to me at three o'clock this liamon chief, on account of his advanced age, afternoon by an artificer, a man of color, whose and infirmities will, for the present, remain here speedy return pot allowing me at present to an- with his family. I have given orders for his swer ihem in detail, I shall merely state, that the relief, and pledge myself for his good behaviour. small number of peaceful Indians who were in this You will always find me disposed, sir, to proplace and in its vicinity retired on the 26th, at the more any measure conducive io the mutual' indawn of which day several of them, both women terests of our two countries, which may, at the and children, were killed by the troops of the Uni- same time, be in conformity with existing trea. ted States. As it is not my purpose to investigate ties. I offer you the renewed assurances of my the motives of this act, or of the violation, result, respect, and I pray God to preserve you. ing from it, I shall only say that, in compliance
JOSE MAZOT. with my duty, I shall give an account of the
To Major Wute Young. whole proceeding to my superior; and, in the meaniime, I hope you will allow no further hos
PENSACOLA, May 2, 1818. tilities to be committed on this territory, on any True copies of the letter and documents depretence whatever. If the lodians should give posited in the archives of this command. any further cause of complaint, I trust you will In the absence of the Secretary, (by indisinform me of it, that they may receive due pun. position) ishment, should that depend on my authority. If
BUEN. DUBIEUIL. there are any lodians still remaining within this territory, I will bave them sought for add informed of your letter, and advise you of the result. I HEADQ'RS, DivisiON OF THE South, can assure you, both under my hand and on my
Fort Montgomery, June 2, 1818. word, that the information, as stated in your let- Sir: The Seminole war having terminated, I ter, of the aggressions committed by the Indians deem it politic and advisable to send 10 Washis the first I have had of them, for at the time I ington John Blunt and his Indian comrades, who agreed to the return of the escort referred to, I have acted as pilots to me during the late camhad no knowledge of any others than those who paigo. John Blunt is a Tuckabatchee Indian, were concerned in the attack on Lieutenant Eddy has long been friendly to the United States, and I repeat to you the assurance that my wishes and in consequence of his opposition to the Red efforts are wholly directed to preserve the peace Stick party during the Creek war has drawn happily subsisting between our Governments. In l down upon himself their vengeance during the
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. late contest. His settlement being in an exposed been early and well advised of the object of my situation on the Appalachicola river, he was early operations, that I hesitated no longer on the attacked by Seminoles, his property destroyed, measures to be adopted. I marched for and enand his family rified from him; alone he escaped tered Pensacola with only the show of resist. and fled to Fort Scott, where, joining the Amer. ance, on the 24th of May. The Governor had ican standard, he has proved himself a most zeal- previously fled to Fort Carlos de Barancas, ous friend and faithful pilot to this period. In where, it was said, he had resolved upon a most justice to him I am bound to stale, that to his desperate resistance. A correspondence ensued correct knowledge of the country and zealous between us, (accompanying this, marked A,) deattachment to the cause in which we were en- tailing at length my motives for wishing and degaged, I am measurably indebted for the success manding that Pensacola and its dependencies be of the present campaign.
occupied with an Americao garrison. The pack. Mr. Hambly, accompanies John Blunt. Mr. age marked B are documents substantiating the H. is a Spanish subject by, birth, and has long charges, in part, against the conduct of the been a resident as a trader on the Appalachicola Spanish Governor, having knowingly and wilriver. In consequence of his attachment to the lingly admitted the savages, avowedly' hostile to American cause, and his active exertions to check the United States, within the town of Pepsa. the hostile feelings of those Indians disposed to cola. war against the United Stateshe drew down The peaceable surrender of the fort at the Baupon himself and family their vengeance. He rancas was denied. I marched for and invested was forcibly taken from his house at an early it on the evening of the 25th of May, and on the period of the war; his property, goods, and ne- same night pushed reconnoitering parties under groes taken from him, and he violently transport- its very guns. On the morning of the 26tb, a ed from Mickasukey, Suwanee, and St. Marks, military reconnoissance was taken; and on the until finally relieved by Captain McKeever of same night, a lodgement was made, under a fire the American Navy; since which period he has from the Spanish garrison, by Captain Gadsden been attached to my army as Indian interpreter. of the engineers, aided by Captains Call and You will find him an bonest and faithful friend Young, on a commanding position, within three of our Government, and valuable for the infor- hundred and eighty-five yards of the Spanish mation which he can afford of Spanish policy works, and a nine-pounder mounted. A how. and intrigue. He is well acquainted with all the itzer battery was simultaneously established on transactions of foreign agents in this country, of the capitol of, and witbiu seven hundred and fifty their practices, &c., and how far encouraged by yards of the fort. At daylight on the 27th, the the Spanish authority, &c. With respect, &c. Spanish garrison opened their artillery on our ANDREW JACKSON,
batteries; a parley was sounded, a flag seat in Major General commanding. and the surrender of Fort Carlos de Barancas Hon. J. C. Calhoun, Sec'y of War.
again demanded; the favorable positions obtained
were pointed out, and the inutility of resistance HEADQ'RS, DivisioN OF THE SOUTH,
urged. Anxious to avoid an open contest, and
to save the effusion of blood, the same terms Fort Montgomery, June 2, 1818.
previously offered were again tendered. These Sir: In a communication to you of the 5th were rejected, and offensive operations recomof May, I detailed at length the operations of menced. A spirited and well-directed fire was my army up to that period. Leaving a strong kept up the greater part of the morning, and garrison of regulars in Forts Scott and Gadsden, at intervals during the afternoon. In the eveI resumed my march, with a small detachmeni ning a flag was sent from the Spanish comof the 4th regiment of infantry, one company of mandant, offering to capitulate, and a suspen. artillery, and the effectives of the Tennessee vol sion of hostilities was granted until eight o'clock unteers, the whole not exceeding twelve bun. next day, when the enclosed articles of capitdred men, to fulfil my intentions, communicated ulation (marked C) were signed and agreed to you, of scouring the country west of the Ap-10. The terms are more favorable than a conpalachicola river. On the 10th of May, my quered enemy would have merited; but, under army crossed that river at the Ochesee village, the peculiar circumstances of the case, my oband, after a fatiguing, tedious, and circuitous ject obtained, there was no motive for wounding march of iwelve days, misled by the ignorance the feelings of those whose military pride or of our pilots, and exposed to the severest of pri. honor had prompted to the resistance made. vations, we finally reached and effected a pas. The articles, with but one condition, amounted to sage over the Escambia. On my inarch, on the a complete cession to the United States of that 221 of May, a protest from the Governor of Pen-portion of the Floridas hitherto under the gove sacola was delivered me by a Spanish officer, Jeroment of Don Jose Mazot. remonstrating in warm terms against my pro- The arrangements which I have made to secure ceedings, and ordering me and my forces in- Pensacola and its dependencies are contained in stanıly to quit the territory of His Catholic Ma- the general orders, marked D. I deemed it most jesty, with a threat to apply force in the event of advisable to retain, for the present, ibe same a non-compliance. This was so open an indica- government to which the people had been accustion of a hostile feeling on his pari, after having tomed, until such time as the Executive of the Defeat of the Seminole Indians, &c.
United States may order otherwise. It was ne- A topographical sketch, of the country from cessary, however, to establish the revenue laws the Appalachicola to Pensacola Bay, accompanies of the United States, to check the smuggling this. Captain Young, will prepare, as soon as which had been carried on successfully in this practicable, a topographical memoir of that part quarter for many years past, and to admit the of the Floridas in which my army bas operated, American merchant to an equal participation in with a map of the country. Captain Gadsden is a trade which would have been denied under the instructed to prepare a report on the necessary partial operations of the Spanish commercial defences of the country, as far as the military code.
reconnoissance will permit, accompanied with Capt. Gadsden was appointed by me collector, plans of existing works, what additions or imand he has organized and left the department in provements are necessary, and what new works the charge of officers on whom the greatest con- should, in his opinion, be erected to give permafidence may be reposed.
nent security to this important territorial addition Though the Seminole Indians have been scat- to our Republic. As soon as this report is pretered, and literally so divided and reduced as no pared, Captain Gadsden will receive orders to longer to be viewed as a formidable enemy, yet, repair 10 Washington Cily with some other docas there are still many small marauding parties uments which I may wish to confide to his supposed to be concealed in the swamps of the charge. Perdido, Choctawhatchy, and Chapouley, who At the close of a campaign which has termimight make occasional and sudden in roads on our nated so honorably and happily, it gives me pleafrontier settlers, massacreing women and child sure to express my approbation generally of the dren, I have deemed it advisable to call into ser- officers and soldiers of every species of corps vice for six months, if not sooner discharged, two which I have had the honor to command. The companies of volunteer rangers, under Čaplains patience with which they endured fatigue and McGirt and Boyles, with instructions to scour submitted to privations, and the determination the country between the Mobile and Appalachi- with which they encountered and vanquished cola rivers, exterminating every hostile party every difficulty, are the strongest indication of who dare resist, or will not surrender and remove the existence of that patriotic feeling which no with their families above the thirty-first degree circumstances can change, and of that irresistible of latitude.
ardor in the defence of their country which will The Seminole war may now be considered as prove her strength and bulwark under any ex: at a close, tranquillity again restored to the south- posure. I should do violence to my feelings if I ern frontier of the United States ; and, as long as did not particularly notice the exertions of my a cordon of military posts is maintained along quartermaster general, Colonel George Gibson, the Gulf of Mexico, America has nothing to ap- who, under the most embarrassing circumstances, prehend from either foreign or Indian hostilities. relieved the necessities of my army, and to whose lodeed, sir, to attempt to fortify or protect an exertions I was indebted for ille supplies received. imagioary line, or to suppose that a frontier on His zeal and integrity in this campaign, as well the thirty-first degree of latitude, in a wilderness, as in the uniform discharge of his duties since can be secured by a cordon of military posts, whilst his connexion with my staff, merit the approbathe Spanish auihorities were not maintained in ion and gratitude of his country. the Floridas, and the country lay open to the use With respect, yours, &e. and excitement of any enemy, is visionary in the
ANDREW JACKSON, extreme. On the immutable principles, there
Major General commanding. fore, of self defence, authorized by the law of nature and of nations, have I bottomed all my
Hon. J. C. Calhoun, Secry of War. operations; on the fact that the Spanish offcers had aided and abelted the Indian enemy,
PENSACOLA, May 18, 1818. and thereby became a party in hostilities agaiost us, do I justify my occupying the Spanish for
Most EXCELLENT SIR: On the 10th instant I tresses. Spain had disregarded the irealies ex- received your excellency's letter of the 27th of isting with the American Government, or had April lasi, informing me that some articles of not power to enforce them; the Indian tribes clothing used by the troops of the United States, within her territory, and which she was bound to and supposed to be part of those taken in the boat keep at peace, had visited our citizens with all in which Lieutenant Scott and bis escort were the horrors of savage war; negro brigands were
so inhumanly murdered, were found in a small establishing themselves when and where they schooner despatched from this port for that of pleased ; and foreign agents were openly and Appalachee with provisions. knowingly practising their iotrigues in this oeu- Your excellency inquires of me in what mantral territory. The immutable priaciples of self- ner these articles came into my possession; and defence justified, therefore, the occupancy of the you further state that you feel yourself obliged to Floridas, and the same principles will warrant inform me that the documents and the proofs found the American Goveroment in holding it until in St. Juan, the detention of American caule, such time as Spain can guarantee, by an ade- found in St. Marks, and the correspondence carguate military force, the maintaining her author- ried on between this post and the hostile Indians, ity within the colony.
are sufficient to create a belief that they were 15th Con. 20 SESS.-70
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
armed and incited to this cruel war against the had them collected, in compliance with the propUnited States by the Spanish officers.
osition made by Major Young, they, altogether, Your excellency adds that there exists positive amounted to eighty-seven, and, assuredly, these proofs that the Indians were supplied with mu- few unarmed and miserable men were not hos. nitions by the last commander of St. Marks; and tile to the United States. The continual passing you conclude by saying that an asylum has been of American citizens from the frontier to this granted here to the persons and property of the people, who travelled alone and unarmed among Indians, who are enemies to the United States, ihem, without being, at any time, insulted or and fugitives from the American territory; and molested in their persons or property, is a proof that these proceedings, and the refusing to allow of this. the passage of provisions for your troops, prove With respect to the passage of provisions up the unjust conduct of the Spanish agents in the the Escambia, I have not bitherto prevented it, Floridas.
but, on the contrary, have facilitated it so far as I shall answer the charges alleged in their I was able, and my limited powers have permite proper order, and without evasion or reservation. ted, even to the compromitting of mysell; for,
The first complaint made by your excellency being only a subordinate officer, I could not conis relative to the articles of clothing fouod on sent to it, as it is unauthorized, but I took the reboard the schooner Maria, and which have been sponsibility on myself, in consideration of existdetained on the supposition that they are the ing circumstances, and so I stated to your excel. property of the United States.
lency in my letter of the 15th of last month, which Part of these articles, as is proved by copy No. I wrote to you by Major Perault, and to which 1, were purchased at New Orleans in ihe month I refer you in support of my assertion. Now, of May, last year; part came from the Havana ; that the free commerce of this people with those and part were purchased in this place. All this of the interior is declared admissible by higher is established.' The charge is, of course, done authority, there will, in future, be no difficuliy in a way, and your excellency's question is satisfac- allowing the merchants to transport from bence torily answered.
to Fort Crawford, and other forts on the frontier, The succeeding one is more serious, and relates as well by water as by land, whatever provisions to the course observed of late by the Governor and effects they may need or desire; by which of St. Marks.
means these posts will readily be provisioned, I immediately required of him an account of and your excellency will be satisfied. his conduct, and he made me the communication I think I have answered your excellency's let. found in cony No. 2. However, your excellency ter satisfactorily, and in a manner which can affirms that you possess positive proofs of the leave no doubt of the sincerity of my intentions, misconduct of this officer, i must, as a necessary and which evinces my desire to contribute, so consequence, entreat you to submit them to me, far as depends on me, io the good understanding that, the fact being established, I may inflict on existing between our respective Governments. bim deserved punishment. I assure your excel. God preserve your excellency many years. lency, with the sincerity natural to me, that he
JOSE MAZOT. has acted in entire opposition to his instructions ; His Exccy ANDREW JACKSON, and that, if your excellency will transmit the
Major General U. S. Army. proofs I request, he shall be brought before a council of war, and punished with all the sever
No. 1. ity his transgressions deserve; but your excellency will be just enough to allow that the Spanish
PENSACOLA, May 18, 1818. Government cannot be responsible for the mis- Being informed of what, amongst other subconduct of its, agents, when it neither upholds jects, Major General Andrew Jackson, of the them therein, por suffers their mal-practices, United Siates troops, states to you in his letter of being ascertained, to pass unpunished.
the 27th of April last, and communicated to me The last complaints of your excellency have a in yours of the 13th instant, in which you direct personal and direct application to myself, and are me to explain to you what description the artirelative to the asylum granted to the persons and cles were, referred to by the said General, and property of the l'ugitive Indians, and to the passage by whom the coats worn by the men belonging of provisions up the Escambia. It is easy for me to to the Grey and Brown companies, (de pardos y remove these charges, and I think your excel- morenos,) from the Havana, under my con mand, lency will be satisfied with a short and true rela- were sold or brought to this place, they being the tion of facts.
same uniform as that worn by the troops of the With respect to the Indians, your excellency United States, I have to inform you, in reply, bas been assuredly misinformed, as, although it that the articles of clothing shipped on board is true that some remained here, the greater part the schooper Maria, for the supply of a detachof them were women and children, who procured ment from the aforesaid companies at Appalaa subsistence by furnishing the inhabitants with chie, and detained by General Jackson, consisted wood, fish, and other trifling objects, and were of fifteen four-point woollen blaokets, brought here before the present war with the Seminoles. here in His Majesty's hermaphrodite brig El Don Others, now and then, assembled on account of Henrique Granpré, as is shown by voucher No. 1, the war, but in very small numbers; as, when I annexed; 15 common black hats
, bought of Dor
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, ofc. Henrique Michelet, as is proved by voucher No.2; deron, commanding the Grey and Brown comand 20 shirts of Crea linen, and the same number panies from the Havana, nine dozen round black of pantaloons, received by the above named her hats, for the use of the men belonging to the said maphrodite armed brig, with the exception of companies; and, at the request of the said officer, I three or four of the latter articles, which were give him ihe present certificate, at Pensacola, made in North America for the use of their troops, this 18th day of May, 1818. and came into my possession in the manner I shall
HENRIQUE MICHELET. explain to you. All which clothing I requested you, in mine of the 7th April last, to report to the
No. 3. Department of Royal Finance, that they might
NEW ORLEANS, April 30, 1817. be regularly entered in the clearance, on account,
Annexed you have an account of cost and and at the risk, of the same. By voucher No. 3, charges of fifty-four shirts and twenty-eight pairs annexed, you will perceive that, on the 1st and of shoes, for amount whereof you are debited, in 6th of May, and 29th of July last, there were account, fifty-three dollars. Although I had no shipped for me, from New Orleans, by Don Pedro orders from you for the shirts, I was induced to Dalhaste y Claveria, merchant and citizen of the purchase them by the low price, and the probaUnited States, one bundred and thirty-one coats bility of your employing them to advantage. In of the uniform altered there, as is stated in his the sack' which contains them, you will find a letter of advice ; also twenty-eight pairs of shoes ; uniform coat, altered here, and which can be ob one hundred and eighteen shirts; seventy-six tained of the storekeeper at twelve rials. I think pairs of pantaloons ; iwo hundred and thirty-six this would answer. There are about a hundred woollen waistcoats, without sleeves; twenty and twenty of them. I am offered by the same Russia jackets ; iwo hundred and fifty-three storekeeper fifty field-lents, nearly new, at three leather caps, for the use of the Chasseurs ; and a dollars, and a parcel of strong leathern caps, such quantity of leather gaiters and stocks ; which as are worn by the Chasseurs, and which he will articles were purchased from the military store- sell at less than two rials; of these there are keeper at New Orleans, and brought here in the about two hundred. The storekeeper having schooners Maria and Jalouse, uoder the charge made me a second offer of the coats, I proposed of their masters, Bartelome Alberty and Joze to take them in barter for coffee, at eighteen and Medina, who included them in the manifests they a half. At ten rials, I am persuaded it would be presented to the custom-house bere, and the duties a good bargain, and would afford an opportunity on them were paid, as appears from the estimate of putting off the coffee, the low quality of which of them, made by the Department on the 191h of makes it a dull sale. The only quality asked for, May, and the 11th of August last. It follows, and which sells with great difficulty at twenty from this statement, that the conjecture formed dollars, is the very superior green coffee. I enclose by General Jackson, that the articles of clothing the account of the cost and charges of the said detained by him were part of those taken from coats, which you will receive by the schooner the escort of Lieutenant Scott at the time he was Maria, and whose amoup! is charged to your killed, within the territory of the Republic, is debit, in account current, viz: $176 13. deprived of all foundation, as the unfortunate fate
Account of cost and charges of the following of that officer and his escort happened on the articles, shipped on board the schooner Maria, Appalachicola in December last ; and the articles Captain Elberty, bound to Pensacola, on account of clothiog alluded to were purchased in New and at the risk of, and to be delivered to, Don Orleans in May and July of the same year, as is Benigno Garcia Calderon : proved by the letters of advice and invoices com. prised in voucher No 3, to which I have referred. One sack, containing twenty-eight pairs of shoes,
at six rials To Don Jose Mazot.
One sack, containing fifty-four shirts, at
27 00 One coat
1 50 I hereby certify that, on the 10th of February Sacks, sewing, and transportation
1 00 last, I sold to Captain Don Benigno Garcia Cal. deron, commanding the Grey and Brown com
50 50 panies from Havana, iwo hundred and eighteen Commission, at five per cent.
2 50 pairs of French shoes, iron shod, for the use of the men belonging to the said companies; and, Amount to the debit of Don. B. G. Calat the request of the said officer, I give him the deron
$53 00 present certificate, at Pensacola, this 18th day of May, 1818. HENRIQUE DE GRANPRE.
P. DALHASTE Y CLAVERIA.
To Don B. G. CALDERON, Pensacola.
Account of cost and charges of ten sacks, conI hereby certify that, on the 12th of February taining one hundred and thirty-one coats, shiplast, I sold to Captain Don Benigno Garcia Cal-Iped on board the schooner Maria, Captain Gran